Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier. There are many fjords on the coasts of Alaska, British Columbia, Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Kamchatka, the Kerguelen Islands, New Zealand, Novaya Zemlya, Nunavut, Quebec, South Georgia Island, Washington state. Norway's coastline is estimated at 29,000 kilometres with nearly 1,200 fjords, but only 2,500 kilometres when fjords are excluded. A true fjord is formed when a glacier cuts a U-shaped valley by ice segregation and abrasion of the surrounding bedrock. According to the standard model, glaciers formed in pre-glacial valleys with a sloping valley floor; the work of the glacier left an overdeepened U-shaped valley that ends abruptly at a valley or trough end. Such valleys are fjords. Thresholds above sea level create freshwater lakes. Glacial melting is accompanied by the rebounding of Earth's crust as the ice load and eroded sediment is removed. In some cases this rebound is faster than sea level rise.
Most fjords are deeper than the adjacent sea. Fjords have a sill or shoal at their mouth caused by the previous glacier's reduced erosion rate and terminal moraine. In many cases this sill causes large saltwater rapids. Saltstraumen in Norway is described as the world's strongest tidal current; these characteristics distinguish fjords from rias, which are drowned valleys flooded by the rising sea. Drammensfjorden is cut in two by the Svelvik "ridge", a sandy moraine that during the ice cover was under sea level but after the post-glacial rebound reaches 60 m above the fjord. Jens Esmark in the 19th century introduced the theory that fjords are or have been created by glaciers and that large parts of Northern Europe had been covered by thick ice in prehistory. Thresholds at the mouths and overdeepening of fjords compared to the ocean are the strongest evidence of glacial origin, these thresholds are rocky. Thresholds are related to sounds and low land where the ice could spread out and therefore have less erosive force.
John Walter Gregory argued that fjords are of tectonic origin and that glaciers had a negligible role in their formation. Gregory's views were rejected by subsequent research and publications. In the case of Hardangerfjord the fractures of the Caledonian fold has guided the erosion by glaciers, while there is no clear relation between the direction of Sognefjord and the fold pattern; this relationship between fractures and direction of fjords is observed in Lyngen. Preglacial, tertiary rivers eroded the surface and created valleys that guided the glacial flow and erosion of the bedrock; this may in particular have been the case in Western Norway where the tertiary uplift of the landmass amplified eroding forces of rivers. Confluence of tributatry fjords led to excavation of the deepest fjord basins. Near the coast the typical West Norwegian glacier spread out and lost their concentration and reduced the glaciers' power to erode leaving bedrock thresholds. Bolstadfjorden is 160 m deep with a threshold of only 1.5 m, while the 1,300 m deep Sognefjorden has a threshold around 100 to 200 m deep.
Hardangerfjord is made up of several basins separated by thresholds: The deepest basin Samlafjorden between Jonaneset og Ålvik with a distinct threshold at Vikingneset in Kvam. Hanging valleys are common along U-shaped valleys. A hanging valley is a tributary valley, higher than the main valley and was created by tributary glacier flows into a glacier of larger volume; the shallower valley appears to be ` hanging' above a fjord. Waterfalls form at or near the outlet of the upper valley. Small waterfalls within these fjords are used as freshwater resources. Hanging valleys occur under water in fjord systems; the branches of Sognefjord are for instance much shallower than the main fjord. The mouth of Fjærlandsfjord is about 400 m deep; the mouth of Ikjefjord is only 50 meters deep while the main fjord is around 1,300 m at the same point. During the winter season there is little inflow of freshwater. Surface water and deeper water are mixed during winter because of the steady cooling of the surface and wind.
In the deep fjords there is still fresh water from the summer with less density than the saltier water along the coast. Offshore wind, common in the fjord areas during winter, sets up a current on the surface from the inner to the outer parts; this current on the surface in turn pulls dense salt water from the coast across the fjord threshold and into the deepest parts of the fjord. Bolstadfjorden has a threshold of only 1.5 m and strong inflow of freshwater from Vosso river creates a brackish surface that blocks circulation of the deep fjord. The deeper, salt layers of Bolstadfjorden are deprived of oxygen and the seabed is covered with organic material; the shallow threshold creates a strong tidal current. During the summer season there is a large inflow of river water in the inner areas; this freshwater gets mixed with saltwater creating a layer of brackish water with a higher surface than the ocean which in turn sets up a current from the river mouths towards the ocean. This current is more salty towards the coast and right under the surface current
Stepps railway station serves the small town of Stepps, North Lanarkshire, Scotland. The railway station is located on the Cumbernauld Line, 5¼ miles north east of Glasgow Queen Street and is managed by Abellio ScotRail; the station is sited on the former Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway, which opened back to 1831 and formed part of the Caledonian Railway main line from Glasgow Buchanan Street. A station at Stepps was opened on this line sometime around 1843/4, closed by the British Railways on 5 November 1962; the present station was opened by British Rail with financial support from Strathclyde Passenger Transport Executive on 15 May 1989. Electrification was established in 2014 with services from Springburn being extended to Cumbernauld. Monday to Saturday, there is a half-hourly EMU service to Glasgow Queen Street Low Level and Dalmuir westbound and Cumbernauld eastbound along with an hourly diesel service between Queen Street High Level and Falkirk Grahamston. Electric services reverse at Springburn to access the North Clyde Line following the inauguration of electrification between Springburn & Cumbernauld on 18 May 2014, but the service to/from Falkirk remains diesel operated at present.
