William Strode was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons variously between 1624 and 1645. Strode was the son of Sir William Strode, MP, of Newnham, Plympton St Mary, Devon, by his first wife Mary Southcote. He was admitted as a student of the Inner Temple in 1614, matriculated at Exeter College, Oxford, in 1617, in 1624, Strode was elected Member of Parliament for Bere Alston, and was re-elected MP for Bere Alston in 1625,1626 and 1628. Strode was prosecuted before the chamber, but refused to answer anything done in the House of Parliament. On 7 May a fresh warrant was issued, and a later, to prevent his release on bail. Refusing to give a bond for his behaviour, he was sentenced to imprisonment during the kings pleasure. During those eleven years, King Charles ruled without parliament, in January 1640, in accordance with the kings new policy of moderation, Strode was released and on 13 April took his seat as MP for Bere Alston in the Short Parliament. He was re-elected for the Long Parliament, which met on 3 November 1640 and he was the first to propose parliamentary control over ministerial appointments, the militia, and its own duration, He supported the Grand Remonstrance of 7 November 1641.
He zealously pursued the prosecution of Strafford, and actually proposed that all who appeared as the prisoners counsel should be charged as conspirators in the same treason, as a result, he was included among the Five Members impeached by Charles of high treason on 3 January 1642. Strode opposed all suggestions of compromise with Charles and urged on the preparations for war and he was present at the Battle of Edgehill on 23 October 1642. He was as relentless in the prosecution of Laud as he had been in that of Strafford and it was he who carried up the message from the Commons to the Lords on 28 November 1644 which desired them to hasten on the ordinance for the archbishops execution. Strode did not long survive his victim and he is mentioned as having been elected a member of the Westminster Assembly on 31 January 1645. He died on 9 September the same year, and by order of parliament was accorded a funeral in Westminster Abbey. The body was exhumed after the Restoration, the identity of the W.
Strode imprisoned in 1628 and of the W. Strode impeached in 1642 has been questioned, but is now established. On the other hand, he is to be distinguished from Colonel William Strode, parliamentarian and M. P. who died in 1666, and from William Strode, the orator and dramatist. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Speech to the Troops at Tilbury
On the day of the speech, the Queen left her bodyguard before Tilbury Fort and went among her subjects with an escort of six men. She was flanked on horseback by her lieutenant general the Earl of Leicester on the right, sir John Norreys brought up the rear. The text was found in a letter from Leonel Sharp sometime after 1624 to the Duke of Buckingham, I know already, for your forwardness you have deserved rewards and crowns, and We do assure you on a word of a prince, they shall be duly paid. Janet M. Green of Kent State University in an article for the Sixteenth Century Journal in 1997 states, david Loades has written, Whether she used these words, we do not know, although they have an authentic, theatrical ring. However, there are historians who do not believe this speech is genuine. Miller Christy doubted the veracity of this version of the speech in 1919, sceptical were Felix Barker and Susan Frye. Elizabeth was very deliberate in the way that she presented herself as Queen of England, Elizabeth’s physical appearance was vital to the historical event, and just as important, if not more, than the actual speech.
Dozens of descriptions of Elizabeth on that day exist with differing details. Similarities between descriptions indicate that she at least wore a helmet and a steel cuirass over a white velvet gown. She held a gold and silver truncheon, or baton, in her hand as she rode atop a white steed. As quoted in J. E. Neale’s Elizabeth, her demeanor was full of princely resolution and more than feminine courage and this striking image is reminiscent of several literary and mythological figures. One of those is Pallas Athena, the Greek goddess of war, another figure that Elizabeth represented during this speech was Britomart, originally a Greek nymph, and more recently the allegorical heroine in Edmund Spenser’s epic The Faerie Queene. The etymology of the name seems to suggest British military power. Spenser deliberately wrote the character to represent Queen Elizabeth I, so in essence they are one, citizens of Elizabethan England would have been familiar with both Athena and Britomart, and Elizabeth’s adoption of their personas would have been fairly recognizable.
