The eight-thousanders are the 14 independent mountains on Earth that are more than 8,000 metres high above sea level. All eight-thousanders are located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia and their summits are in the death zone. The first recorded attempt on an eight-thousander was when Albert F. Mummery, the attempt was unsuccessful when Mummery and two Gurkhas and Goman Singh, were killed by an avalanche. The first recorded ascent of an eight-thousander was by the French Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal. The first person to climb all 14 eight-thousanders was the Italian Reinhold Messner, in 1987, Polish climber Jerzy Kukuczka became the second person to accomplish this feat. Messner summitted each of the 14 peaks without the aid of supplemental oxygen and this feat was not repeated until nine years by the Swiss Erhard Loretan in 1995. Phurba Tashi of Nepal has completed the most climbs of the eight-thousanders, juanito Oiarzabal has completed the second most, with a total of 25 ascents between 1985 and 2011.
The alpinists with the highest number of winter ascents are Jerzy Kukuczka, the first woman who summited all 14 eight-thousanders with no disputed climbing was the Spanish Edurne Pasaban, in 2010. In August 2011, Austrian climber Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner became the first woman to climb the 14 eight-thousanders without the use of supplementary oxygen. The countries with the highest number of climbers that have climbed all 14 eight-thousanders are Italy and South Korea, with five each, followed by Spain. Kazakhstan and Poland have three each that completed the Crown of the Himalaya. Field O2 lists people who have climbed all 14 without bottled oxygen, claims in which not enough evidence was provided to verify the ascents of all 14 peaks. The disputed ascent in each claim is shown in parentheses
Savognin is a village and former municipality in the Sursés in the district of Albula in the canton of Grisons in Switzerland. On 1 January 2016 the former municipalities of Bivio, Marmorera, Riom-Parsonz, Savognin and Tinizong-Rona merged to form the new municipality of Surses. The stately village is the municipality of the Sursés, like the whole region is called. The official language is the Romansh dialect Surmiran, Savognin is first mentioned in 1154 as Sueningin. An important Bronze Age settlement is located on the Padnal hill to the south of town, in multiple excavations, many discoveries have been made, mostly from the period between 1800 and 1000 B. C. At least since the time of the Romans, important travel routes have passed through the Julier and Septimer passes, Savognin came into the possession of the Bishops of Chur in the 13th century. As part of the court of Oberhalbstein, for which Savognin acted as town and rural area. After its sale in 1552, the valley attained full sovereignty as part of the Free State of the Three Leagues, the cattle industry and traffic through the passes formed the economic framework of the community since the Middle Ages.
At this stage Savognin was thrown back to being a peasants village, jenische families were granted citizenship in the middle of the 19th century, as part of the Law for the fight against Homelessness. The ascent to foreign vacation destination began only in the 1960s, with the construction of hotels, vacation apartments and aerial ropeways, Savognin had an area, as of 2006, of 22.2 km2. Of this area,32. 7% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land, 3% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. The former municipality is located in the Surses sub-district of the Albula district, Savognin lies in a wide depression called Sotgôt, which forms the lower part of the Surses valley. The municipal area includes a piece of the valley between Mount Piz Arblatsch in the southwest and Mount Piz Mitgel in the northeast. The strong construction between 1965 and 1975 filled in the spaces between these parts, and extended the developed area on the right side of the valley. Neighboring municipalities are Cunter, Filisur, Tinizong-Rona, until about 1960, the municipality consisted of five distinct villages which were scattered along the course of the Gelgia.
