SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Khumbu Icefall

The Khumbu Icefall is located at the head of the Khumbu Glacier and the foot of the Western Cwm, which lies at an altitude of 5,486 metres on the Nepali slopes of Mount Everest, not far above Base Camp and southwest of the summit. The icefall is considered one of the most dangerous stages of the South Col route to Everest's summit; the Khumbu Glacier is one that forms the icefall and moves at such speed that large crevasses open with little warning, the large towers of ice found at the icefall have been known to collapse suddenly. Huge blocks of ice tumble down the glacier from time to time, their sizes ranging from that of cars to large houses, it is estimated. Most climbers try to cross the icefall during the early morning, before sunrise, when it has frozen during the night and is less able to move; as the intense sunlight warms the area, the friction between the ice structure lessens and increases the chances of crevasses opening or blocks of snow and ice falling. The most dangerous time to cross the Khumbu Icefall is mid- to late-afternoon.

Strong, acclimatized climbers can ascend the icefall in a few hours, while climbers going through it for the first time, or lacking acclimatization or experience, tend to make the journey in 10–12 hours. "Camp I" on Everest's South Col route is slightly beyond the top of the Khumbu Icefall. On occasion, a climber will experience a large block of ice crashing down in their vicinity; the resulting blast of displaced air and snow can result in a "dusting". To those that have experienced it, it is a unnerving experience. If a climber is caught in an avalanche or other "movement" event in the icefall, there is little they can do except prepare for potential entrapment by heavy blocks of ice or immediate movement afterwards, to try to rescue others, it is impossible to run away or to know which way to run. Since the structures are continually changing, crossing the Khumbu Icefall is dangerous. Extensive rope and ladder crossings cannot prevent loss of life. Many people have died in this area, such as a climber, crushed by a 12-story block of solid ice.

Exposed crevasses may be easy to avoid, but some may be hidden under dangerous snow bridges, through which unwary climbers can fall. Around 6:30 am local time, on the morning of 18 April 2014, 16 Nepalese climbers were killed by an avalanche in the Khumbu Icefall; as of 22 April, 13 bodies had been recovered, three remained missing, presumed dead. The climbers were preparing the route through the dangerous icefall for the spring climbing season when the avalanche engulfed them. Nine others sustained blunt trauma injuries. Painting of the Khumbu Icefall

The Southern Courier

The Southern Courier was a weekly newspaper published in Montgomery, from 1965 to 1968, during the Civil Rights Movement. As one of a few newspapers to cover the movement with an emphasis on African-American communities in the South, it provided its readership with a comprehensive view of race relations and community and is considered an important source for historians. In 1964, two students who had traveled to Mississippi to cover and assist in the Civil Rights Movement, Peter Cummings, a staff member of The Harvard Crimson, Harvard University's student newspaper, Ellen Lake of the Crimson, were dismayed by the lack of coverage in the Southern papers and the sensationalist reporting of civil rights activities, they conceived of a newspaper that would cover issues not reported in the Southern newspapers, not in the national press. As announced in The Harvard Crimson, the idea was to form a newspaper that would provide news about civil rights activities and protests in the Southern United States, the paper argued, was underreported or ignored by Southern editors.

Conversely, Northern newspapers had little distribution in the South. A newspaper that gave "a full and accurate account of the movement, its goals and tactics," with "fair reporting", would both provide better information about the South and "advance the movement in the Negro community", "would go far toward knitting the various Negro communities of the South together"; the students raised money from private sources, since the editors did not expect to receive tax-exempt status given the heated nature of such a paper. Once established in Montgomery, the organization achieved tax-exempt status; the paper was a multiracial effort, its reporters were asked to integrate into the localities they covered as much as possible, without being either unattached "drive-by" journalists or involved community activists. Michael S. Lottman, managing editor of The Harvard Crimson until 1962, became its editor in 1965 and again from 1966–68, it was to be based out of Atlanta, run by Harvard students, including a number of students from The Harvard Crimson.

The paper was started with $30,000 of seed money, reporters were paid $20 a week. The plan was to have separate papers for individual states. In the first summer it was printed in Atlanta, it moved to Montgomery, Alabama, a city, the focus of much attention since the Selma to Montgomery marches earlier that year. In September 1965, when Lottman returned to his newspaper job in Chicago, Robert Ellis Smith became editor; the weekly paper borrowed from The Harvard Crimson its six-column, six-page appearance, its allegiance to well-sourced and balanced stories, its professional headlines, its immediacy, its inclusion of items about the arts, TV, some sports, individual profiles, first-person accounts, attention to all sides of the civil rights battle. On the tenth anniversary of the Montgomery bus Boycott in 1955, the paper published memoirs by Martin Luther King, Jr. and Rosa Parks. Graphic dispatches from Tuskegee, Alabama, by executive editor Mary Ellen Gale, were highlights of many issues. Lottman caught the essence of the paper in speaking of how it covered the core details of the federal "War on Poverty," "The coverage by the Courier was just about the only way, at that time, that readers found out what people in other places were doing, what kinds of issues others were confronting and letting them know that they were not alone."