Besides representing these figures, by wearing armor Elizabeth implied that she was ready to fight for, after she had made her rounds through the troops, Elizabeth delivered her speech to them. Leonel Sharp’s version is accepted as the speech that she gave, and best captures her rhetorical strategies as opposed to William Leigh’s and James Aske’s versions. In the past, Elizabeth had defied gender expectations by refusing to marry or produce heirs, instead opting to rule alone, with God and England as her sole mates. ”At the same time that she claims this power, she acknowledges her physical weakness and condescends to the level of soldiers and subjects, to whom she lovingly refers in the speech. If the speech is accepted as the speech given at Tilbury
English Civil War
The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists over, the manner of Englands government. The war ended with the Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, the monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship in England ended with the victors consolidating the established Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. The term English Civil War appears most often in the singular form, the war in all these countries are known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Unlike other civil wars in England, which focused on who should rule, this war was more concerned with the manner in which the kingdoms of England, the two sides had their geographical strongholds, such that minority elements were silenced or fled. The strongholds of the royalty included the countryside, the shires, on the other hand, all the cathedral cities sided with Parliament. All the industrial centers, the ports, and the advanced regions of southern and eastern England typically were parliamentary strongholds.
Lacey Baldwin Smith says, the words populist, rich, at times there would be two groups of three lines allowing one group to reload while the other group arranged themselves and fired. Mixed in among the musketeers were pikemen carrying pikes that were between 12 feet and 18 feet long, whose purpose was to protect the musketeers from cavalry charges. The Royalist cavaliers skill and speed on horseback led to early victories. While the Parliamentarian cavalry were slower than the cavaliers, they were better disciplined. The Royalists had a tendency to chase down individual targets after the initial charge leaving their forces scattered and tired, Cromwells cavalry, on the other hand, trained to operate as a single unit, which led to many decisive victories. The English Civil War broke out fewer than forty years after the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603, in spite of this, James personal extravagance meant he was perennially short of money and had to resort to extra-Parliamentary sources of income.
Charles hoped to unite the kingdoms of England and Ireland into a new single kingdom, many English Parliamentarians had suspicions regarding such a move because they feared that setting up a new kingdom might destroy the old English traditions which had bound the English monarchy. As Charles shared his fathers position on the power of the crown, at the time, the Parliament of England did not have a large permanent role in the English system of government. Instead, Parliament functioned as an advisory committee and was summoned only if. Once summoned, a continued existence was at the kings pleasure. Yet in spite of this role, Parliament had, over the preceding centuries. Without question, for a monarch, Parliaments most indispensable power was its ability to tax revenues far in excess of all other sources of revenue at the Crowns disposal
The Long Parliament was an English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660. It followed the fiasco of the Short Parliament which had held for three weeks during the spring of 1640, and which in its turn had followed an 11-years parliamentary absence. In September 1640 writs were issued summoning a parliament to convene on 3 November 1640 by King Charles I, the parliament was summoned to pass financial bills, a step that was necessary as a result of the cost of the Bishops Wars. It sat from 1640 until 1648, when it was purged by the New Model Army and this cleared the way for a new Parliament to be elected, which was known as the Convention Parliament. But many of original members of Long Parliament, such as were barred from the final acts of the Long Parliament. He believed its republican principles made it a precursor to the American Revolutionary War, the Parliament quickly proceeded to impeach William Laud, the Archbishop of Canterbury, of high treason, on 18 December. John Finch was impeached the following day, and he fled to the Netherlands with Charless permission on 21 December.
