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Flag of Denmark

The flag of Denmark is red with a white Scandinavian cross that extends to the edges of the flag. A banner with a white-on-red cross is attested as having been used by the kings of Denmark since the 14th century. An origin legend with considerable impact on Danish national historiography connects the introduction of the flag to the Battle of Lindanise of 1219; the elongated Nordic cross reflects the use as a maritime flag in the 18th century. The flag became popular as a national flag in the early 19th century, its private use was outlawed in 1834, again permitted in a regulation of 1854. The flag holds the world record of being the oldest continuously used national flag. In 1748, a regulation defined the correct lengths of the two last fields in the flag as ​6⁄4. In May 1893 a new regulation to all chiefs of police, stated that the police should not intervene, if the two last fields in the flag were longer than ​6⁄4 as long as these did not exceed ​7⁄4, provided that this was the only rule violated.

This regulation is still in effect today and thus the legal proportions of the National flag is today 3:1:3 in width and anywhere between 3:1:4.5 and 3:1:5.25 in length. No official definition of "Dannebrog rød" exists; the private company Dansk Standard, regulation number 359, defines the red colour of the flag as Pantone 186c. A tradition recorded in the 16th century traces the origin of the flag to the campaigns of Valdemar II of Denmark; the oldest of them is in Christiern Pedersen's "Danske Krønike", a sequel to Saxo's Gesta Danorum, written 1520–23. Here, the flag falls from the sky during a Russian campaign of Valdemar's. Pedersen states that the same flag was taken into exile by Eric of Pomerania in 1440; the second source is the writing of the Franciscan friar Petrus Olai of Roskilde. This record describes a battle in 1208 near Fellin during the Estonia campaign of King Valdemar II; the Danes were all but defeated when a lamb-skin banner depicting a white cross fell from the sky and miraculously led to a Danish victory.

In a third account by Petrus Olai, in Danmarks Tolv Herligheder, in splendour number nine, the same story is re-told verbatim, with a paragraph inserted correcting the year to 1219. Now, the flag is falling from the sky in the Battle of Lindanise known as the Battle of Valdemar, near Lindanise in Estonia, of 15 June 1219, it is this third account, the most influential, some historians have treated it as the primary account taken from a source dating to the first half of the 15th century. In Olai's account, the battle was going badly, defeat seemed imminent; however the Danish Bishop Anders Sunesen on top of a hill overlooking the battle prayed to God with his arms raised, which meant that the Danes moved closer to victory the more he prayed. When he raised his arms the Danes surged forward and when his arms grew tired and he let them fall, the Estonians turned the Danes back. Attendants rushed forward to raise his arms once again and the Danes surged forward again. At a second he was so tired in his arms that he dropped them and the Danes lost the advantage and were moving closer to defeat.

He needed two soldiers to keep his hands up and when the Danes were about to lose,'Dannebrog' miraculously fell from the sky and the King took it, showed it to the troops and their hearts were filled with courage and the Danes won the battle. The possible historical nucleus behind this origin legend was extensively discussed by Danish historians in the 19th to 20th centuries. Jørgensen argues that Bishop Theoderich was the original instigator of the 1218 inquiry from Bishop Albert of Buxhoeveden to King Valdemar II which led to the Danish participation in the Baltic crusades. Jørgensen speculates that Bishop Theoderich might have carried the Knight Hospitaller's banner in the 1219 battle and that "the enemy thought this was the King's symbol and mistakenly stormed Bishop Theoderich tent, he claims that the origin of the legend of the falling flag comes from this confusion in the battle."The Danish church-historian L. P. Fabricius ascribes the origin to the 1208 Battle of Fellin, not the Battle of Lindanise in 1219, based on the earliest source available about the story.

Fabricius speculated that it might have been Archbishop Andreas Sunesøn's personal ecclesiastical banner or even the flag of Archbishop Absalon, under whose initiative and supervision several smaller crusades had been conducted in Estonia. The banner would already be known in Estonia. Fabricius repeats Jørgensen's idea about the flag being planted in front of Bishop Theodorik's tent, which the enemy mistakenly attacks believing it to be the tent of the King. A different theory is discussed by Fabricius and elaborated more by Helge Bruhn. Bruhn interprets the story in the context of the widespread tradition of the miraculous appearance of crosses in the sky in Christian legend comparing such an event attributed to a battle of 10 September 1217 near Alcazar, where it is said that a golden cross on white appeared in the sky, to bring victory to the Christians. In Swedish national historiography of the 18th century, there is a tale paralleling the Danish legend, in which a golden cross appears in the blue sky during a Swedish battle in Finland in 1157.

