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Fish sauce

Fish sauce is a liquid condiment made from fish or krill that have been coated in salt and fermented for up to two years. It is used as a staple seasoning in East Asian cuisine and Southeast Asian cuisine Burma, China, Laos, Philippines, Taiwan and Vietnam. Following widespread recognition of its ability to impart a savory umami flavor to dishes, it has been embraced globally by chefs and home cooks; the umami flavor in fish sauce is due to its glutamate content. Soy sauce is regarded by some in the West as a vegetarian alternative to fish sauce though they are different in flavor. Fish sauce is not only added to dishes as a seasoning, but used as a base in dipping sauces. Sauces that included fermented fish parts with other ingredients such as meat and soy bean were recorded in China 2300 years ago. During the Zhou dynasty of ancient China, fish fermented with soybeans and salt was used as a condiment. By the time of the Han dynasty, soy beans were fermented without the fish into soy paste and its by-product soy sauce.

With fermented fish-based sauces developing separately into fish sauce. A fish sauce, called kôechiap in Hokkien Chinese, or kecap in Indonesia might be the precursor of ketchup. By 50–100 BC, demand for fish pastes in China had fallen drastically, with fermented bean products having become a major trade commodity. Fish sauce, developed massive popularity in Southeast Asia. Food scholars traditionally divide East Asia into two distinct condiment regions, separated by a bean-fish divide: Southeast Asia using fermented fish and Northeast Asia, using fermented beans. Fish sauce re-entered China in the 17th and 18th centuries, brought from Vietnam and Cambodia by Chinese traders up the coast of the southern provinces Guangdong and Fujian. Fish sauces were used in ancient Mediterranean cuisine; the earliest recorded production was between 4th–3rd century BC by the Ancient Greeks, who fermented scraps of fish called garos into one. It is believed to have been made with a lower salt content than modern fish sauces.

The Romans made a similar condiment called either liquamen. According to Pliny the Elder, "garum consists of the guts of fish and other parts that would otherwise be considered refuse, so that garum is the liquor from putrefaction." Garum was made in the Roman outposts of Spain exclusively from mackerel by salting the scrap fish innards, sun fermenting the flesh until it fell apart for several months. The brown liquid would be strained and sold as a condiment. Remains of Roman fish salting facilities can still be seen, including in Algeciras in Spain and near Setúbal in Portugal; the process lasted until the 16th century, when garum makers switched to anchovy and removed the innards. Garum was ubiquitous in Classical Roman cooking. Mixed with wine it was known as oenogarum, or with vinegar, oxygarum, or mixed with honey, meligarum. Garum was one of the trade specialties in Hispania Baetica. Garum was maligned as smelling bad or rotten, being called, for example, "evil-smelling fish sauce" and is said to be similar to modern Colatura di Alici, a fish sauce used in Neapolitan cuisine.

In English garum was translated as fishpickle. The original Worcestershire sauce is a related product because it is fermented and contains anchovies. Fish sauces have been prepared from different species of fish and shellfish, from using the whole fish, or by using just fish blood or viscera. Most modern fish sauces contain only fish and salt made from anchovy, mackerel, or other strong-flavored, high oil fish; some variants add spices. For modern fish sauces, fish or shellfish is mixed with salt at a concentration of 10% to 30%, it is sealed in a closed container for up to two years. Once the original draft has been made, some fish sauces will be produced through a re-extraction of the fish mass via boiling. To improve the visual appearance and add taste, second-pass fish sauces have added caramel, molasses, or roasted rice, they are thinner, less costly. Some volume manufacturers of fish sauce will water down a first-press to manufacture more product. Fish sauce, only fermented has a pronounced fishy taste.

