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Floating-point arithmetic

In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation to support a trade-off between range and precision. For this reason, floating-point computation is found in systems which include small and large real numbers, which require fast processing times. A number is, in general, represented to a fixed number of significant digits and scaled using an exponent in some fixed base. A number that can be represented is of the following form: significand × base exponent, where significand is an integer, base is an integer greater than or equal to two, exponent is an integer. For example: 1.2345 = 12345 ⏟ significand × 10 ⏟ base − 4 ⏞ exponent. The term floating point refers to the fact that a number's radix point can "float"; this position is indicated as the exponent component, thus the floating-point representation can be thought of as a kind of scientific notation. A floating-point system can be used to represent, with a fixed number of digits, numbers of different orders of magnitude: e.g. the distance between galaxies or the diameter of an atomic nucleus can be expressed with the same unit of length.

The result of this dynamic range is that the numbers that can be represented are not uniformly spaced. Over the years, a variety of floating-point representations have been used in computers. In 1985, the IEEE 754 Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic was established, since the 1990s, the most encountered representations are those defined by the IEEE; the speed of floating-point operations measured in terms of FLOPS, is an important characteristic of a computer system for applications that involve intensive mathematical calculations. A floating-point unit is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating-point numbers. A number representation specifies some way of encoding a number as a string of digits. There are several mechanisms. In common mathematical notation, the digit string can be of any length, the location of the radix point is indicated by placing an explicit "point" character there. If the radix point is not specified the string implicitly represents an integer and the unstated radix point would be off the right-hand end of the string, next to the least significant digit.

In fixed-point systems, a position in the string is specified for the radix point. So a fixed-point scheme might be to use a string of 8 decimal digits with the decimal point in the middle, whereby "00012345" would represent 0001.2345. In scientific notation, the given number is scaled by a power of 10, so that it lies within a certain range—typically between 1 and 10, with the radix point appearing after the first digit; the scaling factor, as a power of ten, is indicated separately at the end of the number. For example, the orbital period of Jupiter's moon Io is 152,853.5047 seconds, a value that would be represented in standard-form scientific notation as 1.528535047×105 seconds. Floating-point representation is similar in concept to scientific notation. Logically, a floating-point number consists of: A signed digit string of a given length in a given base; this digit string is referred to mantissa, or coefficient. The length of the significand determines the precision; the radix point position is assumed always to be somewhere within the significand—often just after or just before the most significant digit, or to the right of the rightmost digit.

This article follows the convention that the radix point is set just after the most significant digit. A signed integer exponent. To derive the value of the floating-point number, the significand is multiplied by the base raised to the power of the exponent, equivalent to shifting the radix point from its implied position by a number of places equal to the value of the exponent—to the right if the exponent is positive or to the left if the exponent is negative. Using base-10 as an example, the number 152,853.5047, which has ten decimal digits of precision, is represented as the significand 1,528,535,047 together with 5 as the exponent. To determine the actual value, a decimal point is placed after the first digit of the significand and the result is multiplied by 105 to give 1.528535047×105, or 152,853.5047. In storing such a number, the base need not be stored, since it will be the same for the entire range of supported numbers, can thus be inferred. Symbolically, this final value is: s b p − 1 × b e, where s is the signi

Quagmire's Mom

"Quagmire's Mom" is the tenth episode of the thirteenth season of the animated sitcom Family Guy, the 241st episode overall. It aired on Fox in the United States on February 8, 2015, is written by Tom Devanney and directed by Greg Colton. In the episode, Glenn Quagmire is found guilty of unwittingly committing statutory rape and is sentenced to 20 years in prison. At the same time, his promiscuous but now born-again Christian mother returns to his life, he struggles to forgive her for what he perceives as child neglect. With an audience of 2.81 million, it was the most-watched show on Fox that night. It was the subject of a campaign by the Parents Television Council, who believed that its sexual content broke broadcast decency laws; when Meg needs a check for a field trip, Peter finds that his checks are fake so he insists on opening his own checking account. At Quahog Savings and Loans and Lois find that his birth certificate gives his real first name as "Justin" with his full name being "Justin Peter Griffin".

Although Lois says it makes no difference, Peter decides to change his persona to what he believes a "Justin" should be: young and wild. "Justin" decides to throw a party. Lois returns and orders everyone to leave plans to take "Justin" to City Hall to change his name back to Peter; the next day, Quagmire learns that Kira is not 23 years old as she claimed, she is under the age of legal consent in Rhode Island. Joe arrives at Quagmire's house with some police officers stating that he has received an anonymous tip that Quagmire was having sex with an underage girl. Quagmire confesses due to his pride in having had sex with her and he is arrested by the police for statutory rape, he is put on trial and his only chance for leniency is for character witnesses, since he is guilty once the proof of Kira's age is revealed. At the courthouse, Peter and Joe try to claim Quagmire's innocence, which proves difficult due to them being under oath. Chris keeps asking why Kira is not present in the courtroom.