The Parliament was initially influenced by John Pym and his supporters, Pym rose in his place and entered into a particular enumeration of the troubles of the kingdom. Early in the Long Parliaments proceedings, the house unanimously accused the Earl of Strafford of high treason and this marked a new unanimity in Irish politics, whereby Old English, Gaelic Irish and New English settlers joined together in a legal body to present evidence against governor Strafford. However, the evidence supplied indirectly by Henry Vane the Elder through his son in relation to Straffords alleged improper use, Vane the Elder, on the Kings Privy Council, remained completely loyal to his King. These handwritten notes of the elder Vane obtained by Henry Vane the Younger were confirmed by independent testimony, Pym immediately moved a Bill of Attainder, asserting Straffords guilt and ordering that he be put to death. Charles, promised Strafford that he would not sign the attainder, the Lords opposed the severity of the death sentence imposed upon Strafford, but increased tensions and an attempted army coup in support of Strafford began to sway the issue.
On 21 April, the Bill went virtually unopposed in the Commons, fearing for his familys safety, signed the death warrant on 10 May. Strafford was beheaded two days later, with the King having been implicated, the Long Parliament passed the Triennial Act, known as the Dissolution Act, in May 1641, to which the Royal Assent was readily granted. In the meantime both Parliament and the King agreed to an independent investigation of royal involvement in Straffords plot. This Triennial Act required Parliament to be summoned at least once every three years, and stipulated that when the King failed to issue proper summons, the members could assemble on their own. The very doctrine of modern freedoms have, to some degree, on 3 May, Parliament issued the Protestation of 1641, attacking the wicked counsels of Charless government. Those who signed the petition undertook to defend the reformed religion and the kings person, honour
Absolute monarchy, or despotic monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority that is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs. These are often, but not always, hereditary monarchies, in contrast, in constitutional monarchies, the head of states authority derives from and is legally bounded or restricted by a constitution or legislature. Some monarchies have weak or symbolic legislatures and other bodies that the monarch can alter or dissolve at will. Countries where a monarch still maintains absolute power are Brunei, Oman, Saudi Arabia, the individual emirates composing the United Arab Emirates, Swaziland, in Ancient Egypt, the Pharaoh wielded absolute power over the country and was considered a living god by his people. In ancient Mesopotamia, many rulers of Assyria and Sumer were absolute monarchs as well, in ancient and medieval India, rulers of the Maurya, Satahavana and Chalukya Empires, as well as other major and minor empires, were considered absolute monarchs.
In the Khmer Empire, the kings were called Devaraja and Chakravartin, in Kingdom of Siam, the kings were esestablished Somburanaya-sittiraj. Throughout Chinese history, many emperors and one empress wielded absolute power through the Mandate of Heaven, in pre-Columbian America, the Inca Empire was ruled by a Sapa Inca, who was considered the son of Inti, the sun god and absolute ruler over the people and nation. Throughout much of European history, the right of kings was the theological justification for absolute monarchy. Many European monarchs, such as those of Russia, claimed supreme autocratic power by right. James VI of Scotland and his son Charles I of Scotland and England tried to import this principle, there is a considerable variety of opinion by historians on the extent of absolutism among European monarchs. Some, such as Perry Anderson, argue that quite a few monarchs achieved levels of absolutist control over their states, a widely held story about Louis XIV of France is that he proclaimed Létat, cest moi.
What Louis did say was, The interests of the state come first, when one gives these priority, one labors for ones own good. These advantages to the state redounds to ones glory, although often criticized for his extravagances, such as the Palace of Versailles, he reigned over France for a long period, and some historians consider him a successful absolute monarch. More recently, revisionist historians have questioned whether Louis reign should be considered absolute, the King of France concentrated in his person legislative and judicial powers. He was the judicial authority. He could condemn men to death without the right of appeal and it was both his duty to punish offenses and stop them from being committed. From his judicial authority followed his power both to make laws and to annul them and this law consequently authorized the king to abolish all other centers of power. Most important was the abolition of the Council of the Realm and his actions largely originated the militaristic streak of the Hohenzollern
Runnymede is a water-meadow alongside the River Thames in the English county of Surrey, and just over 20 miles west of central London. It is notable for its association with the sealing of Magna Carta, and as a consequence is, with its adjoining hillside, Runnymede Borough is named after the area, Runnymede being at its northernmost point. The name Runnymede refers to land in public and National Trust ownership in the Thames flood plain south-west of the river between Old Windsor and Egham, the area includes the Long Mede and Runnymede, which together with Coopers Hill Slopes is managed by the National Trust. There is a strip of land, east of the road and west of the river. Slightly further downstream from the area shown on the map are, an area with a car park, a number of private homes, a large distribution centre. The landscape of Runnymede is characterised as Thames Basin Lowland, urban fringe and it is a gently undulating vale of small fields interspersed by woods, ponds and heath. The National Trust area is a Site of Nature Conservation Interest which contains a Site of Special Scientific Interest, both sites are overseen by Runnymede Borough Council.