The white-on-red cross emblem originates in the age of the Crusades. In the 12th century, it was used as war flag by the Holy Roman Empire. In the Gelre Armorial, dated c. 1340–1370, such a banner is shown alongside the coat of arms of the king of Denmark. This is the earliest known undisputed colour rend

MOD (file format)

MOD is a computer file format used to represent music, was the first module file format. MOD files use the “. MOD” file extension, except on the Amiga which doesn't rely on filename extensions. A MOD file contains a set of instruments in the form of samples, a number of patterns indicating how and when the samples are to be played, a list of what patterns to play in what order; the first version of the format was created by Karsten Obarski for use in the Ultimate Soundtracker. The format has since been supported by hundreds of playback dozens of other trackers; the original version of the MOD format featured four channels of simultaneous audio playback, corresponding to the capabilities of the original Amiga chipset, up to 15 instruments. Variations of the format have extended this to up to 32 channels and 31 instruments; the format was designed to be directly playable on the Amiga without additional processing: for example, samples are stored in 8-bit PCM format ready to be played on the Amiga DACs, pattern data is not packed.

Playback required little CPU time on an Amiga, many games used MOD files for their background music. A common misconception is that the magic number "M. K." in the 0x438 offset of MOD files are the initials of Mahoney and Kaktus, two prominent Amiga demomakers at the time, who played an important part in the popularity of the format. They in fact stand for the initials of Michael Kleps a.k.a. Unknown / DOC, another developer of the format. After the Amiga's production ceased, the MOD format has had continued popularity in the Demoscene and as background music for independent video games and Chiptunes, it is not uncommon to hear MOD music in keygens either. A pattern is represented in a sequencer user interface as a table with one column per channel, thus having four columns – one for each Amiga hardware channel; each column has 64 rows. A cell in the table can cause one of several actions to happen on its column's channel when its row's time is reached: Start an instrument playing a new note in this channel at a given volume with a special effect applied on it Change the volume or special effect being applied to the current note Change pattern flow.

In the original MOD file the minimum time frame was 0.02 seconds, or a "vertical blanking" interval, because the original software used the VSync timing of the monitor running at 50 Hz or 60 Hz for timing. The rate at which pattern data is played is defined by a speed setting; each row in the pattern data lasts one vertical blanking times the current speed setting. The speed setting varied from 1 to 255. In versions of the format, the vertical blanking was replaced with an adjustable time period staying in the range seconds; the old speed setting command was replaced with a new one, used to change both the old speed setting and the new adjustable time period. Some of the old functionality was broken, because the new speed setting command had an identical code value to the old command. Values in the range were interpreted as the old speed settings, but other values were regarded as modifications to the adjustable time period. Hence, values in the range used in some old songs broke in new versions of the player.

Further information on the MOD format can be found at the alt.binaries.sounds.mods FAQ. MOD is the file extension for several other applications: The video file format used on many digital camcorders, such as the JVC Everio, the Canon FS100 and the Panasonic D-Snap SD-card camcorders. Game modules in Neverwinter Nights. AMPL model files. Old phpBB modification templates. Module files in Femap The extension for the binary variant of the Wavefront.obj format. The extension for some games using the Vassal game engine; the extension for Fortran module files. The extension for legacy Visual Basic module files, for versions before the release of Visual Basic. NET; the extension for Go module files, used for package versioning. Module for ABB Robotics IRC5 and S4 robot controllers. Contains robotic motion programs written in the language RAPID. Lanner WITNESS simulation software model files Paradox Development Studio uses a ". MOD" format for user-created modifications of their games. Module file Tracker Mod MOD and TOD List of Amiga music format players MIDI Noisetracker/Soundtracker/Protracker Module Format - 3rd Revision Noisetracker/Soundtracker/Protracker Module Format - 4th Revision Free Standalone Player for Module Format Music data index site The MOD Ring Modarchive

Allan H. Kittleman

Allan H. Kittleman, an American Republican politician, was the ninth county executive for Howard County, Maryland since December 1, 2014. Kittleman served as a Maryland State Senator from 2004 to 2014, representing the 9th district covering Howard and Carroll Counties, was Senate Minority Leader from 2008 to 2011, he previously served on the Howard County Council from 1998 to 2004. Born on October 20, 1958, in Olney, Kittleman attended Atholton High School in Howard County, Maryland, he earned a bachelor's degree from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County in 1981 and graduated with honors from the University of Maryland School of Law with a J. D. in 1988. Kittleman was admitted to the Maryland Bar in 1988 and was an associate with Smith, Somerville & Case, 1988–91 and a partner with Herwig & Humphreys, LLP from 1996 to 2003. Kittleman has worked for the law firm Godwin, MacLaughlin, Vernon & Daney since 2008, though is not listed among the firm's attorneys, he is the son of the late Robert H. Kittleman and was appointed by Governor Bob Ehrlich to fill his seat in the Maryland Senate.