Extended fermentation reduces this and gives the product a nuttier and more savory flavor. An anonymous article, "Neuc-num", in Diderot and d'Alembert's 18th-century Encyclopédie, states: "It is said that Europeans become accustomed enough to this type of sauce". Southeast Asian fish sauce is made from anchovies and water, is intensely flavoured. Anchovies and salt are arranged in wooden barrels to ferment and are pressed, yielding the salty, fishy liquid; the salt extracts the liquid via osmosis. Southeast Asians use fish sauce as a cooking sauce. However, there is a sweet and sour version of this sauce, used more as a dipping sauce. Fish sauce in Burma is called ngan bya yay. In Cambodia, fish sauce is known as teuk trei, of which there are a variety of sauces using fish sauce as a base; the Indonesian semi-solid fish paste or fermented krill terasi, the Cambodian prahok and the Malay fermented krill brick belacan or budu from liquid anchovies are other popular variations of fish sauces. In Lao/Isan, it is called nam pa.

A chunkier, more aromatic version known as padaek is used. The Philippine fish sauce is known as patis, it is one of the most important ingredients in Filipino cuisine. Patis is a by-product of bagoong production, which include bagoong isda and bagoong alamang, as well as the rarer bagoong macabebe a

Burr Pond State Park

Burr Pond State Park is a public recreation area covering 438 acres adjacent to Paugnut State Forest in the town of Torrington, Connecticut. The state park surrounds Burr Pond, an 85-acre, man-made body of water with facilities for swimming and fishing, it is managed by the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. Burr Pond was created in 1851 when Milo Burr dammed several streams to create a source for power generation; the waterpower was used to operate three sawmills. One of Burr's industrial buildings was used from 1857 to 1861 by Gail Borden as his first commercially successful condensed milk factory; the building burned down in 1877. Signage identifies the spot. Burr Pond and the area around it were once part of Paugnut State Forest; the acreage was transferred to the State Parks Division and became a state park in 1949. Burr Pond has several small inlets and islands, a rocky shore, deep drop-offs in several places, its maximum depth is only 13 feet. Fish species present include largemouth bass, chain pickerel, black crappie, yellow perch, bluegill and brown bullhead.

A 2.25-mile-long loop trail goes around the pond. The 2-mile-long John Muir Trail across Paugnut State Forest connects the park with Sunnybrook State Park. A swimming beach, picnic areas, concession stand, boat rentals are offered seasonally. A trailered boat launch is located at the pond's north end. Burr Pond State Park Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Burr Pond State Park Map Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection

Colette Appel

Colette Appel is an American former pair skater. With Lee Harris, she is the 2002 U. S. national junior placed 12th at the 2002 World Junior Championships. They were fourth at two ISU Junior Grand Prix events and on the senior level at the 2003 Finlandia Trophy. Earlier in her career, Appel competed with Adam Kaplan, they were the 1998 U. S. pairs champions on the Intermediate level and the 1999 U. S. silver medalists on the novice level. From 2011 to 2013, Appel was an athlete member of the U. S. Figure Skating Pairs Committee, she received her Bachelor degrees in Psychology and in Liberal Studies: Teaching and Learning from California State University Channel Islands. With Harris With Harris With Kaplan Colette Appel / Lee Harris at the International Skating Union Colette Appel / Lee Harris at Tracings.net

Julia Hwang

Julia Hwang is a South Korean violinist. Hwang gave her professional solo debut with the English National Baroque Chamber Orchestra at the age of nine, performing Johann Sebastian Bach's Concerto in A minor, in the same year performed for legendary violinist Ivry Gitlis in London. Three years at the age of 12, she performed Nigel Hess's Ladies in Lavender with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra. Hwang has been a veteran of the concert stage for many years and her numerous solo appearances with orchestras internationally have led to an ever-increasing schedule of concerts both in the UK and abroad, she has appeared many times on live television and radio through the BBC and ITV, in 2012, she was featured in a BBC4 documentary about the nation’s favourite composition The Lark Ascending by Ralph Vaughan Williams. Her performance of this work was chosen by the BBC to represent this timeless classic of the great British composer. Among numerous other public performances, Hwang has enjoyed her concerts for charity work and playing at Clifton College's Proms on the Close, performing alongside world-class musicians Jose Carreras, Oscar Osicki, Lesley Garrett and Russell Watson.