Long Mede is a north of the ancient mede of Runnymede towards Old Windsor and has been used for centuries to provide good-quality hay from the alluvial pasture. Near the Island, on the north-east flood plain, in parkland on the bank of the river, are Ankerwycke. The Thames has changed course here occasionally, and these areas may once have been a part of Runnymede. Both were acquired by the National Trust in 1998, runnymedes historical significance has been heavily influenced by its proximity to the Roman Road river crossing at nearby Staines-upon-Thames. The name Runnymede may be derived from the Anglo-Saxon runieg and mede, the Witan, Witenagemot or Council of the Anglo-Saxon Kings of the 7th to 11th centuries was held from time to time at Runnymede during the reign of Alfred the Great. The Council met usually in the open air and this political organ was transformed in succeeding years, influencing the creation of Englands 13th century parliament. The water-meadow at Runnymede is the most likely location at which, in 1215, the charter indicates Runnymede by name as Ronimed.
Magna Carta affected common and constitutional law as well as political representation affecting the development of parliament, runnymedes association with ideals of democracy, limitation of power and freedom under law has attracted placement there of monuments and commemorative symbols. The last fatal duel in England took place in 1852, on Priest Hill, the National Trust land was donated in 1929 by Cara Rogers Broughton and her two sons. The gift was given in memory of Urban Broughton, between 2012 and 2015 Coopers Hill was occupied by a radical community living in self-build houses, huts and tents, in the self-proclaimed Runnymede Eco Village. Around 40 people, including a few families, lived in a dispersed settlement throughout the 4 acres of woodland
Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester
Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester, KG, KB, FRS was an important commander of Parliamentary forces in the First English Civil War, and for a time Oliver Cromwells superior. Montagu accompanied Prince Charles during his 1623 trip to Habsburg Spain in pursuit of the Spanish Match and he was Member of Parliament for Huntingdonshire in the Happy Parliament of 1623–24, the Useless Parliament of 1625, and the Parliament of 1625–26. At the time of Charles Is coronation in February 1626, he was made a Knight of the Bath to reward him for his service to Charles in Spain. His first wife, who was related to the Duke of Buckingham, having died in 1625 after two years of marriage, Mandeville married in 1626 Anne Rich, daughter of Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick. Cromwell brought the shortcomings of Manchester before Parliament in the autumn of 1644 and in April the following year, anticipating the Self-denying Ordinance, Manchester resigned his command. He opposed the trial of the king, and retired from public life during the Commonwealth but after the Restoration, in 1667 he was made a General, and he died on 5 May 1671.
Manchester was made a Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1661, men of such divergent sympathies as Baxter and Clarendon agreed in describing Manchester as a lovable and virtuous man, who loved peace and moderation both in politics and religion. He was five times married, leaving children by two of his wives, and was succeeded in the title by his eldest son, Robert, 3rd Earl of Manchester. One of his daughters Lady Anne Montagu married her second cousin Robert Rich, 5th Earl of Warwick and he is inaccurately depicted sitting in the House of Commons in Cromwells presence although he had been a member of the Lords since 1626. Lord Clarendon, History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England, Oxford,1839 Lord Clarendon, Life of Edward, Earl of Clarendon, Lord High Chancellor of England and Chancellor of the University of Oxford. Oxford,1827 SR Gardiner, History of the Great Civil War, london, 1886–1891 The Quarrel between the Earl of Manchester and Oliver Cromwell, documents collected by J.
