The Flemish Government is the executive branch of the Flemish Community and the Flemish Region of Belgium. It consists of a government cabinet, headed by the Minister-President and accountable to the Flemish Parliament, the public administration divided into 13 policy areas, each with an executive department and multiple agencies; the Flemish Government cabinet consists of up to a maximum of eleven ministers, chosen by the Flemish Parliament. At least one minister must come from Brussels; the ministers are drawn from the political parties. The Government is chaired by the Flemish Minister-President. Ministers head executive departments of the government administration. Ministers must defend their policies and performance in person before the Flemish Parliament; the Flemish Government must keep the confidence of the Flemish Parliament. Until 1993 the Flemish Government was called the Flemish Executive. Following the 25 May 2014 election, N-VA, CD&V and Open Vld parties formed a coalition. Following the 7 June 2009 election, CD&V, N-VA and SP.
A parties formed a coalition. Following the 2004 election, CD&V / N-VA, SP. A/ Sociaal-Liberale Partij and Open VLD parties formed a coalition. From 19 July 2004 to 26 June 2007, the Minister-President of Flanders was Yves Leterme, leading a coalition of CD&V-N-VA, VLD-Vivant, SP. A-Vl. Pro. On 26 June 2007, in the aftermath of the 2007 Belgian general elections, Yves Leterme and Inge Vervotte resigned as minister-president and minister in the Flemish Government to take their seats in the Belgian Parliament. On June 28, Kris Peeters was sworn in as new minister-president, taking over the responsibilities of Leterme, Vanackere and Crevits replaced Vervotte and Peeters as Flemish ministers. On 10 October 2007 Fientje Moerman resigned due to the fallout of a hiring scandal. On 22 September 2008 Geert Bourgeois was forced to resign due to pressure by the SP. A-Vl. Pro and Open VLD coalition partners because of his party's no confidence vote in the federal government of Leterme and their lack of trust in further negotiations by the Regions regarding the state reform.
His portfolios of Administrative Affairs, Foreign Policy and Tourism were taken over by minister-president Peeters. On December 30, 2008 Steven Vanackere resigned to become federal Minister of Civil Service and Public Enterprises, he was replaced in the Flemish Government by Veerle Heeren. The composition at the end of the legislature: After the regional elections of 1999, a coalition of VLD, SP, Agalev and the VU was formed with Patrick Dewael as Minister-President. After the federal elections of June 2003, Patrick Dewael resigned as Minister-President and went to the federal political level, he was succeeded by Bart Somers as Flemish Minister-President until the end of term in 2004. Due to changes in political parties, the coalition was different: Volksunie fell apart. Instead, Spirit entered the coalition the SP was renamed to SP.a Agalev was renamed to Groen! After the regional elections of 1995, a coalition of CVP and SP was formed; the Flemish administration denotes the Flemish civil service.
With the 2006 reform program Better Administrative Policy, the Flemish civil service is designed to make the Flemish public administration more efficient and transparent. The tasks of the Flemish public administration are now organised in 13 policy areas; each policy area comprises a number of independent government agencies. Only those with their own article are mentioned below; the 13 policy areas are: Services for the General Government Policy Administrative Affairs Foreign Affairs Liaison Agency Flanders-Europe Flanders Investment and Trade Finance and Budget Education and Training Economy and Innovation Agency for Innovation by Science and Technology Participatiemaatschappij Vlaanderen National Botanic Garden of Belgium Culture, Youth and Media Agency for the Promotion of Physical Development and the Outdoor Recreation Royal Museum of Fine Arts Antwerp Welfare, Public Health and Family Care Inspectorate Agriculture and Fisheries Work and Social Economy Mobility and Public Works Flemish Transport Company "De Lijn" Environment and Energy Flemish Energy Agency Town and Country Planning, Housing Policy and Immovable Heritage Immovable HeritageSeveral other institutes, such as the Flemish Opera and the Flemish Institute for Technological Research, were not incorporated into the above structure.
