Tandyr nan, tandir non, or tonur nan called lepyoshka, is a type of leavened Central Asian bread similar to naan. Obi non, or lepyoshka, is a kind of flatbread in Afghan and Uzbek cuisine, it is shaped like thicker than naan. Obi non are baked in clay ovens called tandyr. Tohax known as toqach or toghach, is a type of tandoor bread, it is consumed within the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China, as well as in many regions of Central Asia. Bazlama Matnakash Naan Taftan Tonis puri Taboon bread Tandoori roti
A tava, tapa, saj, or sac is a large flat, concave or convex disc-shaped frying pan made from metal sheet iron, cast iron, sheet steel or aluminium originating from the Indian subcontinent. It is used in Central, West Asia and the Indian subcontinent, for cooking a variety of flatbreads and as a frying pan, it sometimes refers to the ceramic frying pan. In West Asia, tava/saj are invariably convex, while in the Indian subcontinent all flat and concave versions are found. In nearly all Indo-Aryan languages such as Punjabi and Urdu tawaa means cooking pan and is used in the Indian subcontinent, it is cognate with the Persian word tāve, used in Iran, with the Georgian tapa. The word tava is used in Bosnian, Croatian and Turkish and refers to any kind of frying pan. In Bulgaria, flat ceramic сач or сачѐ are used for table-top cooking of thin slices of vegetables and meat. In Pashto it is more popularly known as Tabakhey. A tava or saj is used to bake a variety of leavened and unleavened flatbreads and pancakes across the broad region: pita, saj bread, chapati, paratha and pesarattu.
In Pakistan in rural areas, large convex saj are used to cook several breads at a same time or to make rumali roti. In the Indian subcontinent, tavas are used to fry foods called chaat, pav bhaji, taka tak bhaji, tawa bhaji, tava fry, tawa masala, etc. Meat is cooked on a saj; the traditional Georgian chicken tapaka is cooked on a tapa. Comal, a similar utensil in Mexican cuisine Mittad Mongolian barbecue, a Taiwanese grill dish sometimes using a saj-like frying pan. Sač, a cooking utensil used in the Balkans with a saj-shaped lid List of cooking vessels
Pita, sometimes spelled pitta, is a family of yeast-leavened round flatbreads baked from wheat flour, common in the Mediterranean, Middle East, neighboring areas. It includes the widely-known version with an interior pocket known as Arabic bread, Syrian bread, other names, as well as pocketless versions such as the Greek pita, used to wrap souvlaki. Pita bread has roots in the prehistoric flatbreads of the Middle East. There is evidence from 14,500 years ago, during the Stone Age, that the Natufian people in what is now Jordan made a kind of flatbread from wild cereal grains. Ancient wheat and barley were among the earliest domesticated crops in the Neolithic period of about 10,000 years ago, in the Fertile Crescent. By 4,000 years ago, bread was of central importance in societies such as the Babylonian culture of Mesopotamia, where the earliest-known written records and recipes of bread-making originate, where pita-like flatbreads cooked in a tinûru were a basic element of the diet, much the same as today's tandoor bread or taboon bread.
However, there is no record of the steam-puffed, two-layer "pocket pita" in the ancient texts, or in any of the medieval Arab cookbooks, according to food historians such as Charles Perry and Gil Marks it was a development. The first mention of the word in English cited in the Oxford English Dictionary was in 1936; the English word is borrowed from Modern Greek πίτα, in turn from the Byzantine Greek πίτα "bread, pie, pitta" and from the Ancient Greek πίττα or πίσσα "pitch/resin", or Ancient Greek πικτή, "fermented pastry", which may have passed to Latin as "picta" cf. pizza. It was received into Levantine Arabic. Other hypotheses trace the word back to the Classical Hebrew word patt פת, it is spelled like the Aramaic pittəṭā/pittā. Hypotheses exist for Germanic or Illyrian intermediaries; the word has been borrowed by Turkish as pide, appears in the Balkan languages as Serbo-Croatian pita, Romanian pită, Albanian pite, Bulgarian pitka or pita. In Arabic, the phrase خبز البيتا is sometimes used.
