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Long Parliament

The Long Parliament was an English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660. It followed the fiasco of the Short Parliament which had convened for only three weeks during the spring of 1640, which in turn had followed an 11-year parliamentary absence. In September 1640, King Charles I issued writs summoning a parliament to convene on 3 November 1640, he intended it to pass financial bills, a step made necessary by the costs of the Bishops' Wars in Scotland. The Long Parliament received its name from the fact that, by Act of Parliament, it stipulated it could be dissolved only with agreement of the members; the parliament sat from 1640 until 1648. After this point, the remaining members of the House of Commons became known as the Rump Parliament. In the chaos following the death of Oliver Cromwell in 1658, General George Monck allowed the members barred in 1648 to retake their seats, so that they could pass the necessary legislation to allow the Restoration and dissolve the Long Parliament.

This cleared the way for a new parliament to be elected, known as the Convention Parliament. Some key members of the Long Parliament, such as Sir Henry Vane the Younger and General Edmond Ludlow were barred from the final acts of the Long Parliament, they claimed the parliament was not dissolved, its final votes a procedural irregularity by General George Monck to ensure the restoration of King Charles II of England. On the restoration the general was awarded with a dukedom; the Long Parliament became a key moment in Whig histories of the seventeenth century. American Whig historian Charles Wentworth Upham believed the Long Parliament comprised "a set of the greatest geniuses for government that the world saw embarked together in one common cause" and whose actions produced an effect, which, at the time, made their country the wonder and admiration of the world, is still felt and exhibited far beyond the borders of that country, in the progress of reform, the advancement of popular liberty.

He believed. The sole reason Charles I assembled Parliament in November, 1640 was to ask it to pass finance bills, since the controverted taxation of ship money was unpopular, since the Bishops' Wars had bankrupted him. Instead, Parliament proceeded to impeach William Laud, the Archbishop of Canterbury, of high treason, on 18 December. John Finch was impeached the following day, he fled to the Netherlands with Charles's permission on 21 December; the parliament was influenced by John Pym and his supporters. Pym entered into a particular enumeration of the troubles of the kingdom. Early in the Long Parliament's proceedings, the house unanimously accused the Earl of Strafford of high treason, other high crimes and misdemeanors; this marked a new unanimity in Irish politics, whereby Old English, Gaelic Irish and New English settlers joined together in a legal body to present evidence against governor Strafford. However, the evidence was supplied indirectly by Henry Vane the Younger through the acquisition of notes of his father Henry Vane the Elder.

Vane the Elder, on the King's Privy Council, remained loyal to his king and was aghast when he learned in public hearings of the theft of his notes of the Privy Council meetings by his son. On 10 April, Pym's case against Strafford collapsed, but Pym made a direct appeal to the Younger Vane to produce a copy of the notes from the Privy Council, which the Younger Vane had discovered and secretly turned over to Pym, to his father's great anguish; these handwritten notes of the elder Vane obtained by Henry Vane the Younger were confirmed by independent testimony. Lord Strafford had told the King: Sir, you have done your duty, your subjects have failed in theirs. Parliament, as representatives of the people, felt betrayed, accused Strafford of raising an Irish army for the purpose of subduing England, abolishing English freedoms, collecting revenues for the King. Pym moved a Bill of Attainder, asserting Strafford's guilt and ordering that he be put to death. Charles, promised Strafford that he would not sign the attainder, so it could not be passed.

The Lords opposed the severity of the death sentence imposed upon Strafford, but increased tensions and an attempted army coup in support of Strafford began to sway the issue. On 21 April, the bill went unopposed in the Commons, the Lords acquiesced. Charles, fearing for his family's safety, signed the death warrant on 10 May. Strafford was beheaded two days later. With the king having been implicated, the Long Parliament passed the Triennial Act known as the Dissolution Act, in May 1641, to which the royal assent was granted. In the meantime both Parliament and the King agreed to an independent investigation of royal involvement in Strafford's plot; this Triennial Act required Parliament to be summoned at least once every three years, stipulated that when the King failed to issue proper summons, the members could assemble on their own. This act forbade ship money without Parliament's consent, declared unlawful both fines in destraint of knighthood and forced loans cut back monopolies, abolished the courts of Star Chamber and High Commission by the Habeas Corpus Act 1640 and the

