Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3. It is a salt of potassium ions K+ and nitrate ions NO3−. It occurs as a mineral niter and is a solid source of nitrogen. Potassium nitrate is one of several nitrogen-containing compounds collectively referred to as saltpeter or saltpetre, major uses of potassium nitrate are in fertilizers, tree stump removal, rocket propellants and fireworks. It is one of the constituents of gunpowder and has been used since the Middle Ages as a food preservative. Potassium nitrate, because of its early and global use and production, has many names, by the 15th century, Europeans referred to it as saltpeter and as nitrate of potash, as the chemistry of the compound was more fully understood. The Arabs called it Chinese snow and it was called Chinese salt by the Iranians/Persians or salt from Chinese salt marshes. Potassium nitrate has a crystal structure at room temperature, which transforms to a trigonal system at 129 °C. Potassium nitrate is soluble in water, but its solubility increases with temperature.
The aqueous solution is almost neutral, exhibiting pH6.2 at 14 °C for a 10% solution of commercial powder and it is not very hygroscopic, absorbing about 0. 03% water in 80% relative humidity over 50 days. It is insoluble in alcohol and is not poisonous, it can react explosively with reducing agents and this was used for the manufacture of gunpowder and explosive devices. The terminology used by al-Rammah indicated a Chinese origin for the gunpowder weapons about which he wrote, at least as far back as 1845, Chilean saltpeter deposits were exploited in Chile and California, USA. A major natural source of nitrate was the deposits crystallizing from cave walls. Extraction is accomplished by immersing the guano in water for a day, traditionally, guano was the source used in Laos for the manufacture of gunpowder for Bang Fai rockets. Perhaps the most exhaustive discussion of the production of material is the 1862 LeConte text. He was writing with the purpose of increasing production in the Confederate States to support their needs during the American Civil War.
Since he was calling for the assistance of rural farming communities and he details the French Method, along with several variations, as well as a Swiss method. Many references have been made to a method using only straw and urine, LeConte describes a process using only urine and not dung, referring to it as the Swiss method
Static electricity is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material. The charge remains until it is able to move away by means of a current or electrical discharge. Static electricity is named in contrast with current electricity, which flows through wires or other conductors, a static electric charge can be created whenever two surfaces contact and separate, and at least one of the surfaces has a high resistance to electric current. The familiar phenomenon of a static shock–more specifically, an electrostatic discharge–is caused by the neutralization of charge, materials are made of atoms that are normally electrically neutral because they contain equal numbers of positive charges and negative charges. The phenomenon of static electricity requires a separation of positive and negative charges, when two materials are in contact, electrons may move from one material to the other, which leaves an excess of positive charge on one material, and an equal negative charge on the other.
When the materials are separated they retain this charge imbalance and this is known as the triboelectric effect and results in one material becoming positively charged and the other negatively charged. The polarity and strength of the charge on a material once they are separated depends on their positions in the triboelectric series. The triboelectric effect is the cause of static electricity as observed in everyday life. Contact-induced charge separation causes your hair to stand up and causes static cling, pressure-induced charge separation Applied mechanical stress generates a separation of charge in certain types of crystals and ceramics molecules. Heat-induced charge separation Heating generates a separation of charge in the atoms or molecules of certain materials, all pyroelectric materials are piezoelectric. The atomic or molecular properties of heat and pressure response are closely related, charge-induced charge separation A charged object brought close to an electrically neutral object causes a separation of charge within the neutral object.
Charges of the same polarity are repelled and charges of the opposite polarity are attracted, as the force due to the interaction of electric charges falls off rapidly with increasing distance, the effect of the closer charges is greater and the two objects feel a force of attraction. The effect is most pronounced when the object is an electrical conductor as the charges are more free to move around. Careful grounding of part of an object with a charge separation can permanently add or remove electrons, leaving the object with a global. This process is integral to the workings of the Van de Graaff generator, removing or preventing a buildup of static charge can be as simple as opening a window or using a humidifier to increase the moisture content of the air, making the atmosphere more conductive. Air ionizers can perform the same task, fabric softeners and dryer sheets used in washing machines and clothes dryers are an example of an antistatic agent used to prevent and remove static cling.