In Egypt, it is called meaning rustic, local, or rural bread. "'Aish" means life in Arabic, highlighting the importance of pita bread in Egyptian culture. In Greek it is called aravikē pita. Most pita are baked at high temperatures, which turns the water in the dough into steam, thus causing the pita to puff up and form a pocket; when removed from the oven, the layers of baked dough remain separated inside the deflated pita, which allows the bread to be opened to form a pocket. However, pita is sometimes baked without pockets and is called "pocket-less pita". Regardless of whether it is made at home or in a commercial bakery, pita is proofed for a short time—only 15 minutes. Modern commercial pita bread is prepared on advanced automatic lines; these lines have high production capacities, processing 100,000 pound silos of flour at a time and producing thousands of loaves per hour. The ovens used in commercial baking are much hotter than traditional clay ovens—800–900 °F —so each loaf is only baked for one minute.
The pita are air-cooled for about 20 minutes on conveyor belts before being shipped or else stored in commercial freezers kept at a temperature of 10 °F. Pita can be used to scoop sauces or dips, such as hummus, or to wrap kebabs, gyros, or falafel in the manner of sandwiches, it can be cut and baked into crispy pita chips. In Turkish cuisine, the word pide may refer to three different styles of bread: a flatbread similar to that eaten in Greece and Arab countries, a pizza-like dish where the filling is placed on the dough before baking, Ramazan pide; the first type of pide is used to wrap various styles of kebab, while the second is topped with cheese, ground meat, or other fresh or cured meats, and/or vegetables. Regional variations in the shape, baking technique, toppings create distinctive styles for each region. In Cyprus, pita is rounder and baked on a cast iron skillet, it is used for souvlakia, halloumi with lountza, gyros. In Greece the word pita means "pastry" and is used for various cakes and pastries like spanakopita and karydopita unrelated to the English language "pita" flatbread.
Such as the round καρβέλι the oblong φραντζόλα frantzóla. This style of pita flatbread, in the English language meaning of the word, is exclusively used as a wrap for pita-souvlaki or gyros with garnished with some combination of tzatziki sauce, tomatoes and french fries; the dictionary definition of pita at Wiktionary
Madeira the Autonomous Region of Madeira, is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal. It is an archipelago situated in southwest of Portugal, its total population was estimated in 2011 at 267,785. The capital of Madeira is Funchal, located on the main island's south coast; the archipelago is just under 400 kilometres north of Canary Islands. Bermuda and Madeira, a few time zones apart, are the only land in the Atlantic on the 32nd parallel north, it includes the islands of Madeira, Porto Santo, the Desertas, administered together with the separate archipelago of the Savage Islands. The region has political and administrative autonomy through the Administrative Political Statue of the Autonomous Region of Madeira provided for in the Portuguese Constitution; the autonomous region is an integral part of the European Union as an outermost region. Madeira was claimed by Portuguese sailors in the service of Prince Henry the Navigator in 1419 and settled after 1420; the archipelago is considered to be the first territorial discovery of the exploratory period of the Age of Discovery.
Today, it is a popular year-round resort, being visited every year by about 1.4 million tourists five times its population. The region is noted for its Madeira wine, gastronomy and cultural value and fauna, landscapes that are classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, embroidery artisans; the main harbour in Funchal has long been the leading Portuguese port in cruise liner dockings, receiving more than half a million tourists through its main port in 2017, being an important stopover for commercial and trans-Atlantic passenger cruises between Europe, the Caribbean and North Africa. In addition, the International Business Centre of Madeira known as the Madeira Free Trade Zone, was created formally in the 1980s as a tool of regional economic policy, it consists of a set of incentives tax-related, granted with the objective of attracting foreign direct investment based on international services into Madeira. Plutarch in his Parallel Lives referring to the military commander Quintus Sertorius, relates that after his return to Cádiz, he met sailors who spoke of idyllic Atlantic islands: "The islands are said to be two in number separated by a narrow strait and lie 10,000 furlongs from Africa.
They are called the Isles of the Blest."Archeological evidence suggests that the islands may have been visited by the Vikings sometime between 900 and 1030. During the reign of King Edward III of England, lovers Robert Machim and Anna d'Arfet were said to have fled from England to France in 1346. Driven off course by a violent storm, their ship ran aground along the coast of an island that may have been Madeira; this legend was the basis of the naming of the city of Machico on the island, in memory of the young lovers. Knowledge of some Atlantic islands, such as Madeira, existed before their formal discovery and settlement, as the islands were shown on maps as early as 1339. In 1418, two captains under service to Prince Henry the Navigator, João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira, were driven off course by a storm to an island they named Porto Santo in gratitude for divine deliverance from a shipwreck; the following year, an organised expedition, under the captaincy of Zarco, Vaz Teixeira, Bartolomeu Perestrello, traveled to the island to claim it on behalf of the Portuguese Crown.