Hwang released her debut CD in November 2007. The following year she obtained a Diploma ABRSM with distinction, released her second CD,'My Recital'. In 2008 she was the winner of the Gregynog Young Musician competition, and was awarded the honour of "Jeune Espoir" Laureate at the Concours Internationaux de Musique Academie de Val d'Isère She attended Clifton College, where she was an academic and music scholar. Other public and charity performances have included: The 2012 Violins for Hope music festival in Charlotte, North Carolina, USA, with world famous violinist Shlomo Mintz. A charity concert at Highgrove to raise funds for The Prince's Trust alongside cellist Julian Lloyd Webber. Innumerable further concerts to raise money for, among others, BRACE, The Alzheimer's Society, the NSPCC and MacMillan Cancer Relief. Hwang was offered an academic scholarship from St John’s College, Cambridge, to study for a degree in Music and a full scholarship to the Royal College of Music, London, she is now studying Music as an undergraduate at Cambridge.

She studies with Professor Itzhak Rashkovsky at the Royal College of Music, London. Hwang plays on a Peter Guarnerius of Mantua, c.1698

Pop Psychology (album)

Pop Psychology is the third studio album by American rock band Neon Trees. The lead single, "Sleeping with a Friend", was released on January 11, 2014, the album was released on April 22, 2014; the record is the cathartic product of lead singer, Tyler Glenn's therapy sessions. Glenn started seeing a therapist after canceling some tour dates in 2012 while the band promoted their second record, Picture Show, due to trying to find himself mentally and figure out who he was. “At moments there’s a cry for help and sadness... But I think it’s a real fun pop record at the heart of it and something with a message too," he said of his band’s third album. Addressed in the album's lyricism from Glenn's therapy sessions are his sexuality and sex, in general; the band released their lead single, "Sleeping with a Friend," in January 2014 and the music video was released on the 24th of that month. The band performed the song on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno on January 22, 2014; the single peaked at 51 on the U.

S. Billboard charts, their second single, "I Love You," was released on March 25, 2014 along with the music video in the same day. On April 9, 2014, the band performed both singles on "Jimmy Kimmel Live!," as well as having a minor guest appearance in a skit. The band announced they would be releasing other new songs leading up to the April 22 release of Pop Psychology and on April 1, 2014 released a promotional video for the track, "Voices in the Halls." April 8, 2014 saw the release of another new song as a promotional single from the album, "First Things First." "Text Me In the Morning" was released on June 17, 2014. The band promoted the album on their "Pop Psychology Tour", which started in April and ended in July. Pop Psychology received mixed reviews from critics. At Entertainment Weekly, Kyle Anderson graded the album a B+, remarking how the release "a 40-minute master class in the kind of pop that moves both the body and the brain." Jerry Shriver of USA Today rated the album three stars out of four, stating that "these witty and relentlessly danceable tunes explore plenty of universal young-adult angst."

At Alternative Press, Evan Lucy rated the album three-and-a-half stars out of five, writing that the album comes with "no surprises", which he says the cover artwork "should tip you off to that" because the release "is a slick, synthed-up, unabashed party." Heather Phares of AllMusic rated the album four stars out of five, remarking that "Even if Neon Trees sometimes try a little too hard to be serious on Pop Psychology, it's some of their most heartfelt music and some of their finest."Glenn Gamboa of Newsday graded the album an A-, remarking how Neon Trees are "Packing pop with deeper personal meaning." The Knoxville News Sentinel's Chuck Campbell rated the album three-and-a-half stars out of five, stating that "Apparently, Glenn still has some things to sort out." At Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, Piet Levy gave a positive review of the album, writing that "the band has never sounded so confident and free." Kate Padilla of The Spencer Daily Reporter gave a positive review of the album, stating that the release is "quite the experience to listen to" that "is proof alone Neon Trees has not lost any of their musical power."At Rolling Stone, Jon Dolan rated the album three stars out of five, saying that "Pop Psychology opens with the biggest, shiniest songs he's come up with, each taking on a slippery aspect of post-modern romance."