Many semiconductor devices used in electronics are particularly sensitive to static discharge, conductive antistatic bags are commonly used to protect such components. People who work on circuits that contain these devices often ground themselves with an antistatic strap
Thermite is a pyrotechnic composition of metal powder and metal oxide. When ignited by heat, thermite undergoes an exothermic reduction-oxidation reaction, most varieties are not explosive but can create brief bursts of high temperature in a small area. Its form of action is similar to that of other fuel-oxidizer mixtures, fuels include aluminium, titanium, zinc and boron. Aluminium is common because of its boiling point and low cost. Oxidizers include bismuth oxide, boron oxide, silicon oxide, chromium oxide, manganese oxide, iron oxide, iron oxide, copper oxide, the reaction, called the Goldschmidt process, is used for thermite welding, often used to join rail tracks. Thermites have used in metal refining, demolition of munitions. Some thermite-like mixtures are used as pyrotechnic initiators in fireworks, the reactants are commonly powdered and mixed with a binder to keep the material solid and prevent separation. Other metal oxides can be used, such as chromium oxide, the thermite reaction was discovered in 1893 and patented in 1895 by German chemist Hans Goldschmidt.
Consequently, the reaction is called the Goldschmidt reaction or Goldschmidt process. Goldschmidt was originally interested in producing very pure metals by avoiding the use of carbon in smelting, the first commercial application of thermite was the welding of tram tracks in Essen in 1899. Red iron oxide is the most common iron oxide used in thermite, other oxides are occasionally used, such as MnO2 in manganese thermite, Cr2O3 in chromium thermite, quartz in silicon thermite, or copper oxide in copper thermite, but only for specialized purposes. All of these examples use aluminium as the reactive metal, fluoropolymers can be used in special formulations, Teflon with magnesium or aluminium being a relatively common example. Magnesium/teflon/viton is another pyrolant of this type, combinations of dry ice and reducing agents such as magnesium and boron follow the same chemical reaction as with traditional thermite mixtures, producing metal oxides and carbon. Despite the very cold temperature of a dry ice thermite mixture, in principle, any reactive metal could be used instead of aluminium.
This is rarely done, because the properties of aluminium are nearly ideal for this reaction, It is by far the cheapest of the highly reactive metals. For example, in Dec 2014, tin was 19,830 USD/Metric Ton, zinc was 2,180 USD/MT and aluminium was 1,910 USD/MT It forms a passivation layer making it safer to handle than many other reactive metals. Its relatively low melting point means that it is easy to melt the metal, so that the reaction can occur mainly in the liquid phase and thus proceeds fairly quickly. Its high boiling point enables the reaction to reach high temperatures
A firecracker is a small explosive device primarily designed to produce a large amount of noise, especially in the form of a loud bang, any visual effect is incidental to this goal. They have fuses, and are wrapped in a paper casing to contain the explosive compound. Firecrackers, along with fireworks, originated in China, the predecessor of the firecracker was a type of heated bamboo, used as early as 200 BC, that exploded when heated continuously. The Chinese name for firecrackers, literally means exploding bamboo, after the invention of gunpowder, gunpowder firecrackers had a shape that resembled bamboo and produced a similar sound, so the name exploding bamboo was retained. In traditional Chinese culture, firecrackers were used to scare off evil spirits, Firecrackers are generally made of cardboard or plastic, with flash powder or black powder as the propellant. This is not always the case, anything from match heads to lighter fluid have been used successfully in making firecrackers. The key to loud firecrackers, although in part lying in the propellant substance, is pressure, the entire firecracker must be very tightly packed in order for it to work best.
Flash powder, does not need to be packed tightly, james Dyer Ball, in his book Things Chinese, has a detailed description about the process and material used for making firecrackers at the end of the 19th century. The bamboo paper was cut into strips of 14 inches long and 1⁄3 inch wide, laid on a table, the firecracker tubes were made from pieces of straw paper wrapped around iron rods of various diameters and tightened with a special tool. In Wales the slang term for a firecracker, typically used on Guy Fawkes Night, is a jacky-jumper, Firecrackers, as well as other types of explosives, are subject to various laws in many countries, although firecrackers themselves are not usually considered illegal contraband material. The use of firecrackers, although a part of celebration, has over the years led to many injuries. These rules require a permit from the government, as well as any relevant local bodies such as maritime or aviation authorities and hospitals, schools. Canada — Firecrackers are not authorized under the Explosives Act, thus making importation, transportation, storage, or manufacturing illegal in Canada.