Every year, the Minister-President presents the current state of affairs in Flanders and the Government's plans for next year during the September Declaration on the fourth Monday in September. The below figures use the 2018 budget as example, which had €44.7 billion in expenses and €42.3 billion in revenue. The revenue commes from the following sources: 56% – Special financing law: the so-called "shared taxes" and "merged taxes" which the federal government raises through income taxes and VAT and transfers to the communities and regions based on a complex formula 34% – Fiscal autonomy 18% – Opcentiemen: additional "centimes" to the federal income tax 16% – Regional taxes, such
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located in Europe. It has an area of an estimated population of about 513 million; the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency; the EU and European citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993. The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community, established by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome.
The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, West Germany. The Communities and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit; the latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the United Kingdom signified the intention to leave after a membership referendum in June 2016 and is negotiating its withdrawal. Covering 7.3% of the world population, the EU in 2017 generated a nominal gross domestic product of 19.670 trillion US dollars, constituting 24.6% of global nominal GDP. Additionally, all 28 EU countries have a high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence.
The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. During the centuries following the fall of Rome in 476, several European States viewed themselves as translatio imperii of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West; this political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii, either in the forms of the Reichsidee or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum. Medieval Christendom and the political power of the Papacy are cited as conducive to European integration and unity. In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom, the Empire, declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The gap between Greek East and Latin West had been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of 1054. Pan-European political thought emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoléon's Empire. In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent in the writings of Wojciech Jastrzębowski, Giuseppe Mazzini or Theodore de Korwin Szymanowski; the term United States of Europe was used at that time by Victor Hugo during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849: A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood... A day will come when we shall see... the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas. During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.
In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union." During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement. His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, precursor of the United Nations. In a radio address in March 1943, with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, mused on the post-war creation of a "Council of Europe" which would bring the European nations together to build peace. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent.
In a speech delivered on 19
Speaker of the Flemish Parliament
The Speaker of the Flemish Parliament is the presiding member of the Flemish Parliament, the legislature of Flanders. The Speaker is elected at the beginning of each parliamentary year, on the fourth Monday in September; the Speaker chairs the plenary sessions of the Flemish Parliament and acts as its official representative. He or she determines whether a certain initiative is admissible and thus can be put to parliament at all; the Flemish Ministers take the oath before the Speaker of the Flemish Parliament. Only the head of the Flemish government, the Minister-President of Flanders, takes the oath before the King; the Speaker presides over the Bureau and the Extended Bureau of the Flemish Parliament. He or she is assisted by four Deputy Speakers; the current Speaker of the Flemish Parliament is Jan Peumans of the New Flemish Alliance. Flemish Parliament
Yiddish is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with a High German-based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic as well as from Slavic languages and traces of Romance languages. Yiddish is written with a vocalized version of the Hebrew alphabet; the earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז or טײַטש, a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German. Colloquially, the language is sometimes called מאַמע־לשון, distinguishing it from לשון־קודש, meaning Hebrew and Aramaic; the term "Yiddish", short for Yidish Taitsh, did not become the most used designation in the literature until the 18th century. In the late 19th and into the 20th century the language was more called "Jewish" in non-Jewish contexts, but "Yiddish" is again the more common designation today. Modern Yiddish has two major forms. Eastern Yiddish is far more common today.
It includes Southeastern and Northeastern dialects. Eastern Yiddish differs from Western both by its far greater size and by the extensive inclusion of words of Slavic origin. Western Yiddish is divided into Southwestern and Northwestern dialects. Yiddish is used in a number of Haredi Jewish communities worldwide; the term "Yiddish" is used in the adjectival sense, synonymously with "Jewish", to designate attributes of Yiddishkeit. Prior to the Holocaust, there were 11–13 million speakers of Yiddish among 17 million Jews worldwide. 85% of the 6 million Jews who died in the Holocaust were Yiddish speakers, leading to a massive decline in the use of the language. Assimilation following World War II and aliyah, immigration to Israel, further decreased the use of Yiddish both among survivors and among Yiddish-speakers from other countries. However, the number of speakers is increasing in Hasidic communities; the established view is that, as with other Jewish languages, Jews speaking distinct languages learned new co-territorial vernaculars, which they Judaized.