Subsequently, the new settlers observed "a heavy black cloud suspended to the southwest." Their investigation revealed it to be the larger island. The first Portuguese settlers began colonizing the islands around 1420 or 1425. Grain production began to fall and the ensuing crisis forced Henry the Navigator to order other commercial crops to be planted so that the islands could be profitable; these specialised plants, their associated industrial technology, created one of the major revolutions on the islands and fuelled Portuguese industry. Following the introduction of the first water-driven sugar mill on Madeira, sugar production increased to over 6,000 arrobas by 1455, using advisers from Sicily and financed by Genoese capital; the accessibility of Madeira attracted Genoese and Flemish traders, who were keen to bypass Venetian monopolies. "By 1480 Antwerp had some seventy ships engaged in the Madeira sugar trade, with the refining and distribution concentrated in Antwerp. By the 1490s Madeira had overtaken Cyprus as a producer of sugar."
Sugarcane production was the primary engine of the island's economy, increasing the demand for labour. African slaves were used during portions of the island's history to cultivate sugar cane, the proportion of imported slaves reached 10% of the total population of Madeira by the 16th century. Barbary corsairs from North Africa, who enslaved Europeans from ships and coastal communities throughout the Mediterranean region, captured 1,200 people in Porto Santo in 1617. After the 17th century, as Portuguese sugar production was shifted to Brazil, São Tomé and Príncipe and elsewhere, Madeira's most important commodity product became its wine; the British first amicably occupied the island in 1801 whereafter Colonel William Henry Clinton became governor. A detachment of the 85th Regiment of Foot under Lieutenant-colonel James Willoughby Gordon garrisoned the island. After the Peace of Amiens, British troops withdrew in 1802, only to reoccupy Madeira in 1807 until the end of the Peninsular War in 1814.
On 31 December 1916, during the Great War, a Ge
Jordan the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, is an Arab country in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River. Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and Israel and Palestine to the west; the Dead Sea is located along its western borders and the country has a small coastline to the Red Sea in its extreme south-west, but is otherwise landlocked. Jordan is strategically located at the crossroads of Asia and Europe; the capital, Amman, is Jordan's most populous city as well as the country's economic and cultural centre. What is now Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period. Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age: Ammon and Edom. Rulers include the Nabataean Kingdom, the Roman Empire, the Ottoman Empire. After the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in 1916 during World War I, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned by Britain and France; the Emirate of Transjordan was established in 1921 by the Hashemite Emir, Abdullah I, the emirate became a British protectorate.
In 1946, Jordan became an independent state known as the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan, but was renamed in 1949 to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan after the country captured the West Bank during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and annexed it until it was lost to Israel in 1967. Jordan renounced its claim to the territory in 1988, became one of two Arab states to sign a peace treaty with Israel in 1994. Jordan is the Organisation of Islamic Co-operation; the sovereign state is a constitutional monarchy, but the king holds wide executive and legislative powers. Jordan is a small, semi-arid landlocked country with an area of 89,342 km2 and a population numbering 10 million, making it the 11th-most populous Arab country. Sunni Islam, practiced by around 95% of the population, is the dominant religion in Jordan and coexists with an indigenous Christian minority. Jordan has been referred to as an "oasis of stability" in a turbulent region, it has been unscathed by the violence that swept the region following the Arab Spring in 2010.
From as early as 1948, Jordan has accepted refugees from multiple neighbouring countries in conflict. An estimated 2.1 million Palestinian and 1.4 million Syrian refugees are present in Jordan as of a 2015 census. The kingdom is a refuge to thousands of Iraqi Christians fleeing persecution by ISIL. While Jordan continues to accept refugees, the recent large influx from Syria placed substantial strain on national resources and infrastructure. Jordan is classified as a country of "high human development" with an "upper middle income" economy; the Jordanian economy, one of the smallest economies in the region, is attractive to foreign investors based upon a skilled workforce. The country is a major tourist destination attracting medical tourism due to its well developed health sector. Nonetheless, a lack of natural resources, large flow of refugees and regional turmoil have hampered economic growth. Jordan takes its name from the Jordan River. While several theories for the origin of the river's name have been proposed, it is most plausible that it derives from the Semitic word Yarad, meaning "the descender", reflecting the river's declivity.