It came out that the children inside the tent had actually been smoking and, Fireworks are still legal to buy for anyone 18 years of age or over. Mainland China — As of 2008, most urban areas in mainland China permit firecrackers, in the first three days of the traditional New Year, it is a tradition that people compete with each other by playing with firecrackers. However, many urban areas banned them in the 1990s, for example, they were banned in Beijings urban districts from 1993 to 2005. In 2004,37 people were killed in a stampede when four million people gathered for a rumored Lantern Festival firework display in nearby Miyun, since the ban was lifted, the firecracker barrage has been tremendous. An unusual feature is that residents in major cities look down on street-level fireworks from their tower blocks
The terms underground press or clandestine press refer to periodicals and publications that are produced without official approval, illegally or against the wishes of a dominant group. It can refer to the newspapers produced independently in repressive regimes, in German occupied Europe, for example, a thriving underground press operated, usually in association with the Resistance. Other notable examples include the samizdat and bibuła, which operated in the Soviet Union and Poland respectively, each paper was the organ of a separate resistance network, and funds were provided from Allied headquarters in London and distributed to the different papers by resistance leader Jean Moulin. Allied prisoners of war published a newspaper called Pow wow. In Eastern Europe, approximately the 1940, underground publications were known by the name samizdat. The countercultural underground press movement of the 1960s borrowed the name from previous underground presses such as the Dutch underground press during the Nazi occupations of the 1940s and those predecessors were truly underground, meaning they were illegal, thus published and distributed covertly.
Published as weeklies, monthlies, or occasionals, and usually associated with left-wing politics, they evolved on the one hand into todays alternative weeklies and on the other into zines. The most prominent underground publication in Australia was a magazine called Oz. The original Australian edition appeared in 1963 and it continued sporadically until 1969, richard Neville arrived in London from Australia where he had edited Oz. He launched a British version, which was A4, very quickly, the relaunched Oz shed its more austere satire magazine image and became a mouthpiece of the Underground. It was the most colourful and visually adventurous of the alternative press, Other publications followed, such as Friends, based in the Ladbroke Grove area of London, which was more overtly political, and Gandalfs Garden which espoused the mystic path. Neville published an account of the counterculture called Playpower, in which he described most of the underground publications. The underground press offered a platform to the socially impotent and mirrored the changing way of life in the UK underground, the police campaign may have had an effect contrary to that which was presumably intended.
If anything, according to one or two who were there at the time, it made the underground press stronger. It focused attention, stiffened resolve, and tended to confirm that what we were doing was considered dangerous to the establishment, remembered Mick Farren. From April 1967, and for some later, the police raided the offices of International Times to try, it was alleged. In order to raise money for IT a benefit event was put together, on one occasion - in the wake of yet another raid on IT - Londons alternative press succeeded in pulling off what was billed as a reprisal attack on the police. The paper Black Dwarf published a detailed floor-by-floor Guide to Scotland Yard, complete with diagrams, descriptions of locks on particular doors, and snippets of overheard conversation
Pyrotechnics is the science of using materials capable of undergoing self-contained and self-sustained exothermic chemical reactions for the production of heat, gas, smoke and/or sound. Its etymology stems from the Greek words pyro and tekhnikos, individuals responsible for the safe storage and functioning of pyrotechnic devices are referred to as pyrotechnicians. Proximate refers to the devices location relative to an audience. In the majority of jurisdictions, special training and licensing must be obtained from local authorities to legally prepare, many musical groups use pyrotechnics to enhance their live shows. Pink Floyd were without a doubt the innovators of pyrotechnic use in concerts, for instance, at the climax of their song Careful with That Axe, Eugene, a blast of smoke was set off at the back of the stage. Bands such as The Who, KISS and Queen, soon followed use of pyrotechnics in their shows, michael Jackson attempted using pyrotechnics in a 1984 Pepsi advertisement, where a stray spark caused a small fire in his hair.
German industrial metal band Rammstein are renowned for their variety of pyrotechnics. Nightwish and Green Day are known for their vivid pyrotechnics in concert, many professional wrestlers have used pyrotechnics as part of their entrances to the ring. Modern pyrotechnics are, in general, divided into categories based upon the type of effect produced or manufacturing method, the most common categories are, Airburst - Hanging charges designed to burst into spheres of sparks. Binary powders - Kits divided into separate oxidizer and fuel, intended to be mixed on site, comet - Brightly colored burning pellets resembling shooting stars. Mine - Tubes containing a lift charge intended to project stars, preloaded Smoke Pot - Cartridges designed to release a mushroom cloud of smoke. Concussion - Device designed to create a loud report, falls - Propellant with titanium burning in an open ended tube creating a falling spark effect. Fireballs / Mortar Hits - Short barreled device projecting smoky rolling ball of flame, flame Projector - Tube containing nitrocellulose granules that burn in pillars of colored flame.
Flare - Short, high intensity flames or various colours, flash Cotton - Nitrated cotton string. Flashpaper - Sheets of nitrated paper resembling tissue paper, flash Pot - Short metal pot used with binary powders creating flash, smoke or sparks. Flash Tray - A long tube slit down one side to project a sheet of flash, gerb - A fountain of sparks. Lance - A Small colored flare tube used in making points of light lancework or pictures in fire, line Rockets - Whistling or colored rocket devices that travel along guide cables. Multi-Tube Article - Multiple effects chained together, pre-Mixed Powder - Powders intended to create various effects
Magic is one of the oldest performing arts in the world in which audiences are entertained by staged tricks or illusions of seemingly impossible or supernatural feats using natural means. These feats are called magic tricks, effects, or illusions, the term magic etymologically derives from the Greek word mageia. In ancient times and Persians had been at war for centuries, ritual acts of Persian priests came to be known as mageia, and magika—which eventually came to mean any foreign, unorthodox, or illegitimate ritual practice. The first book containing explanations of magic tricks appeared in 1584, during the 17th century, many similar books were published that described magic tricks. Until the 18th century, magic shows were a source of entertainment at fairs. A founding figure of modern entertainment magic was Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin, John Henry Anderson was pioneering the same transition in London in the 1840s. Towards the end of the 19th century, large magic shows permanently staged at big theatre venues became the norm, as a form of entertainment, magic easily moved from theatrical venues to television magic specials.
Performances that modern observers would recognize as conjuring have been practiced throughout history, for many recorded centuries, magicians were associated with the devil and the occult. During the 19th and 20th centuries, many stage magicians even capitalized on this notion in their advertisements. The same level of ingenuity that was used to produce famous ancient deceptions such as the Trojan Horse would have used for entertainment. They were used by the practitioners of various religions and cults from ancient times onwards to frighten uneducated people into obedience or turn them into adherents, the profession of the illusionist gained strength only in the 18th century, and has enjoyed several popular vogues since. Opinions vary among magicians on how to categorize a given effect, Magicians may pull a rabbit from an empty hat, make something seem to disappear, or transform a red silk handkerchief into a green silk handkerchief. Magicians may destroy something, like cutting a head off, other illusions include making something appear to defy gravity, making a solid object appear to pass through another object, or appearing to predict the choice of a spectator.
Many magical routines use combinations of effects, one of the earliest books on the subject is Gantzionys work of 1489, Natural and Unnatural Magic, which describes and explains old-time tricks. Among the tricks discussed were sleight-of-hand manipulations with rope, paper, at the time and belief in witchcraft was widespread and the book tried to demonstrate that these fears were misplaced. All obtainable copies were burned on the accession of James I in 1603 and it began to reappear in print in 1651. In the early 18th century, as belief in witchcraft was waning, a notable figure in this transition was the English showman, Isaac Fawkes, who began to promote his act in advertisements from the 1720s – he even claimed to have performed for King George II. He throws up a Pack of Cards, and causes them to be living birds flying about the room and he causes living Beasts and other Creatures to appear upon the Table
Potassium perchlorate is the inorganic salt with the chemical formula KClO4. Like other perchlorates, this salt is a strong oxidizer although it reacts very slowly with organic substances. It has been used as a rocket propellant, although in that application it has mostly been replaced by the higher performance ammonium perchlorate. KClO4 has the lowest solubility of the alkali metal perchlorates, KClO4 is prepared industrially by treating an aqueous solution of sodium perchlorate with KCl. This single precipitation reaction exploits the low solubility of KClO4, which is about 100 times less than the solubility of NaClO4. It can be produced by the reaction of perchloric acid with potassium hydroxide, however, KClO4 is an oxidizer in the sense that it exothermically transfers oxygen to combustible materials, greatly increasing their rate of combustion relative to that in air. With sugar, KClO4 yields a low explosive, provided the necessary confinement, otherwise such mixtures simply deflagrate with an intense purple flame characteristic of potassium.
Flash compositions used in firecrackers usually consist of a mixture of aluminium powder and this mixture, sometimes called flash powder, is used in ground and air fireworks. As an oxidizer, potassium perchlorate can be used safely in the presence of sulfur, the greater reactivity of chlorate is typical – perchlorates are kinetically poorer oxidants. Chlorate produces chloric acid, which is unstable and can lead to premature ignition of the composition. Correspondingly, perchloric acid is quite stable, potassium perchlorate can be used as an antithyroid agent used to treat hyperthyroidism, usually in combination with one other medication. This application exploits the similar ionic radius and hydrophilicity of perchlorate, the administration of known goitrogen substances can be used as a prevention in reducing the bio-uptake of iodine. Perchlorate ions, a common contaminant in the USA due to the aerospace industry, has been shown to reduce iodine uptake. Perchlorate ions are a competitive inhibitor of the process by which iodide, is deposited into thyroid follicular cells.
Current regimens for treatment of thyrotoxicosis, when a patient is exposed to sources of Iodine. Prophylaxis with perchlorate containing water at concentrations of 17 ppm, which corresponds to 0, studies of chronically exposed workers though have thus far failed to detect any abnormalities of thyroid function, including the uptake of iodine. This may well be attributable to sufficient daily exposure or intake of healthy Iodine-127 among the workers and the short 8 hr Biological half life of Perchlorate in the body. Perchlorate ion concentrations in a water supply, would need to be much higher
The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, song and dance. Elements of art, such as painted scenery and stagecraft such as lighting are used to enhance the physicality, the specific place of the performance is named by the word theatre as derived from the Ancient Greek θέατρον, itself from θεάομαι. Modern theatre, broadly defined, includes performances of plays and musical theatre, there are connections between theatre and the art forms of ballet and various other forms. The city-state of Athens is where western theatre originated, participation in the city-states many festivals—and mandatory attendance at the City Dionysia as an audience member in particular—was an important part of citizenship. The Greeks developed the concepts of dramatic criticism and theatre architecture, Actors were either amateur or at best semi-professional. The theatre of ancient Greece consisted of three types of drama, tragedy and the satyr play, the origins of theatre in ancient Greece, according to Aristotle, the first theoretician of theatre, are to be found in the festivals that honoured Dionysus.
The performances were given in semi-circular auditoria cut into hillsides, capable of seating 10, the stage consisted of a dancing floor, dressing room and scene-building area. Since the words were the most important part, good acoustics, the actors wore masks appropriate to the characters they represented, and each might play several parts. Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance-drama that formed an important part of the culture of the city-state. Having emerged sometime during the 6th century BCE, it flowered during the 5th century BCE, no tragedies from the 6th century BCE and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in during the 5th century BCE have survived. We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus and Euripides, the origins of tragedy remain obscure, though by the 5th century BCE it was institution alised in competitions held as part of festivities celebrating Dionysus. As contestants in the City Dionysias competition playwrights were required to present a tetralogy of plays, the performance of tragedies at the City Dionysia may have begun as early as 534 BCE, official records begin from 501 BCE, when the satyr play was introduced.
More than 130 years later, the philosopher Aristotle analysed 5th-century Athenian tragedy in the oldest surviving work of dramatic theory—his Poetics, Athenian comedy is conventionally divided into three periods, Old Comedy, Middle Comedy, and New Comedy. Old Comedy survives today largely in the form of the surviving plays of Aristophanes. New Comedy is known primarily from the papyrus fragments of Menander. Aristotle defined comedy as a representation of people that involves some kind of blunder or ugliness that does not cause pain or disaster. In addition to the categories of comedy and tragedy at the City Dionysia, finding its origins in rural, agricultural rituals dedicated to Dionysus, the satyr play eventually found its way to Athens in its most well-known form. Satyrs themselves were tied to the god Dionysus as his loyal companions, often engaging in drunken revelry
A flare or decoy flare is an aerial infrared countermeasure used by a plane or helicopter to counter an infrared homing surface-to-air missile or air-to-air missile. Flares are commonly composed of a composition based on magnesium or another hot-burning metal. The aim is to make the infrared-guided missile seek out the signature from the flare rather than the aircrafts engines. In contrast to radar-guided missiles, IR-guided missiles are very difficult to find as they approach aircraft and they do not emit detectable radar, and they are generally fired from a rear visual-aspect, directly toward the engines. In most cases, pilots have to rely on their wingmen to spot the missiles smoke trail, more advanced electro-optical systems can detect missile launches automatically from the distinct thermal emissions of a missiles rocket motor. The aircraft would pull away at an angle from the flare. Optimally, the seeker head is confused by this change in temperature and flurry of new signatures. The most modern IR-guided missiles have sophisticated on-board electronics that help discriminate between flares and targets, reducing the effectiveness of countermeasures, flare dispensers are now fitted to helicopters.
Indeed almost all of the UKs helicopters, whether they are transport or attack models, are equipped with flare dispenser or missile approach warning systems, the US armed forces have adopted defensive technology on their helicopters. This caused concerns in some European countries, which proceeded to ban such aircraft from landing at their airports, a flare goes through three main stages, ignition and decoying. Most flares, like the MJU-27A/B flares, must be kept in a storage compartment before deployment. These flares, known as flares, are made of special materials that ignite when they come in contact with the air. This is a safety and convenience factor, since attempting to ignite a flare inside the fuselage, flares are most commonly gravity-fed from a dispenser inside the aircrafts fuselage. These dispensers can be programmed by the pilot or ground crew to dispense flares in short intervals, one at a time, long intervals, or in clusters. Most currently used flares are of the variety, and thus the dispensers do not have to ignite.
With pyrotechnic flares, a lanyard automatically pulls off a friction cap covering the end of the flare as it falls from the dispenser. A friction surface inside the cap rubs against the end of the flare. Flares burn at thousands of degrees, which is hotter than the exhaust of a jet engine
Potassium chlorate is a compound containing potassium and oxygen atoms, with the molecular formula KClO3. In its pure form, it is a crystalline substance. It is the most common chlorate in industrial use, on the industrial scale, potassium chlorate is produced by the Liebig process, passing chlorine into hot calcium hydroxide, subsequently adding potassium chloride. The low solubility of KClO3 in water causes the salt to conveniently isolate itself from the mixture by simply precipitating out of solution. It continues in that application, where not supplanted by potassium perchlorate, chlorate-based propellants are more efficient than traditional gunpowder and are less susceptible to damage by water. However, they can be unstable in the presence of sulfur or phosphorus and are much more expensive. Chlorate propellants must be used only in equipment designed for them, potassium chlorate, often in combination with silver fulminate, is used in trick noise-makers known as crackers, pop-its, or bang-snaps, a popular type of novelty firework.
Another application of potassium chlorate is as the oxidizer in a composition such as that used in smoke grenades. Since 2005, a cartridge with potassium chlorate mixed with lactose, potassium chlorate is often used in high school and college laboratories to generate oxygen gas. It is a far cheaper source than a pressurized or cryogenic oxygen tank, potassium chlorate readily decomposes if heated while in contact with a catalyst, typically manganese dioxide. Thus, it may be placed in a test tube. If the test tube is equipped with a stopper and hose. Molten potassium chlorate is a powerful oxidizer and spontaneously reacts with many common materials such as sugar. Explosions have resulted from liquid chlorates spattering into the latex or PVC tubes of oxygen generators, impurities in potassium chlorate itself can cause problems. When working with a new batch of potassium chlorate, it is advisable to take a small sample, contamination may cause this small quantity to explode, indicating that the chlorate should be discarded.
Potassium chlorate is used in chemical oxygen generators, employed as oxygen-supply systems of e. g. aircraft, space stations, and submarines, a fire on the space station Mir was traced to this substance. The decomposition of potassium chlorate was used to provide the oxygen supply for limelights, potassium chlorate is used as a pesticide. In Finland it was sold under trade name Fegabit, in schools, molten potassium chlorate is used in the dramatic screaming jelly babies demonstration