In the case of Yiddish, this scenario sees it as emerging when speakers of Zarphatic and other Judeo-Romance languages began to acquire varieties of Middle High German, from these groups the Ashkenazi community took shape. What German base lies behind the earliest form of Yiddish is disputed. In Max Weinreich's model, Jewish speakers of Old French or Old Italian who were literate in either liturgical Hebrew or Aramaic, or both, migrated through Southern Europe to settle in the Rhine Valley in an area known as Lotharingia extending over parts of Germany and France. Both Weinreich and Solomon Birnbaum developed this model further in the mid-1950s. In Weinreich's view, this Old Yiddish substrate bifurcated into two distinct versions of the language and Eastern Yiddish, they retained the Semitic vocabulary and constructions needed for religious purposes and created a Judeo-German form of speech, sometimes not accepted as a autonomous language. Linguistic research has finessed the Weinreich model or provided alternative approaches to the language's origins, with points of contention being the characterization of its Germanic base, the source of its Hebrew/Aramaic adstrata, the means and location of this fusion.
Some theorists argue. The two main candidates for the germinal matrix of Yiddish, the Rhineland and Bavaria, are not incompatible. There may have been parallel developments in the two regions, seeding the Western and Eastern dialects of Modern Yiddish. Dovid Katz proposes that Yiddish emerged from contact between speakers of High German and Aramaic-speaking Jews from the Middle East; the lines of development proposed by the different theories do not rule out the others. In more recent work, Wexler has argued that Eastern Yiddish is unrelated genetically to Western Yiddish. Wexler's model has met with little academic support, strong critical challenges among historical linguists. By the 10th century, a distinctive Jewish culture had formed in Central Europe which came to be called אַשכּנזי Ashkenazi, "Ashkenazi Jews, from Hebrew: אַשכּנז Ashkenaz, the medieval Hebrew name for northern Europe and Germany. Ashkenaz was centered on the Rhineland and the Palatinate, in what is now the westernmost part of Germany.
Its geographic extent did not
De Standaard is a Flemish daily newspaper published in Belgium by Mediahuis. It was traditionally a Christian-Democratic paper, associated with the Christian-Democratic and Flemish Party, in opposition to the Socialist Flemish daily De Morgen. In recent years De Standaard has renounced its original ideological ties. In 1911, Frans Van Cauwelaert founded Ons Volk Ontwaakt, the weekly journal of the Flemish Catholic student organization. In 1914, Van Cauwelaert, Alfons Van de Perre, Arnold Hendrix formed a publishing company, De Standaard N. V.. Their goal was to publish a conservative, Flemish daily newspaper in Brussels, to be called De Standaard; the motto of De Standaard was Alles voor Vlaanderen - Vlaanderen voor Kristus, abbreviated AVV-VVK. AVV-VVK appeared in De Standaard's front-page banner until 1999; the first edition was to appear on 22 November 1914, but publication was cancelled due to the outbreak of World War I. De Standaard did not appear until 4 December 1918. Gustave Sap, who joined the board of directors in 1919, provided the necessary capital for its initial expansion.
The paper was started as a conservative daily with Catholic values. In 1940, during the Second World War, Belgium was occupied by Nazi Germany. De Standaard again ceased publication. However, a new paper, Het Algemeen Nieuws was published with De Standaard's staff and presses, printing only what the Nazi occupation government permitted. After the liberation of Belgium in 1944, the management of Standard Group was accused of collaboration with the Nazi occupiers, the company was banned for two years. A new company was therefore created: De Gids N. V. which began publishing De Nieuwe Standaard in November 1944. Older titles of the Standaard group were continued by De Gids. In 1947, the ban on Standard Group was removed, with court permission the company reclaimed all its titles. De Nieuwe Standaard was renamed De Nieuwe Gids, as of 1 May, De Standaard again. In the 1960s and 1970s, De Standaard was famous for its high-quality and independent foreign affairs coverage. For example, despite its Catholic and conservative ties, De Standaard was critical of American policy in southeast Asia.
However, the financial condition of Standard Group deteriorated, becoming critical in 1976. Standard Group declared bankruptcy on 22 June. De Standaard was rescued by André Leysen, a Belgian businessman, who formed Vlaamse Uitgeversmaatschappij N. V.. VUM took over Standard Group's titles, became the publisher of De Standaard. VUM changed its name to Corelio in 2006; the sister newspaper of De Standaard is Het Nieuwsblad. Since 30 September 1999 the newspaper has stopped printing the lettercross AVV-VVK on its frontpage. In March 2004, De Standaard changed its format from traditional broadsheet to compact format. Unlike common practice for the most of the newspapers this change occurred during its modernization process, not as a response to low circulation levels. On 9/1/2017 De Standaard fired its controversial columnist, Dyab Abu Jahjah, after the latter made comments on Twitter that condoned a Palestinian terror attack. In 2002 De Standaard had a circulation of 98,169 copies; the circulation of the paper was reported to be 93,500 copies in 2002.