Much of the area that makes up modern Jordan was called Transjordan, meaning "across the Jordan", used to denote the lands east of the river. The Old Testament refers to the area as "the other side of the Jordan". Early Arab chronicles referred to the river as corresponding to the Semitic Yarden. Jund Al-Urdunn was a military district around the river in the early Islamic era. During the Crusades in the beginning of the second millennium, a lordship was established in the area under the name of Oultrejordain; the oldest evidence of hominid habitation in Jordan dates back at least 200,000 years. Jordan is rich in Paleolithic remains due to its location within the Levant where expansions of hominids out of Africa converged. Past lakeshore environments attracted different hominids, several remains of tools have been found from this period; the world's oldest evidence of bread-making was found in a 14,500 years old Natufian site in Jordan's northeastern desert. The transition from hunter-gatherer to establishing populous agricultural villages occurred during the Neolithic period.'Ain Ghazal, one such village located in today's eastern Amman, is one of the largest known prehistoric settlements in the Near East.
Dozens of plaster statues of the human form dating to 7250 BC were uncovered there and they are among the oldest found. Other than the usual Chalcolithic villages such as Tulaylet Ghassul in the Jordan Valley, a series of circular stone enclosures in the eastern basalt desert−whose purpose remains uncertain–have baffled archaeologists. Fortified towns and urban centers first emerged in the southern Levant early on in the Bronze Age. Wadi Feynan became a regional center for copper extraction, exploited on a large-scale to produce bronze. Trade and movement of people in the Middle East peaked and refining civilizations. Villages in Transjordan expanded in areas with reliable water resources and agricultural land. Ancient Egyptians controlled both banks of the Jordan River. During the Iron Age after the withdrawal of the Egyptians, Transjordan was home to Ammon and Moab, they spoke Semitic languages of the Canaanite group, an
Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities; the history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first. Modern agronomy, plant breeding, agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, technological developments have increased yields, while causing widespread ecological and environmental damage. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage.
Environmental issues include contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, antibiotic resistance, growth hormones in industrial meat production. Genetically modified organisms are used, although some are banned in certain countries; the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers and raw materials. Food classes include cereals, fruits, meat, milk and eggs. Over one-third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the number of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased over the centuries; the word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "field", which in its turn came from Greek αγρός, cultūra, "cultivation" or "growing". While agriculture refers to human activities, certain species of ant and ambrosia beetle cultivate crops. Agriculture is defined with varying scopes, in its broadest sense using natural resources to "produce commodities which maintain life, including food, forest products, horticultural crops, their related services".
Thus defined, it includes arable farming, animal husbandry and forestry, but horticulture and forestry are in practice excluded. The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, included a diverse range of taxa, in at least 11 separate centres of origin. Wild grains were eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Rice was domesticated in China between 11,500 and 6,200 BC with the earliest known cultivation from 5,700 BC, followed by mung and azuki beans. Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 11,000 years ago. Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan some 10,500 years ago. Pig production emerged in Eurasia, including Europe, East Asia and Southwest Asia, where wild boar were first domesticated about 10,500 years ago.
In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, llamas and guinea pigs. Sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago. Cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, was independently domesticated in Eurasia. In Mesoamerica, wild teosinte was bred into maize by 6,000 years ago. Scholars have offered multiple hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an initial period of intensification and increasing sedentism. Wild stands, harvested started to be planted, came to be domesticated. In Eurasia, the Sumerians started to live in villages from about 8,000 BC, relying on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and a canal system for irrigation. Ploughs appear in pictographs around 3,000 BC. Farmers grew wheat, vegetables such as lentils and onions, fruits including dates and figs.