The five villages were, Son Mitgel, Sot Curt, Sur Curt, until 1890 Savognin was known as Schweiningen. Savognin had a population of 1016, as of 2008,14. 3% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has decreased at a rate of -2. 8%, as of 2000, the gender distribution of the population was 55. 0% male and 45. 0% female
Climbing is the activity of using ones hands, feet, or any other part of the body to ascend a steep object. It is done recreationally, competitively, in trades that rely on it and it is done indoors and out, on natural and manmade structures. Climbing activities include, Ascending boulders or small outcrops, often with climbing shoes, Climbing along canyons for sport or recreation. Chalk climbing, Ascending chalk cliffs uses some of the techniques as ice climbing. Competition Climbing, A formal, competitive sport of recent origins, competition Climbing has three major disciplines, Lead and Speed. Ice climbing, Ascending ice or hard snow formations using special equipment, usually ice axes, techniques of protecting the climber are similar to those of rock climbing, with protective devices adapted to frozen conditions. Indoor climbing, Top roping, lead climbing, and bouldering artificial walls with bolted holds in a climbing gym, Ascending mountains for sport or recreation. It often involves rock and/or ice climbing, pole climbing, Climbing poles and masts without equipment.
Lumberjack tree-trimming and competitive tree-trunk or pole climbing for speed using spikes, rock climbing, Ascending rock formations, often using climbing shoes and a chalk bag. Equipment such as ropes, nuts and camming devices are normally employed, rope access, Industrial climbing, usually abseiling, as an alternative to scaffolding for short works on exposed structures. Rope climbing, Climbing a short, thick rope for speed, not to be confused with roped climbing, as in rock or ice climbing. Scrambling which includes rock climbing, and is considered part of hillwalking. Sport climbing is a form of climbing that relies on permanent anchors fixed to the rock. Top roping, Ascending a rock climbing route protected by a rope anchored at the top and protected by a belayer below Traditional climbing is a form of climbing without fixed anchors and bolts. Climbers place removable protection such as camming devices, free solo climbing, Climbing without ropes or protection. Tree climbing, Recreationally ascending trees using ropes and other protective equipment, a tower climber is a professional who climbs broadcasting or telecommunication towers or masts for maintenance or repair.
Rock and tree climbing all usually use ropes for safety or aid, pole climbing and rope climbing were among the first exercises to be included in the origins of modern gymnastics in the late 18th century and early 19th century
Mount Everest, known in Nepal as Sagarmāthā and in China as Chomolungma/珠穆朗玛峰, is Earths highest mountain. Its peak is 8,848 metres above sea level, Mount Everest is in the Mahalangur Range. The international border between China and Nepal runs across Everests summit point and its massif includes neighbouring peaks Lhotse,8,516 m, Nuptse,7,855 m, and Changtse,7,580 m. In 1856, the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India established the first published height of Everest, known as Peak XV, at 8,840 m. The current official height of 8,848 m as recognised by China and Nepal was established by a 1955 Indian survey, in 2005, China remeasured the height of the mountain and got a result of 8844.43 m. An argument regarding the height between China and Nepal lasted five years from 2005 to 2010, China argued it should be measured by its rock height which is 8,844 m but Nepal said it should be measured by its snow height 8,848 m. In 2010, an agreement was reached by both sides that the height of Everest is 8,848 m and Nepal recognises Chinas claim that the rock height of Everest is 8,844 m.
In 1865, Everest was given its official English name by the Royal Geographical Society upon a recommendation by Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India. As there appeared to be several different local names, Waugh chose to name the mountain after his predecessor in the post, Sir George Everest, Mount Everest attracts many climbers, some of them highly experienced mountaineers. There are two main climbing routes, one approaching the summit from the southeast in Nepal and the other from the north in Tibet, as of 2016 there are well over 200 corpses on the mountain, with some of them even serving as landmarks. The first recorded efforts to reach Everests summit were made by British mountaineers, with Nepal not allowing foreigners into the country at the time, the British made several attempts on the north ridge route from the Tibetan side. Tragedy struck on the descent from the North Col when seven porters were killed in an avalanche. They had been spotted high on the mountain that day but disappeared in the clouds, never to be seen again, Tenzing Norgay and Edmund Hillary made the first official ascent of Everest in 1953 using the southeast ridge route.