Bruce, with a historical preface completed by D. M. Masson. London,1875 Sir Philip Warwick, Memoires of the Reigne of King Charles I and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed
Duke of Manchester
Duke of Manchester is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was created in 1719 for the politician Charles Montagu, 4th Earl of Manchester and their ancestor was one Richard Ladde, grandfather of the Lord Chief Justice Sir Edward, who changed his name to Montagu in about 1447. The judge Sir Edward Montagus grandson, Edward Montagu, was raised to the peerage as 1st Baron Montagu of Boughton and he is the ancestor of the Dukes of Montagu. In 1626, he was made Earl of Manchester and it is said that the title referred not to the city of Manchester, but to Godmanchester in Huntingdonshire. The word God was deliberately excluded from the title, as Henry thought it would be blasphemous for him to be known as Lord Godmanchester. However, this is not the case, as the patent roll of 1626 grants the title of Earl of Manchester in the county of Lancaster. His son, the 2nd Earl, was a prominent Parliamentary General during the Civil War and his son, the 3rd Earl, represented Huntingdonshire in the House of Commons.
His son was the 4th Earl, who in 1719 was created Duke of Manchester, Charles, 1st Duke of Manchester, was succeeded by his eldest son. The 2nd Duke notably served as Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard in the administration of Sir Robert Walpole and he was childless, and on his death, the titles passed to his younger brother, the 3rd Duke. He had earlier represented Huntingdonshire in Parliament and he was succeeded by his son, the 4th Duke. He was Ambassador to France and served as Lord Chamberlain of the Household and his son, the 5th Duke, was Governor of Jamaica between 1827 and 1830 held office as Postmaster General. He was succeeded by his son, the 6th Duke and he represented Huntingdon in the House of Commons as a Tory. His eldest son, the 7th Duke, was Conservative Member of Parliament for Bewdley and his son, the 8th Duke, briefly represented Huntingdonshire in Parliament. He was succeeded by his eldest son, the 9th Duke and he sat on the Liberal benches in the House of Lords and served as Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard in the Liberal administration of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman.
In the twentieth century and profligacy resulted in the depletion of the Dukedoms estates. Generational instability caused further damage to the honour, both the 11th and 12th Dukes had a criminal record. The principal estate of the Dukes of Manchester was Kimbolton Castle and it was sold, together with 50 acres of parkland, by the 10th Duke in 1951, and is now a private school. A remaining 3,250 acres of the estate were sold by his eldest son, the other family seat was Tandragee Castle, in County Armagh, Northern Ireland
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, his second wife, who was executed two and a half years after Elizabeths birth. Annes marriage to Henry VIII was annulled, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate, edwards will was set aside and Mary became queen, deposing Lady Jane Grey. During Marys reign, Elizabeth was imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels, in 1558, Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister to the throne and set out to rule by good counsel. She depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers, led by William Cecil, one of her first actions as queen was the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor. This Elizabethan Religious Settlement was to evolve into the Church of England and it was expected that Elizabeth would marry and produce an heir to continue the Tudor line.
She never did, despite numerous courtships, as she grew older, Elizabeth became famous for her virginity. A cult grew around her which was celebrated in the portraits, pageants, in government, Elizabeth was more moderate than her father and half-siblings had been. One of her mottoes was video et taceo, in religion, she was relatively tolerant and avoided systematic persecution. Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs, manoeuvring between the powers of France and Spain. She only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands, France, by the mid-1580s, England could no longer avoid war with Spain. Englands defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 associated Elizabeth with one of the greatest military victories in English history, Elizabeths reign is known as the Elizabethan era. Some historians depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered, sometimes indecisive ruler, towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity.