The paper had a circulation of 79,000 copies in 2003 and 81,000 copies in 2004. The circulation of the paper was 102,280 copies in 2007. During the first quarter of 2009 the paper had a circulation of 107,888 copies. In 2009 its paid circulation was about 98,000 copies. Gaston Durnez Maria Rosseels, film critic and writer. Official website Newspapers in the class room
Het Laatste Nieuws
Het Laatste Nieuws is a Dutch language newspaper based in Brussels, Belgium. It was founded by Julius Hoste Sr. on 7 June 1888. It is now part of De Persgroep, is the most popular newspaper in Flanders and Belgium; the liberal Julius Hoste Sr. founded the newspaper on 7 June 1888 five days before the Belgian elections. With his newspaper he wanted to support the Liberal Party in the upcoming elections and on the other side the Flemish movement in Brussels, a city, dominated by francophone bourgeois; the newspaper supported the cause of the Gelijkheidswet, the rescue of the Koninklijke Vlaamse Schouwburg in Brussels and the election of the first Flemish, Ghent municipal governing board in 1907. Its liberal character, anti-francophone stance and support for the Flemish movement were essential characteristics of the new daily, just like its anti-clericalism. In 1897, Flor Burton founded the newspaper De Nieuwe Gazet in Antwerp, with a similar editorial policy; when Julius Hoste Sr. died, his son, Julius Hoste Jr. took over full publishing responsibility.
He moderated the confrontational style favored by his father, adopting a more temperate and formal tone. He broadened the scope of the newspaper, including more regional news, expanded the sports section to reach an wider public; when World War II broke out, Julius Hoste Jr. fled to the United Kingdom, although his newspaper continued publication under Nazi control. During this period The Adventures of Tintin was in the paper. Stories included Tintin in the Congo, Tintin in America, The Broken Ear, The Shooting Star, The Secret of the Unicorn. After the war Julius Hoste Jr. regained control but the business needed to be rebuilt. He shared day-to-day management with Albert Maertens and Marcel Stijns became head editor. On 1 February 1954 Julius Hoste Jr. died. By means of an ingenious legal arrangement he ensured that the political heritage of his newspaper was guaranteed and the company was incorporated when he died, his heirs commissioned Albert Maertens to create a foundation intended to safeguard the future political and editorial policy of the newspaper.
On 3 May 1955 the Stichting Het Laatste Nieuws was set up. It included in its charter an explicit reference to the liberal declaration of Oxford, or Oxford Manifesto, which offered guarantees of editorial continuity for readers and journalists in the event of the newspaper being sold. Frans Vink, the son-in-law of Julius Hoste Jr. headed the company. A new company was created: the Uitgeverij J. Hoste NV; when television broadcasting started in Belgium in 1954, the competitive environment became more challenging and the newspaper had to modernize its activity. The Antwerp-headquartered De Nieuwe Gazet was taken over in 1957 and completely in 1963; the foundation's business was expanded with the introduction of weekly magazines and a printing business. In order to finance the new ventures, negotiations were started with potential investors. Albert Maertens began talks with the Van Thillo family, the Flemish bankers based in Antwerp, who had shown a particular interest in Press investment. In the 1970s and 1980s the Van Thillo family acquired more and more shares in the newspaper, but its editorial course remained in accordance with the principles articulated by the foundation.
At the moment De Persgroep is headed by Christian Van Thillo. In the period of 1995-96 Het Laatste Nieuws had a circulation of 303,993 copies; the circulation of the paper was 287,000 copies in 2001. It was 341,257 copies in 2002. In 2003 its circulation was 294,000 copies. In 2009 Het Laatste Nieuws had a circulation of 287,162 copies; the approximate circulation of the paper was 370,000 copies in 2010. Piet Van Brabant Media related to Het Laatste Nieuws at Wikimedia Commons Official website Newspapers in the class room