On Sundays there is an hourly service to Cumbernauld. From December 2018, a new half hourly Glasgow - Edinburgh via Cumbernauld and Falkirk Grahamston service will start, replacing the hourly DMU service and take over the existing EMU service between Springburn and Cumbernauld; the new service will use new Class 385 EMUs. The station is not staffed. There is a ticket machine on the westbound platform, but not on the eastbound platform. A new 48 space car park was opened on the former site of St Joseph's Hall
Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Melville Dill OBE was a prominent Bermudian lawyer and soldier. Dill was born in Devonshire Parish, in the British colony of Bermuda, the son of Mary Lea and Thomas Newbold Dill; the Dill family had been established in Bermuda in the 1630s. Thomas Newbold Dill was a merchant, a Member of the Colonial Parliament for Devonshire Parish from 1868 to 1888, a Member of the Legislative Council and an Assistant Justice from 1888, Mayor of the City of Hamilton from 1891 to 1897, served on numerous committees and boards, was a member of the Devonshire Church and Devonshire Parish vestries. Thomas Melville Dill was named for his seafaring paternal grandfather, who had lost his master's certificate after the wreck of the Bermudian-built Cedrine on the Isle of Wight, returning the last convict labourers from the Royal Naval Dockyard in Bermuda to Britain in 1863. Thomas Dill entered the fledgeling Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps in 1895 as a rifleman, before transferring to the Bermuda Militia Artillery, a reserve of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, as a lieutenant.
The British Army maintained a large Bermuda Garrison of regular and part-time artillery and infantry units to guard the Royal Naval Dockyard and other strategic assets. By 1914, then-Captain Dill was the Commandant, but he handed that position to a subordinate in order to lead the unit's First Contingent to the Western Front, receiving a temporary regular commission as a Major. Serving as part of the larger Royal Garrison Artillery draft to the front, the Bermudian contingent was praised by Field Marshal Douglas Haig. After the war, Major Dill returned to Bermuda, resuming his command of the BMA, his substantive rank was still Captain'til he was promoted to substantive Major in 1921, though dated 12 November, 1919. He retired on 21 April 1928 with the honorary-rank of lieutenant-colonel. In addition to his role as a military officer, Dill pursued a legal career, becoming Bermuda's Attorney General, he entered politics, served as a Member of the Colonial Parliament for Devonshire parish from 1904 until 1938.
He was appointed to the Executive Council. He was an avid historian. Dill married Ruth Rapalje Neilson on 15 October 1900, they had several children, some of whom followed him to positions of prominence in Bermuda or abroad, their children were Ruth Rapalje Dill, Thomas Newbold Dill, Nicholas Bayard Dill, Laurence Dill, Helen Dill, Frances Rapalje Dill and Diana Dill. Sir Bayard Dill was an officer in the Bermuda Volunteer Engineers, a founding member of the Conyers, Dill & Pearman law firm, a prominent politician, knighted in 1951, he played a key role in negotiating the agreement with the USA for its military and naval bases in Bermuda during the Second World War. Ruth Dill was married to heir to the Johnson & Johnson fortune, their children included Mary Lea Johnson Richards, John Seward Johnson II, Diana Firestone. Diana Dill moved to the US, she was married to actor Kirk Douglas, with whom she had two sons and producer Michael Douglas, producer Joel Douglas. His grandson, the Right Reverend Nicholas Dill, was installed as Bishop of Bermuda on 29 May 2013.
Dill died of a heart attack on 7 March 1945, following injuries sustained during a fall in February. He was eulogised on the front page of The Royal Gazette. Roots Web: Portrait T. M. Dill Review of Diana Dill's autobiography, "In The Wings" Barnes & Noble Excerpt from Diana Dill's autobiography, "In The Wings" POTSI: BMA History by Jennifer Hind POTSI: BMA Images Essay on Bermuda Militia Artillery, by Jennifer Hind, which makes frequent mention of TM Dill