Matt Sullivan of Magnet rated the album two out of ten stars, calling the release "terrible". At The Boston Globe, Luke O'Neil gave a mixed review, stating that the release "seem to have split the difference on their third effort", "not always good news." Pop Psychology sold 19,000 copies in the United States its first week, debuting at the top spot of Billboard's Top Rock Albums chart and number six of the Billboard 200. All tracks are written except where noted. Mastering by Ted Jensen at Sterling Sound, NYC Tyler Glenn – lead vocals, backing vocals, synthesizers, programming Branden Campbellbass, backing vocals Christopher Allen – guitars, backing vocals Elaine Bradleydrums, backing vocals

Alexander von Dörnberg

Alexander Freiherr von Dörnberg zu Hausen was a German jurist, diplomat and SS officer. He was head of the Protocol Department of the Foreign Office from 1938 to 1945, he came from the Dörnberg family of Hessian nobility. In his youth, Dörnberg attended the Reform-Realgymnasium in Kassel. After his Abitur in 1919, Dörnberg joined the Freikorps and participated in the violent domestic disputes in Germany after the end of World War I, he studied jurisprudence at several universities: Heidelberg, Munich and Frankfurt. In 1920, he became a member of the Corps Saxo-Borussia Heidelberg, a student organization, in 1921 the Corps Borussia Bonn. In 1925, he received his doctorate of law. In 1926, Dörnberg was for some months private secretary to German Ambassador Ago von Maltzan and to the Embassy of Germany, Washington, D. C. before he joined the diplomatic service in 1927. At the Foreign Office, he was first assigned as attaché to Alfred Horstmann. In 1930, he took the diplomatic-consular examination. Subsequently, he was employed as attaché at the Germany embassy in Bucharest from 1930 to 1933.

In 1933, Dörnberg – who attracted attention by his height of about 6 feet 7 inches – worked for several months in the Disarmament Department of the Foreign Office, before he worked at the Embassy in Tallinn, Estonia from autumn of 1933 to 1936. After a stopover in the Political Department of the Foreign Office from 1936–37, he became a secretary of legation to the Embassy of Germany in London. There was an intensive collaboration between Dörnberg and the German ambassador to Britain, Joachim von Ribbentrop, with whom he became friends for the first time. On 1 January 1934, when he worked in Estonia, Dörnberg became the member of the NSDAP. In 1938, he joined the SS, in which he reached the honorary rank of SS-Oberführer. In July 1938, Dörnberg was appointed as the successor to Vicco von Bülow-Schwante as Chief of the Protocol Department of the Foreign Office, he remained in this post until the collapse of the Nazi regime in 1945. In the autumn of 1938, Dörnberg received British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain during the negotiations over the Munich Agreement.

In August 1939, he accompanied Ribbentrop to Moscow to sign the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. As a diplomat, Dörnberg held the title of Minister Plenipotentiary. After the German surrender, Dörnberg was arrested by the Allies and interrogated during the Nuremberg trials as a witness in the Ministries Trial. Greater public attention was given Dörnberg posthumously in 2005: The Protocol Department of the Foreign Office had Dörnberg's portrait photograph inserted between the heads of department of all successive terms since 1920, hanging in the corridors of Protocol Department on the first floor of the west wing of the Foreign Office building; this led to a dispute about the culture of remembrance of the Foreign Office and aroused the displeasure of the Foreign Minister Joseph Martin Fischer. Maria Keipert: Biographisches Handbuch des deutschen Auswärtigen Dienstes 1871–1945. Herausgegeben vom Auswärtigen Amt, Historischer Dienst. Band 1: Johannes Hürter: A–F. Schöningh, Paderborn u. a. 2000, ISBN 3-506-71840-1 Eckart Conze, Norbert Frei, Peter Hayes und Moshe Zimmermann: Das Amt und die Vergangenheit.

Deutsche Diplomaten im Dritten Reich und in der Bundesrepublik. Karl Blessing Verlag, München 2010, ISBN 978-3-89667-430-2. Hans-Jürgen Döscher: SS und Auswärtiges Amt im Dritten Reich. Diplomatie im Schatten der „Endlösung“. Ullstein, Frankfurt 1991, ISBN 3-548-33149-1 Paul Seabury: Die Wilhelmstraße. Die Geschichte der deutschen Diplomatie 1930 - 1945. Frankfurt am Main 1956, p. 115