Such was the case with Elizabeths rival, Queen of Scots, after the short reigns of Elizabeths half-siblings, her 44 years on the throne provided welcome stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity. Elizabeth was born at Greenwich Palace and was named after both her grandmothers, Elizabeth of York and Elizabeth Howard and she was the second child of Henry VIII of England born in wedlock to survive infancy. Her mother was Henrys second wife, Anne Boleyn, at birth, Elizabeth was the heir presumptive to the throne of England. She was baptised on 10 September, Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, the Marquess of Exeter, the Duchess of Norfolk, Elizabeth was two years and eight months old when her mother was beheaded on 19 May 1536, four months after Catherine of Aragons death from natural causes. Elizabeth was declared illegitimate and deprived of her place in the royal succession, eleven days after Anne Boleyns execution, Henry married Jane Seymour, who died shortly after the birth of their son, Prince Edward, in 1537
The Peasants Revolt, called Wat Tylers Rebellion or the Great Rising, was a major uprising across large parts of England in 1381. The final trigger for the revolt was the intervention of an official, John Bampton. His attempts to collect unpaid taxes in Brentwood ended in a violent confrontation. A wide spectrum of society, including many local artisans and village officials, rose up in protest, burning court records. The rebels sought a reduction in taxation, an end to the system of unfree labour known as serfdom, inspired by the sermons of the radical cleric John Ball, and led by Wat Tyler, a contingent of Kentish rebels advanced on London. They were met at Blackheath by representatives of the royal government, King Richard II, aged 14, retreated to the safety of the Tower of London, but most of the royal forces were abroad or in northern England. The following day, Richard met the rebels at Mile End and acceded to most of their demands, rebels entered the Tower of London, killing the Lord Chancellor and the Lord High Treasurer, whom they found inside.
On 15 June, Richard left the city to meet with Tyler, violence broke out, and Richards party killed Tyler. Richard defused the situation long enough for Londons mayor, William Walworth, to gather a militia from the city. Richard immediately began to order in London and rescinded his previous grants to the rebels. The revolt had spread into East Anglia, where the University of Cambridge was attacked. Unrest continued until the intervention of Henry le Despenser, who defeated an army at the Battle of North Walsham on 25 or 26 June. Troubles extended north to York and Scarborough, and as far west as Bridgwater in Somerset, Richard mobilised 4,000 soldiers to restore order. Most of the leaders were tracked down and executed, by November. The Peasants Revolt has been studied by academics. Interpretations of the revolt have shifted over the years and it was once seen as a defining moment in English history, but modern academics are less certain of its impact on subsequent social and economic history.
The revolt heavily influenced the course of the Hundred Years War, the Peasants Revolt was fed by the economic and social upheaval of the 14th century. Across much of England, production was organised around manors, controlled by local lords – including the gentry, population growth led to pressure on the available agricultural land, increasing the power of local landowners
Thomas Scot was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1645 and 1660. He was executed as one of the regicides of King Charles I, Scot was educated at Westminster School and is said have attended Cambridge University. In 1626 he married Alice Allinson of Chesterford in Essex and he was a lawyer in Buckinghamshire and grew to prominence as the treasurer of the region’s County Committee between 1644 and 1646. He became influential enough to dominate the Committee and was elected Member of Parliament for Aylesbury in 1645 as a recruiter to the Long Parliament. Though he had a penchant for long, passionate speeches in Parliament, Scot could be a subtle backroom politician and had a knack for creating alliances and rallying votes. A royalist acerbically described him as one who crept into the House of Commons, whispers Treason into many of the Members ears, animating the War, and ripping up and studying aggravations thereunto. Scot’s beliefs about government by consent prior to Prides Purge are hard to gauge, though from what has survived of his writings and his actions during the Purge period definitely indicate that he developed strong republican leanings before 1648.