This causes Quagmire to take the stand himself and explain about his childhood, in particular his promiscuous mother. Despite this, the judge finds sentences him to 20 years in prison. Just his mother Crystal arrives in the courtroom. After fighting off a comment from Kira's mother, Crystal admits her past claims to be a born-again Christian and asks for leniency; the judge gives Quagmire 24 hours to get his affairs in order. At home, Crystal tries to get Quagmire to find God to enter the afterlife and he lashes out at her, she tries to reason with him. Brian tells him to have fun in prison. Quagmire tells Crystal he leaves the house to avoid her; as Quagmire walks out, Stewie asks Crystal. Outside the prison, Quagmire starts to say his goodbyes to his neighbors while Brian drives away ecstatic that Quagmire is going to prison. Quagmire prepares to enter the prison. Just the judge arrives with Crystal to tell Quagmire that his sentence has been commuted after "new DNA evidence was produced." He is surprised that despite her religious views she would have sex outside of marriage with the judge, but she responds that it was the most Christian thing to do to protect her son.

Peter observes that Quagmire got away with the crime and learned nothing. The episode received an audience of 2.81 million. The Parents Television Council, a long-time critic of Family Guy and other MacFarlane-produced shows, took offense to the episode's jokes on statutory rape and a description of Quagmire urinating into a condom, freezing it and using it for sexual penetration, it asked its members to complain to the Federal Communications Commission that it had broken indecency laws, citing that similar content in an episode of this show had been found to have breached such laws over a decade ago. "Quagmire's Mom" on IMDb "Quagmire's Mom" at


Haidergarh is a town and a nagar panchayat in the Barabanki district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. As of the 2011 Indian census, Haidergarh had a population of 17,200. Males constitute for 53% of the population and females 47%. Haidergarh has an average literacy rate of 58%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is at 64%, female literacy is at 51%. In Haidergarh, 18.0% of the population is under 6 years of age. The town Haidergarh is located on Lucknow-Varanasi Highway, it is well connected by rail and road networks. Haidergarh is accessible from Varanasi, as well as Rai Bareli. A temple of Lord Shiva named'Avasaneshwar Mahadev' is situated on the bank of river Gomti. A foreign invader is said to have attacked the temple to damage the Shiv Lingam, but he was driven out by the stings of the bees and insects; the temple of Lord Shiva named "Rameshvaram shivala" is situated in Thatharahi Ward of Haidergarh. A holy Shiv temple named Killeshwar Mahadev near Haidergarh on Raebareli Road in Village Killa Post Ansari is famous and Special pooja is organized on Shiv Ratri.

Industry in Haidergarh comprises a sugar mill in the village of Pokhra. The mill has its own 2MW power plant; the education sector in Haidergarh is expanding. Tehsil has 4 institutions for higher education. A rising institution of the town is the primary education centre Kids Galaxy School. Haidergarh is just 30km from the industrial area of Jagdishpur, where Bhel is situated

Rosario and Puerto Belgrano Railway

The Rosario and Puerto Belgrano Railway was a French-owned railway company which operated a broad gauge, 5 ft 6 in, single track line between the cities of Rosario and Puerto Belgrano in Argentina. Puerto Belgrano, near the city of Bahía Blanca in Buenos Aires Province, is the main naval base in Argentina; the original idea behind the building of the railway was to link points that were closer to either Rosario or Bahía Blanca than they were to Buenos Aires, thereby taking traffic from the British-owned companies BA Great Southern and BA Western railways. Since the line was constructed after many other east to west lines had been laid these were crossed by constructing a large number of bridges; the otherwise near level course of the line was broken, at intervals, by short sharp gradients and this had an effect on the type of locomotives that could be used. In spite of this a considerable volume of goods and livestock traffic was carried by the line; the original concession for the construction of the railway was granted to Diego de Alvear with the promulgation of Law N° 4.279 of 1903.