Robert M. Berdahl

Robert Max Berdahl is a retired American college and university administrator. Born in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Berdahl received a Bachelor of Arts from Augustana College in 1959. Additionally, he obtained a Master of Arts from the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in 1961, he would follow Dr. Otto Pflanze to the University of Minnesota where he received his doctorate in 1965, with a dissertation on the Prussian Conservative Party during German unification circa 1870. Berdahl was an assistant professor of history at the University of Massachusetts from 1965 to 1967. From 1967 to 1986, Berdahl was a history professor at the University of Oregon. In addition to his duties as professor, he served as dean of the university's College of Arts and Sciences from 1981 to 1986. On, Berdahl would go on to serve as vice chancellor for academic affairs at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, from 1986 to 1993, he was president of University of Texas at Austin from 1993 to 1997 and chancellor of the University of California, Berkeley from 1997 to 2004.

He served as president of the Association of American Universities from May 2006 to June 2011. In addition, he serves on the Board of Directors of Lam Research Corporation. In December 2011, the Oregon State Board of Higher Education asked Berdahl to serve as the president of the University of Oregon on an interim basis; the presidency of the University of Oregon had been vacated by Richard Lariviere following his early termination by the state board. Three months into Berdahl's presidency the faculty voted to form a union affiliated with the American Federation of Teachers and American Association of University Professors, a month Berdahl agreed to end efforts to prevent certification by the Oregon Employment Relations Board. Michael R. Gottfredson succeeded Berdahl effective August 1, 2012. "New Thoughts on German Nationalism," The American Historical Review Vol. 77, No. 1, February 1972 "Conservative Politics and Aristocratic Landholders in Bismarckian Germany," The Journal of Modern History Vol. 44, No.

1, March 1972 "The Stände and the Origins of Conservatism in Prussia," Eighteenth-Century Studies Vol. 6, No. 3, Spring 1973 The Politics of the Prussian Nobility: The Development of a Conservative Ideology, 1770-1848 Official website of the president of the University of Oregon


Ebrachosuchus is an extinct genus of basal phytosaur known from the Late Triassic of Bavaria, southern Germany. It is known only from the holotype BSPG a complete skull missing both mandibles, it was collected at Ebrach Quarry, bed number 9 from the late Carnian-aged Blasensandstein Member of the Hassberge Formation. It was first named by Oskar Kuhn in 1936 and the type species is Ebrachosuchus neukami. Hunt and Lucas mistakenly referred to Francosuchus angustifrons as Ebrachosuchus angustifrons, considered it and the other two Francosuchus species, F. broilii and F. latus, to be synonyms of E. neukami. Furthermore, they reassigned the species to Paleorhinus, synonymized Ebrachosuchus with the former. Subsequent researches accepted this referral. More a phylogenetic analysis found E. neukami to be more related to Phytosauridae than to Paleorhinus and thus the genus Ebrachosuchus was re-validated, while F. angustifrons was reassigned as P. angustifrons as it shares unique synapomorphies with the type species of Paleorhinus and was found to be its sister taxon.

F. broilii and F. latus were removed from E. neukami, as they were found to be nomina dubia

The Chapo Guide to Revolution

The Chapo Guide to Revolution: A Manifesto Against Logic and Reason is a 2018 satirical book by hosts of the American political humor podcast Chapo Trap House, published by Touchstone. The book debuted at number 6 on the New York Times Best Seller list in the Hardcover Nonfiction section; the book deals with American history, "skewers" the two main American political parties. It features cartoons from Eli Valley; the book contained parodies of several comic strips, but these were cut for legal reasons. The book received positive reviews in Salon, Paste and Harper's. However, in a review for Politico, a publication ridiculed by Chapo Trap House, libertarian pundit, Bill Scher asked if The Chapo Guide to Revolution was the "stupidest book written about socialism". Official website The Chapo Guide to Revolution at Simon & Schuster