Ancient Egyptian agriculture relied on its seasonal flooding. Farming started in the predynastic period at the end of the Paleolithic, after 10,000 BC. Staple food crops were grains such as wheat and barley, alongside industrial crops such as flax and papyrus. In India, wheat and jujube were domesticated by 9,000 BC, soon followed by sheep and goats. Cattle and goats were domesticated in Mehrgarh culture by 8,000–6,000 BC. Cotton was cultivated by the 5th-4th millennium BC. Archeological evidence indicates an animal-drawn plough from 2,500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilisation. In China, from the 5th century BC there was a nationwide granary system and widespread silk farming. Water-powered grain mills were in use followed by irrigation. By the late 2nd century, heavy ploughs had been developed with iron mouldboards; these spread westwards across Eurasia. Asian rice was domesticated 8,200–13,500 years ago – depending on the molecular clock estimate, used – on the Pearl River in southern China with a single genetic origin from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon
Einkorn wheat can refer either to the wild species of wheat, Triticum boeoticum, or to the domesticated form, Triticum monococcum. The wild and domesticated forms are either considered separate species, as here, or as subspecies: Triticum monococcum subsp. Boeoticum and T. monococcum subsp. Monococcum. Einkorn is a diploid species of hulled wheat, with tough glumes that enclose the grains; the cultivated form is similar to the wild, except that the ear stays intact when ripe and the seeds are larger. The domestic form is known as "petit épeautre" in French, "Einkorn" in German, "einkorn" or "littlespelt" in English, "piccolo farro" in Italian and "escanda menor" in Spanish; the name refers to the fact. Einkorn wheat was one of the first plants to be cultivated; the earliest clear evidence of the domestication of einkorn dates from 10,600 to 9,900 years before present from Çayönü and Cafer Höyük, two Early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B archaeological sites in southern Turkey. Remnants of einkorn were found with the iceman mummy Ötzi, dated to 3100 BCE.
Einkorn wheat grows wild in the hill country in the northern part of the Fertile Crescent and Anatolia although it has a wider distribution reaching into the Balkans and south to Jordan near the Dead Sea. It is a short variety of wild wheat less than 70 centimetres tall and is not productive of edible seeds; the principal difference between wild einkorn and cultivated einkorn is the method of seed dispersal. In the wild variety the seed head shatters and drops the kernels of wheat onto the ground; this facilitates a new crop of wheat. In the domestic variety, the seed head remains intact. While such a mutation may occur in the wild, it is not viable there in the long term: the intact seed head will only drop to the ground when the stalk rots, the kernels will not scatter but form a tight clump which inhibits germination and makes the mutant seedlings susceptible to disease, but harvesting einkorn with intact seed heads was easier for early human harvesters, who could manually break apart the seed heads and scatter any kernels not eaten.
Over time and through selection, conscious or unconscious, the human preference for intact seed heads created the domestic variety, which has larger kernels than wild einkorn. Domesticated einkorn thus requires human harvesting for its continuing existence; this process of domestication might have taken only 20 to 200 years with the end product a wheat easier for humans to harvest. Einkorn wheat is one alongside emmer wheat. Hunter gatherers in the Fertile Crescent may have started harvesting einkorn as long as 30,000 years ago, according to archaeological evidence from Syria. Although gathered from the wild for thousands of years, einkorn wheat was first domesticated 10,000 years BP in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A or B periods. Evidence from DNA fingerprinting suggests einkorn was first domesticated near Karaca Dağ in southeast Turkey, an area in which a number of PPNB farming villages have been found. An important characteristic facilitating the domestication of einkorn and other annual grains is that the plants are self-pollinating.
Thus, the desirable traits of einkorn could be perpetuated at less risk of cross-fertilization with wild plants which might have traits – e.g. smaller seeds, shattering seed heads, etc. – less desirable for human management. From the northern part of the Fertile Crescent, the cultivation of einkorn wheat spread to the Caucasus, the Balkans, central Europe. Einkorn wheat was more grown in cooler climates than emmer wheat, the other domesticated wheat. Cultivation of einkorn in the Middle East began to decline in favor of emmer wheat around 2000 BC. Cultivation of einkorn was never extensive in Italy, southern France, Spain. Einkorn continued to be cultivated in some areas of northern Europe throughout the Middle Ages and until the early part of the 20th century. Einkorn wheat is low-yielding but can survive on poor, marginal soils where other varieties of wheat will not, it is eaten boiled in whole grains or in porridge. Its flour lacks the rising characteristics desirable for bread. Einkorn, as with other ancient varieties of wheat, is grouped with "the covered wheats" as its kernels do not break free from its seed coat with threshing and it is, difficult to separate the husk from the seed.
Einkorn is a popular food in northern Provence. It is used for bulgur or as animal feed in mountainous areas of France, Italy, the former Yugoslavia and other countries. Einkorn has a higher percentage of protein than modern red wheats and is considered more nutritious because it has higher levels of fat, potassium and beta-carotene. None of the species and hybrids of wheat are suitable for people with gluten-related disorders, as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy. Australian scientists have succeeded in breeding the salt-tolerance feature of T. monococcum into durum wheat. Ancient Grain Varieties in Archaeology Wheat evolution: integrating archaeological and biological evidence