In 2006, Kittleman won re-election in a landslide against Democrat Richard Corkran. With a reputation as a social libertarian, Kittleman mediates between the liberal and conservative factions in the party. In 2010, Senator Kittleman defeated Jim Adams by a wide margin in the general election after facing no primary opposition. On January 30, 2010, the Senate Republican Caucus again chose him to serve as Minority Leader with Senator David R. Brinkley as Minority Whip, who defeated Senator Nancy Jacobs. Senator Kittleman resigned as Minority Leader on January 18, 2011. During the 2011 General Assembly session, Kittleman broke ranks with his fellow Republicans and voted in favor of legalizing same-sex marriage. Kittleman was elected County Executive of Howard County, defeating Councilwoman Courtney Watson in the 2014 election. Since taking office, Kittleman's top priorities as executive include improving the delivery of human services, closing the education gap and rebuilding infrastructure throughout Howard County.

Controversial measures undertaken by his administration include reassessing the sustainable growth tier structure of the county, put in place by County Executive Ken Ulman in 2013. On February 9, 2017, Kittleman vetoed a bill passed three days earlier by the County Council on a 3–2 vote to declare Howard County a sanctuary jurisdiction for illegal immigrants. Democratic County Councilman Calvin Ball III defeated Kittleman in the November 6, 2018 election for County Executive. Kittleman said he was disappointed though accepted the voters' decision and would seek to help Ball's transition. 2018 Race for Howard County Executive2014 Race for Howard County Executive2010 Race for Maryland State Senate – District 92006 Race for Maryland State Senate – District 9 Allan Kittleman

1962–63 Colchester United F.C. season

The 1962–63 season was Colchester United's 21st season in their history and their first season back in the third tier of English football following promotion from the Fourth Division the previous season. Alongside competing in the Third Division, the club participated in the FA Cup and the League Cup. Colchester consolidated their Third Division return by finishing mid-table. In the cups, they bowed out in the first round of the FA Cup to Isthmian League side Wimbledon, while they overcame Watford in the first round of the League Cup only to crash out to Northampton Town in the second. Despite debts of £2,000, the club were not prepared to sell prize forward Bobby Hunt when Newcastle United came in with an offer of £17,000. During the season, Colchester made their television debut when they featured in the new Anglia Television programme Match of the Week. Highlights were shown on 13 October 1962 of Colchester's Layer Road defeat to Crystal Palace. Martyn King was back on top of the scoring charts for Colchester, leading the way with 26 league goals, Hunt following up with 19.

With the defence shipping 93 goals across the season, a mid-table finish loomed for Colchester on their return to the Third Division after just one year away. However, in the FA Cup, they were ousted by Isthmian League Wimbledon in the first round, while they experienced a second round exit in the League Cup to Northampton Town; as of match played 17 May 1963. Total spending: ~ £ 8,750 Total incoming: ~. Players making their first-team Colchester United debut in a competitive match. List of Colchester United F. C. seasons Books Whitehead, Jeff. The Who's Who of Colchester United: The Layer Road Years. Derby: Breedon Books. ISBN 978-1-85983-629-3. Kent, Jeff; the Valiants' Years: The Story of Port Vale. Stafford: Witan Books. ISBN 0-9508981-4-7. Websites "Colchester United football club match record: 1963". Retrieved 30 April 2016. "TigerBase – Season View". TigerBase. Retrieved 30 April 2016. "Statistics 1962/63". The Millwall History Files. Retrieved 30 April 2016. "1960/61 to 1969/70". Watford Football Club archive 1881–2015.

Archived from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2016

Charles Q. Tirrell

Charles Quincy Tirrell was a U. S. Representative from Massachusetts. Born in Sharon, Tirrell attended the common schools and studied law at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, where he graduated in 1866, he served as principal of Peacham Academy for one year and of the high school at St. Johnsbury, for two years, he commenced practice in Boston, Massachusetts. He served as member of the State house of representatives in 1872, he moved to Natick, Massachusetts, in 1873. He served in the State senate in 1881 and 1882. Tirrell was elected as a Republican to the Fifty-seventh and to the four succeeding Congresses and served from March 4, 1901, until his death in Natick, July 31, 1910, he was interred in Dell Park Cemetery. List of United States Congress members who died in office Who's who in State Politics, 1908 Practical Politics p. 21. United States Congress. "Charles Q. Tirrell". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Charles Q. Tirrell, late a representative from Massachusetts, Memorial addresses delivered in the House of Representatives and Senate frontispiece 1911 This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website

Sorry (Grace Jones song)

"Sorry" is a single by Jamaican singer and actress Grace Jones, released in 1976. "Sorry" was Jones' second single, released before her international breakthrough, on the Orfeus label in France and Beam Junction in the US. The single B-side was "That's the Trouble", released as an A-side track. In certain territories the single was released as a double A-side single. Both songs appeared on Jones' debut album Portfolio. Both the original single version and the instrumental of "That's the Trouble" remain unreleased on CD; the extended 12" mixes of both tracks were released on Grace's box set Disco. 7" single A. "Sorry" – 3:58 B. "That's the Trouble" – 3:3012" single A. "Sorry" – 6:42 B. "That's the Trouble" – 7:02 12" single A. "That's the Trouble" – 7:02 B. "Sorry" – 6:437" single A. "That's the Trouble" – 3:36 B. "Sorry" – 4:00 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics