A flashlight is a portable hand-held electric light. The source of the light is an incandescent light bulb or light-emitting diode. A typical flashlight consists of the light source mounted in a reflector, a transparent cover to protect the light source and reflector, a battery, a switch; these are protected by a case. The invention of the dry cell and miniature incandescent electric lamps made the first battery-powered flashlights possible around 1899. Today, flashlights use incandescent lamps or light-emitting diodes and run on disposable or rechargeable batteries; some are powered by the user turning a crank or shaking the lamp, some have solar panels to recharge a battery. In addition to the general-purpose hand-held flashlight, many forms have been adapted for special uses. Head or helmet-mounted flashlights designed for miners and campers leave the hands free; some flashlights can be used underwater or in flammable atmospheres. Flashlights are used as a light source when during power outages.
Early flashlights ran on zinc-carbon batteries, which could not provide a steady electric current and required periodic "rest" to continue functioning. Because these early flashlights used energy-inefficient carbon-filament bulbs, "resting" occurred at short intervals, they could be used only in brief flashes, hence the common North American name "flashlight". The first dry cell battery was invented in 1887. Unlike previous batteries, it used a paste electrolyte instead of a liquid; this was the first battery suitable for portable electrical devices, as it did not spill or break and worked in any orientation. The first mass-produced dry cell batteries came in 1896, the invention of portable electric lights soon followed. Portable hand-held electric lights offered advantages in convenience and safety over torches and lanterns; the electric lamp was odorless and emitted less heat than combustion-powered lighting. It could be turned on and off, avoided fire risk. On January 10, 1899, British inventor David Misell obtained U.
S. Patent No. 617,592, assigned to American Electrical Novelty and Manufacturing Company. This "electric device" designed by Misell was powered by "D" batteries laid front to back in a paper tube with the light bulb and a rough brass reflector at the end; the company donated some of these devices to the New York City police, who responded favorably to them. Carbon-filament bulbs and crude dry cells made early flashlights an expensive novelty with low sales and low manufacturer interest. Development of the tungsten-filament lamp in 1904, with three times the efficacy of carbon filament types, improved batteries, made flashlights more useful and popular; the advantage of instant control, the absence of flame, meant that hand-held electric lights began to replace combustion-based lamps such as the hurricane lantern. By 1922 several types were available. In 1922 there were an estimated 10 million flashlight users in the United States, with annual sales of renewal batteries and flashlights at $20 million, comparable to sales of many line-operated electrical appliances.
Flashlights became popular in China. Miniature lamps developed for flashlight and automotive uses became an important sector of the incandescent lamp manufacturing business. LED flashlights were made in the early 2000s. Maglite made their first LED flashlight in 2006. Incandescent flashlights use incandescent light bulbs which consists of a glass bulb and a tungsten filament; the bulbs are under vacuum or filled with krypton or xenon. Some high-power incandescent flashlights use a halogen lamp where the bulb contains a halogen gas such as iodine or bromine to improve the life and efficacy of the bulb. In all but disposable or novelty flashlights, the bulb is user-replaceable; the light output of an incandescent lamp in a flashlight varies depending on the type of lamp. A miniature keychain lamp produces two lumens. A two D-cell flashlight using a common prefocus-style miniature lamp will produce on the order of 15 to 20 lumens of light and a beam of about 200 candlepower. One popular make of rechargeable focusing flashlight produces 218 lumens.
By comparison, a 60-watt household incandescent lamp will produce about 900 lumens. The luminous efficacy or lumens produced per watt of input of flashlight bulbs varies over the approximate range of 8 to 22 lumens/watt, depending on the size of the bulb and the fill gas, with halogen-filled 12-volt lamps having the highest efficacy. Powerful white-light-emitting diodes s are replacing incandescent bulbs in practical flashlights. LEDs existed for decades as low-power indicator lights. In 1999, Lumileds Corporation of San Jose, introduced the Luxeon LED, a high-power white-light emitter; this made possible LED flashlights with running time better than incandescent lights. The first Luxeon LED flashlight was the Arc LS, designed in 2001. White LEDs in 5 mm diameter packages produce only a few lumens each. LEDs, drawing more than 100 milliamperes each, simplify the optical design problem of producing a powerful and tightly-controlled beam. LEDs can be more efficient than incandescent lamps, with
Rugby Club Județean Farul Constanța was a Romanian semi-professional rugby union club from Constanța, which played continuously from 1970 until 2014 in the Romanian Rugby Championship, the first division of Romanian rugby. The team withdrew from the Romanian top tier competition before 2015 edition and disbanded, it was recognized as the best Romanian club outside Bucharest, being in each competitional year in the top 4. They were the first and only Romanian team to enter the Heineken Cup, during its first season, in 1995–96, notably playing the inaugural match of Heineken Cup against Toulouse in Constanța Divizia Naţională: Winners: 1975, 1976, 1978, 1986, 1995, 1997 Malakai Ravulo Nemia Kenatale Jonetani Ralulu Daniel Crichton Eugene Jantjies Renaud Van Neel Vlad Badalicescu Nicolae Nere Petru Tamba Otar Turashvili Cristian Petre Constantin Gheară Ionel Cazan Florin Vlaicu Adrian Apostol Ciorbac Gabriel Zaharia Alexandru Fédération Roumaine de Rugby Romanian Rugby PlanetaOvala.ro - Romanian Rugby News
The Decrees of the President of the Republic and the Constitutional Decrees of the President of the Republic known as the Beneš decrees, were a series of laws drafted by the Czechoslovak government-in-exile in the absence of the Czechoslovak parliament during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in World War II. They were issued by President Edvard Beneš from 21 July 1940 to 27 October 1945 and retroactively ratified by the Interim National Assembly of Czechoslovakia on 6 March 1946; the decrees dealt with various aspects of the restoration of Czechoslovakia and its legal system and reconstruction of the country. In journalism and political history, the term "Beneš decrees" refer to the decrees of the president and the ordinances of the Slovak National Council concerning the status of ethnic Germans and others in postwar Czechoslovakia and represented Czechoslovakia's legal framework for the expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia; as a result, many ethnic Germans and Hungarians who had lived in Czechoslovakia for centuries prior to World War II or those who had settled there during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia lost their Czechoslovakian citizenship and property, in some cases died during the expulsion process which took place during the late 1940s.
The Beneš decrees were enforced differently in different parts of the country with some decrees being valid only in Bohemia and Moravia, while the ordinances of SNR were enforced in Slovakia. The decrees remain politically controversial in both Slovakia. Beneš, elected president of Czechoslovakia in 1935, resigned after the Munich Agreement in 1938. After the occupation of Czechoslovakia Beneš and other Czechoslovak politicians and officials emigrated to France, establishing the Czechoslovak National Committee, in November 1939, to restore Czechoslovakia; the committee's primary task was to establish a Czechoslovak army in France. After the fall of France the committee moved to London, where it became the Interim Czechoslovak Government; the government was recognized as the interim Czechoslovak government by Great Britain on 21 July 1940 and in 1941 it was recognized by the U. S. and the USSR as the government of the allied state. Since its recognition in 1940, the government issued the decrees to rule over Czechoslovak citizens abroad.
Beneš and other Czechoslovak politicians blamed the national minorities for the collapse of Czechoslovakia, why they wanted to create an ethnically homogeneous nation-state. According to the Czechoslovak constitution of 1920, the only body with power to issue the laws was the National Assembly with each law being contrasigned by the president; as there was no way to summon the parliament in the exile, the only body with limited legislative power was the office of the president. The legality of the whole government-in-exile was therefore derived from the person of Edvard Beneš who resigned his office in October 1938. Beneš returned to his post as president on the premise that his 1938 resignation under duress was invalid, he appointed members of the government-in-exile and the State Council. Because his presidential term should have ended in 1942, the government adopted a resolution that Beneš would remain president until new elections could be held. Although Beneš alone issued Decree No. 1/1940, all decrees were proposed by the government in exile according to the 1920 Czechoslovak constitution and co-signed by the prime minister or a delegated minister.
The decrees' validity was subject to ratification by the National Assembly. Beginning on September 1, 1944 the Slovak National Council held legislative and executive power in Slovakia differentiating between statewide acts and other regulations. On 4 April 1945 a new government was created in Košice, consisting of parties united in the National Front and influenced by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia; the president's power to enact decrees remained in force until 27 October 1945, when the Interim National Assembly convened. The decrees may be divided as follows: Although decrees were not covered by the 1920 constitution, they were considered necessary by the Czechoslovak wartime and postwar authorities. On ratification by the Interim National Assembly, they became binding laws with retroactive validity and attempted to preserve Czechoslovak legal order during the occupation. Most of the decrees were abolished by legislation or became obsolete by having served their purpose. Note: This list includes only decrees published in the official Collection of Laws of Czechoslovakia after the liberation in 1945.
Other decrees were ineffective in the liberated Czechoslovakia in 1945. The Beneš decrees are associated with the 1945-47 deportation of about 3 million ethnic Germans and Hungarians from Czechoslovakia; the deportation, based on Article 12 of the Potsdam Agreement, was the outcome of negotiations between the Allied Control Council and the Czechoslovak government. The expulsion is considered ethnic cleansing by a number of legal scholars; the relevant decrees omit any reference to the deportation. Of the allies, the Soviet Union urged the United Kingdom and the U. S. to agree to the transfer of ethnic Germans and German-speak
Pratigyabadh is a 1991 Indian Hindi-language film directed by Ravi Chopra. It stars Kumar Gaurav, Beena Banerjee, Neelam Kothari and Sunil Dutt. Pratigyabadh is the story of a simple man, his brother, their love and the hurdles they face in life. Mithun Chakraborty as Shankar Yadav Kumar Gaurav as Shakti Yadav Neelam Kothari as Shobhna Sunil Dutt as Pascal Beena Banerjee as Laxmi Baburam Yadav Shafi Inamdar as S. Merchant Anupam Kher as Tej Bahadur / Tejaa Manmauji as Havaldar Sujata Mehta as Phoolrani Yunus Parvez as Lala Kedarnath Sharat Saxena as Tarzan Girja Shankar as Lala Sukhilal Ashalata Wabgaonkar as Nun All songs are written by Hasan Kamal. Pratigyabadh on IMDb Cult of Kumar
The Mount St. Mary's Mountaineers are the athletic teams that represent Mount St. Mary's University in Emmitsburg, Maryland, their 22 teams include men and women's basketball, cross country, swimming & diving and track and field. The Mountaineers are members of the Northeast Conference. In 1962, Mount St. Mary's won the Division II championship at the NCAA Men's Division II Basketball Tournament by defeating the Sacramento State Hornets 58–57. In 2008, the Mountaineers defeated the Coppin State Eagles in the play-in game of the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament; this was the first Mount Saint Mary's win in the Division I tournament. The Mountaineers men's soccer team represented Mount St. Mary's University from 1953 and in the Northeast Conference of NCAA Division I college soccer from 1988 through 2012; the sport was discontinued for financial reasons following the 2012 season. On August 29, 2016, the university and the NCAA announced the return of the sport for the 2018 season. Official website
The Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act and Allow States and Victims to Fight Online Sex Trafficking Act are the U. S. Senate and House bills that as the FOSTA-SESTA package became law on April 11, 2018, they clarify the country's sex trafficking law to make it illegal to knowingly assist, facilitate, or support sex trafficking, amend the Section 230 safe harbors of the Communications Decency Act to exclude enforcement of federal or state sex trafficking laws from its immunity. Senate sponsor Rob Portman had led an investigation into the online classifieds service Backpage, argued that Section 230 was protecting its "unscrupulous business practices" and was not designed to provide immunity to websites that facilitate sex trafficking. SESTA received bipartisan support from U. S. senators, the Internet Association, as well as companies such as 21st Century Fox and Oracle, who supported the bill's goal to encourage proactive action against illegal sex trafficking. SESTA was criticized by pro-free speech groups for weakening section 230 safe harbors, alleging that it would make providers become liable for any usage of their platforms that facilitates sex trafficking, knowingly if they moderate for such content, with reckless disregard if they do not proactively take steps to prevent such usage.