Tenzing had reached 8,595 m the previous year as a member of the 1952 Swiss expedition, the Chinese mountaineering team of Wang Fuzhou, and Qu Yinhua made the first reported ascent of the peak from the north ridge on 25 May 1960. In 1802, the British began the Great Trigonometric Survey of India to fix the locations, starting in southern India, the survey teams moved northward using giant theodolites, each weighing 500 kg and requiring 12 men to carry, to measure heights as accurately as possible. They reached the Himalayan foothills by the 1830s, but Nepal was unwilling to allow the British to enter the country due to suspicions of political aggression, several requests by the surveyors to enter Nepal were turned down. The British were forced to continue their observations from Terai, a region south of Nepal which is parallel to the Himalayas, conditions in Terai were difficult because of torrential rains and malaria. Three survey officers died from malaria while two others had to retire because of failing health, nonetheless, in 1847, the British continued the survey and began detailed observations of the Himalayan peaks from observation stations up to 240 km distant
The Hillary Step is a nearly vertical rock face with a height of around 12 metres located high on Mount Everest at approximately 8,790 metres above sea level. It is located on the South East ridge, halfway between the South Summit and the summit, and is the last real challenge before reaching the top of the mountain via the South East route. The Step was named after Sir Edmund Hillary who was the first person, along with Tenzing Norgay, when Hillary and Tenzing first climbed the Hillary Step on 29 May 1953, they climbed the crack between the snow and the rock. Ascent and descent is now made with the assistance of fixed ropes. First ascents in 2016 revealed that 2015 Mount Everest avalanches removed large boulders from the area, instead of a nearly vertical stone wall, climbers now have to traverse a snow ramp
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
A via ferrata is a protected climbing route found in the Alps and certain other locations. The essence of a modern via ferrata is a cable which runs along the route and is periodically fixed to the rock. Using a via ferrata kit, climbers can secure themselves to the cable, the cable can be used as aid to climbing, and additional climbing aids, such as iron rungs, carved steps and even ladders and bridges are often provided. Thus via ferratas allow otherwise dangerous routes to be undertaken without the associated with unprotected scrambling and climbing or the need for climbing equipment such as ropes. Conversely, the modest equipment requirements, ability to do them solo, via ferratas can vary in length from short routes taking less than an hour, to long, demanding alpine routes covering significant distance and altitude, and taking eight or more hours to complete. Generally, via ferratas are done in ascent, although it is possible to descend them, many more have been developed in recent years, as their popularity has grown and the tourism benefits have been recognised.
Over 1000 via ferratas now exist, the majority are found in the Alps, most notably in Italy and Austria. Others are found in a number of European countries, and a few places elsewhere, they are now found in a range of different terrains. The term via ferrata is used in most countries and languages, except notably in German-speaking countries which use Klettersteig, simple protected paths, with ladders and basic protection aids, have probably existed in the Alps for centuries, helping to connect villages to their high pastures. Construction of what could be seen as the precursors of modern via ferratas dates back to the growth of Alpine exploration and tourism in the nineteenth century. In 1843, a route on the Dachstein was constructed under the direction of Friedrich Simony, it included a range of climbing aids with iron pins, hand hooks, carved footholds and ropes. In 1869 a rope was fixed between the summits of Grossglockner, and in 1873 fixed protection was installed on the Zugspitze, in the Pyrenees, iron climbing aids were installed on the Pic du Midi dOssau in 1880, and in the Ordesa in 1881.
In the Dolomites, the path up the West ridge of the Marmolada was installed in 1903. In 1914 the Dolomites were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which was part of the Central Powers during the First World War, in 1915, Italy joined the alliance of Britain and Russia and declared war on the Central Powers. Austria’s troops were committed in Russia and it immediately withdrew to a defensive line which ran through the Dolomites. Until the end of 1917 the Austrians and the Italians fought a war in the mountains of the Dolomites, not only against each other. Both sides tried to control of the peaks to site observation posts. To help troops move about at high altitude in very difficult conditions, permanent lines were fixed to rock faces and they tried to create and control tunnels below the peaks to attack from there