Other editors and writers for the Courier included Stephen Cotton from Chicago and a student at Harvard's law school, an editor for the Crimson, co-organizer of the first Earth Day events. The Courier sustained itself, week to week, on paid mailed subscriptions outside the South, on revenues from street and door-to-door sales in two dozen communities in Alabama and nearby Mississippi, from a few grants from Northern-based foundations; the 30,000 papers were shipped every Thursday night by Greyhound buses throughout Alabama to "stringers" who distributed them locally. It cost about $10,000 per month. A $60,000 grant from the Ford Foundation in 1967 gave the paper another year, but in the end funding dried up, in part because opposition to the Vietnam War attracted more attention from donors in the late 1960s. On December 7, 1968, the last issue - the 150th consecutive issue - was distributed. Many of the Courier's staff went on to work in law, public service and causes devoted to social justice, with non-profit organizations.

The chief photographer of the Courier' was Jim Peppler. The notable photos he took for the paper over its 3 1/2 years life are archived at the Alabama Department of Archives and History. Lottman said of Peppler, "He depicted people like the people who read - and who we wanted to read - the paper in ways they had never been seen in the local press." A reunion was held in 2006 at Auburn University in Montgomery, on the occasion of the annual Clifford and Virginia Durr Lecture Series. One black man from a remote corner of southeast Alabama showed up with a copy of the paper, from 40 years earlier to say thanks to the staff. At that gathering the former staff members established a web site, made sure that back issues were a

Walla Walla Valley AVA

The Walla Walla Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located within Washington State and extending into the northeastern corner of Oregon. The wine region is included within the larger Columbia Valley AVA. In addition to grapes, the area produces sweet onions and strawberries. After the Yakima Valley AVA, the Walla Walla AVA has the second highest concentration of vineyards and wineries in Washington State; the area is named after the Walla Walla river valley. The soils of the Walla Walla Valley consist of wind-deposited loess, which provides good drainage for vines; the area thus relies on irrigation. The 200-day-long growing season is characterized by cool nights; the valley is prone to sudden shifts in temperature as cold air comes down from the Blue Mountains and is trapped in the Snake and Columbia river valleys. While cooler than the surrounding Columbia Valley AVA, temperatures in the winter time can drop to −20 °F. Most of the region is in hardiness zone 7a; the southern part of Walla Walla Valley extends into the state of Oregon and is one of the warmer wine growing regions in that state, after the Rogue Valley.

Syrah is a major planting in this area. The Walla Walla Valley became an early leader in the beginnings of the Washington wine industry when the town of Walla Walla was founded by the Hudson's Bay Company as a trading post in the 1840s. French fur trappers settled in a small town outside the city known as Frenchtown near Lowden and began planting grapes. In the late 1850s, a settler named A. B. Roberts established the first nursery in Walla Walla, importing grape vines from Champoeg, Oregon. In 1859, the city of Walla Walla was incorporated and the Idaho gold rush of 1860 helped make the area a bustling trade center; when the gold rush ended, the economic focus of the state switched to Western Washington and the city of Seattle, lessening the influence of Walla Walla. In 1883, Northern Pacific Railway bypassed the Walla Walla Valley for a route from Spokane to Seattle; this cut off Walla Walla from the growing market of the west. That same year a severe frost devastated the area's grapevines and caused a lot of the earlier grape growers to abandon their crops.

The dawning of Prohibition in the United States in the early 20th century finished off the remaining aspect of the area as a wine region. The rebirth of the Walla Walla wine industry occurred in the 1970s when Leonetti Cellars was founded on 1-acre of Cabernet Sauvignon and Riesling; the winery expanded and achieved worldwide recognition as it became one of Washington's most sought-after cult wines. The founding of Woodward Canyon Winery in 1981 and L'Ecole No. 41 in 1983 added to the area's visibility in the wine world and the appellation was granted AVA status in 1984. Cabernet Sauvignon is the most well known and planted grape in the area, followed by Merlot, Syrah and Cabernet Franc; as of 2007: Cabernet Sauvignon - 41% of planted area Merlot - 26% of planted area Syrah - 16% of planted area Cabernet Franc - 4% of planted area Sangiovese - 2% of planted area Chardonnay - 2% of planted area Viognier - 1% of planted area Other red varietals - 7% of planted area Other white varietals - 1% of planted area