He that draws his sword upon the king, must throw his scabbard into the fire, after Prides Purge, Scot became one of the chief organizers of the trial and execution of the King. Scot was instrumental in the erection of the Republic and along with Henry Vane, Oliver Cromwell, in 1653, with the fall of the Republic, Scot became one of the Protectorates most vocal opponents, organising anti-Cromwell opposition inside the Parliament. In 1654 he was elected MP for Wycombe in the First Protectorate Parliament, like all of the other 59 men who signed the death warrant for Charles I he was in grave danger when Charles II of England was restored to the throne. He fled to Flanders, but surrendered at Brussels and he was put on trial, found guilty and hanged and quartered on 17 October 1660 for the crime of regicide. Thomas Scot was brought to trial on 12 October 1660 and he was charged with sitting in the High Court of Justice at the trial of King Charles I and with signing one warrant for summoning that court, and another for the execution.
He was further accused of wanting Here lies Thomas Scot, who adjudged the late King to die on his gravestone, but having begun with the Saxon times, he was interrupted by the Court, and told that the things of those ages were obscure. Scot replied, My Lord, I thought you would rather have been my council, as I think tis the duty of your place. To which Francis Annesley answered, that, if the Secluded Members had not appeared in Parliament, and by that means put an end to all pretenses, as all expected the jury was directed to find him guilty. The Memoirs of Edmund Ludlow, Lieutenant-General of the Horse in the Army of the Commonwealth of England, 1625-1672, II, Clarendon Press, pp. 307-308 Pool, John. Scott, Thomas, in Lee, Dictionary of National Biography,51, Smith, Elder & Co, pp. 70–72 Firth, C. H. Kelsey, Scott, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, doi,10. 1093/ref, odnb/24917 Plant, Biography of Thomas Scot, BCW Project, retrieved 12 July 2015
Puritanism in this sense was founded as an activist movement within the Church of England. The founders, clergy exiled under Mary I, returned to England shortly after the accession of Elizabeth I of England in 1558, Puritanism played a significant role in English history during the first half of the 17th century. One of the most effective stokers of anti-Catholic feeling was John Pym, Puritans were blocked from changing the established church from within and were severely restricted in England by laws controlling the practice of religion. They took on distinctive beliefs about clerical dress and in opposition to the episcopal system and they largely adopted Sabbatarianism in the 17th century, and were influenced by millennialism. Consequently, they became a political force in England and came to power as a result of the First English Civil War. Almost all Puritan clergy left the Church of England after the Restoration of 1660, the nature of the movement in England changed radically, although it retained its character for a much longer period in New England.
Puritans by definition were dissatisfied with the extent of the English Reformation. They formed and identified with various groups advocating greater purity of worship and doctrine, as well as personal. Puritans adopted a Reformed theology and, in sense, were Calvinists. In church polity, some advocated separation from all other established Christian denominations in favor of autonomous gathered churches. The Puritans were never a formally defined sect or religious division within Protestantism, the Congregationalist tradition, widely considered to be a part of the Reformed tradition, claims descent from the Puritans. Historically, the word Puritan was considered a term that characterized Protestant groups as extremists. According to Thomas Fuller in his Church History, the dates to 1564. Archbishop Matthew Parker of that used it and precisian with the sense of the modern stickler. In modern times, the word puritan is often used to mean against pleasure, in this sense, the term Puritan was coined in the 1560s, when it first appeared as a term of abuse for those who found the Elizabethan Religious Settlement of 1559 inadequate.
The term Puritan, was not intended to refer to strict morality, a common modern misunderstanding, the word Puritan was applied unevenly to a number of Protestant churches from the late 16th century onwards. Puritans did not originally use the term for themselves, the practitioners knew themselves as members of particular churches or movements, and not by a single term. Precise men and Precisians were other early derogatory terms for Puritans, seventeenth century English Puritan preacher Thomas Watson used the godly to describe Puritans in the title of one of his more famous works The Godly Mans Picture