Santa Maria del Sasso

Santa Maria del Sasso known as the Sanctuary of Santa Maria del Sasso is a Renaissance church near Bibbiena in Tuscany, Italy. The first church on the site was constructed in 1347 following a reported appearance of the Virgin Mary on 23 June 1347; the current building was commissioned by Lorenzo de' Medici and constructed by Giuliano da Maiano starting in 1486. Following a visit by Savonarola in 1495 the work was expanded to include a sanctuary, it was given the status of minor basilica in 1942. In the centre of the church there is a tempietto or free-standing chapel containing a fresco of the Madonna and child by Bicci di Lorenzo. There is an altarpiece of Christ and John the Baptist in polychrome terracotta by Giovanni della Robbia, another Madonna and child by Fra Paolo da Pistoia


IBASIS is a communications solutions provider based in Lexington, Massachusetts. IBASIS represents an estimated USD 1+ billion in annual revenue, is the third largest wholesale voice operator, ranks Top 3 LTE IPX vendor, serves 1,000+ customers worldwide and brings together 300 employees across 18 offices worldwide. IBASIS offers voice, mobile data, IoT services. In February 2019, iBASIS was acquired by Tofane Global from KPN. More than 1,000 mobile and fixed line telecommunications carriers and service providers worldwide outsource some or all of their international voice traffic to iBASIS, it is one of the largest carriers of international voice traffic in the world. IBASIS customers include many of the world’s largest carriers, mobile operators, emerging service providers including Verizon, Vodafone, VSNL, China Mobile, China Unicom, IDT, Skype, Telecom Italia, Telefonica; the company offers online pre-paid international calling services to business and consumer customers through a product called Pingo.

IBASIS was founded in 1996 by Ofer Gneezy and Gordon VanderBrug to provide wholesale international long distance services to carriers using Voice over Internet Protocol technology. It held an initial public offering in November 1999 and was ranked the No. 1 fastest growing company in New England for 2000, 2001 and 2002 by Deloitte & Touche. In October 2007, iBASIS acquired KPN Global Carrier Services, the international voice business of KPN, the national carrier of the Netherlands. KPN became a majority stockholder of iBASIS as part of the transaction; the combined entity carried nearly 24 billion minutes of international voice traffic in 2007. According to international telecom research firm TeleGeography, that resulting traffic made the new iBASIS one of the three largest carriers of international voice traffic in the world, handling a volume equal to AT&T’s international voice traffic and behind worldwide leader Verizon. In April 2008, iBASIS acquired the international wholesale voice business of TDC A/S, a Danish carrier, for $10 million cash, which added 2 billion minutes of annual traffic and was estimated to increase annual revenues by $80 million.

On December 21, 2009 iBASIS became a wholly owned subsidiary of Royal KPN N. V. the national carrier of the Netherlands and a provider of fixed and enterprise communications solutions in Europe. IBASIS is no longer a publicly traded company. On February 8, 2019 KPN completed the sale of its iBASIS wholesale division to Tofane Global, led by Alexandre Pébereau. With Tofane’s prior acquisition of Altice Europe N. V in September 2018, the combined company is now the third largest wholesale voice operator, with revenues of more than $1 billion a year; the iBASIS Network includes an international VoIP network with more than 1,000 points of presence in over 100 countries. IBASIS uses technology from Cisco Systems and GenBand and has developed its own monitoring and route quality management systems to determine and select a suitable route for every call; the company has introduced technological advancements and is using GSM Association’s IP eXchange, being developed as a global IP backbone for fixed and mobile service providers.

In 2017, iBASIS introduced their Global Access for Things™ service, a global mobile connectivity and network level data analysis solution for things worldwide. With the use of GSMA standards based eUICC or “eSIM” technology, the Global Access for Things™ service is capable of connecting smart devices to over 700 mobile networks worldwide; the next generation “eSIM” technology both allows for the credentials of a mobile network operator in the country or region to be remotely programmed on the smart device, enables data access in the local area and therefore lower latency with much improved user experience