SESTA was incorporated into the House version of the bill with the "Allow States and Victims to Fight Online Sex Trafficking Act" and the joint proposal was known as the "FOSTA-SESTA package". On February 27, 2018, the FOSTA-SESTA package was passed in the House of Representatives with a vote of 388-25. On March 21, 2018, the FOSTA-SESTA package bill passed the Senate with a vote of 97-2, with only senators Ron Wyden and Rand Paul voting against it; the bill was signed into law by President Donald Trump on April 11, 2018. The Section 230 safe harbor was established in 1996, making the providers of "interactive computer services" immune from liability under civil laws for the actions of their users if they publish objectionable content. Section 230 has been considered a key piece of internet legislation, as operators of online services that handle user-generated content are not liable for civil wrongs committed by their users, if the service was not directly involved in the offending content.
These provisions do not apply to intellectual property law. The Stop Advertising Victims of Exploitation Act made it illegal to advertise sex trafficking, knowingly benefit financially from participation in a venture that advertises sex trafficking, to engage in activities related to sex trafficking besides advertising, knowingly or in reckless disregard of the fact that sex trafficking is involved. In an op-ed, Portman cited numbers from the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, which showed an 846% increase in reports of suspected child sex trafficking to the organization from 2010 to 2015, he attributed this to Backpage, an online classifieds service, accused of knowingly accepting ads which facilitated child sex trafficking, filtered specific keywords in order to obfuscate it. The site had faced legal disputes, a government investigation spearheaded by Portman. Portman argued that Section 230 was being used to "protect its unscrupulous business practices", that Section 230 protections "were never intended to apply – and they should not apply – to companies that knowingly facilitate sex trafficking."
Attempts to stop Backpage and similar sites via the court system failed, as the Courts affirmed these sites has protection via Section 230, those seeking action failed to enjoin the U. S. Supreme Court to consider the matter; the Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act amends Section 1591 of Title 18 of the United States Code to add a definition of "participation in a venture", as knowingly assisting, facilitating, or supporting sex trafficking. It amends section 230 of Title 47 of the United States Code to state that it is policy to "ensure vigorous enforcement of Federal criminal and civil law relating to sex trafficking", that section 230 does not impair enforcement of "any State criminal prosecution or civil enforcement action targeting conduct that violates a Federal criminal law prohibiting ", nor "impair the enforcement or limit the application of section 1595 of title 18, United States Code." SESTA was co-sponsored by 27 Republican senators. Representative Mimi Walters stated that websites such as Backpage have become the "storefronts" for the modern-day slave trade and that the FOSTA-SESTA legislation will help prosecutors "crack down on websites that promote sex trafficking" as well as provide recourse for victims.
Representative Carolyn Maloney stated her support for the FOSTA-SESTA package, believing that "Congress must act to clarify that Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act was never meant to shield sex traffickers." The New Jersey Coalition Against Human Trafficking called the FOSTA-SESTA package a "groundbreaking bill" in the effort to bring justice to victims. The FOSTA-SESTA package is supported by other members of advocacy groups such as ECPAT Executive Director Carol Smolenski, Operation Texas Shield founder John Clark, Faith & Freedom Coalition Executive Director Timothy Head. 21st Century Fox and Oracle Corporation have pledged support for the bill.