That concession was transferred to French-owned company "Sociedad Anónima Compañía del Ferrocarril Rosario a Puerto Belgrano" in December 1906. The concessionary was committed to build a dock in terminus of the line; the Indian gauge 800-km. Length railway ran from north to south, joining the cities of Rosario, Santa Fe and Punta Alta, crossing most of the main British-owned railway tracks; the railway had a particular path with no stops in Buenos Aires but other cities of the Province such as Coronel Pringles and Coronel Suárez. The costs of construction were high so the railway required several engineering, for example the seven iron bridges that cross the Sauce Grande River, near Bahía Blanca; the north–south orientation of the railway path revealed the purpose of competing against British companies for the traffic of merchandises in Buenos Aires. The railway did not earn the expected profits due to better prices established by British railways. Besides, the RPBR crossed low developed agricultural areas instead of more fertile areas covered by British companies.

For those reasons, the RPBR suffered a chronic deficit. The line was built between 1906 and 1910 being inaugurated for passenger and freight services in 1912; the military port of Bahía Blanca received all the goods necessary for the construction of the railway, including rail tracks and prefabricated home for employees, steam locomotives and coaches. The line started in Rosario, reaching Punta Alta station and Puerto Belgrano dock, being built by then. A branch from Punta Alta to Bahía Blanca was built later; the construction included a total of 36 bridges, totalling 857 mt. The dock made for Puerto Belgrano was a 250-metre length structure where four 125-metre length ships could enter at a same time to unload their cargo. There were 12 cranes, 12 electric and 4 hydraulic. Once the dock was finished, it was acquired by the Government of Argentina and added to the Navy in 1914; the company made the arrangements to get a concession to build an extension branch to Bahía Blanca and an access to Port of ingeniero White through a junction with Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway to freight services exclusively.

Concession was granted. The line connected with Western railways in Rosario and Timote respectively; the company set headquarters in Villa Diego in 1909, where a passenger and freight station was built. The building included a locomotive warehouse, workshops and a switchyard; the buildings are part of Ciudad Universitaria de Rosario. The construction of a 27-km length branch from Punta Alta to Bahía Blanca allowed the company to stimulate passenger and freight traffic. Works were directed by Swiss Engineer Armin Reimman who died short after the line was inaugurated, being replaced by his colleague Lucien Capelle. In 1921 the new terminus was inaugurated, it was placed on Colón Avenue between B. de Irigoyen and Rivadavia streets. The station remained active until 1949. After some testings, on March 2, 1922, the inaugural trip from Rosario to Bahía Blanca was carried out, arriving to the Southern city at 15:30; when the whole Argentine railway network was nationalised by the Juan Peron's administration in 1948, the BA&PBR line was divided into two sections, the north became part of Mitre Railway while the south section was added to Roca Railway.

In order to reduce operative costs, Ferrocarriles Argentinos closed the Rosario station, moving passenger services to Rosario Central that would be closed in 1977. With the railway privatisation led by President Carlos Menem in early 1990s, the R&PB line was granted in concession to freight rail transport company Ferroexpreso Pampeano. “Capitaux françaises dans la Pampa: le chemin de fer de Rosario à Puerto Belgrano”, by Gustavo Chalier- Revue d’histoire des chemins de fer, Nº 45, “Regards sur le XXe siècle”, publicación de la Association pour l’histoire des chemins de fer, París, pp. 35–56 “À la recherche du port perdu: el ferrocarril Rosario Puerto Belgrano y la búsqueda de una salida al mar en la Bahía Blanca”, by Gustavo Chalier- Miguel Ángel De Marco,compilador. Jornadas Internacionales e Interdisciplinarias de Estudios Portuarios, NODO IH - IDEHESI/CONICET, Rosario. Pp. 177–194 British Steam o

Jean-Fran├žois Bernard

Jean-François Bernard is a former French professional road bicycle racer. He turned professional in 1984 for La Vie Claire, led by Bernard Hinault, he was seen as Hinault’s successor as a winner of stage races from 1986. He competed in the team time trial event at the 1984 Summer Olympics. Bernard wore the yellow jersey as leader of the general classification in the 1987 Tour de France and won two stages, both time trials, including one on Mont Ventoux, he finished the race third behind Pedro Delgado of Spain. He won three stages in the 1988 Giro d'Italia and led the race, but he crashed in a tunnel, injured his back and abandoned the race; the next year he needed an operation and months of recuperation for fibrosis in his left knee. A saddle sore and another operation forced him out of the 1990 Tour de France, he never again challenged in the grands tours. In 1991 he joined the Spanish team, Banesto which had two leaders for stage races in Delgado and Miguel Indurain. Bernard helped. Bernard won the 1992 Paris–Nice.

Bernard retired at the end of 1996 with 52 professional wins. He is now a consultant for L'Équipe TV and Eurosport. In 2005 a race, La Jean-François Bernard, was organised in the Nièvre region of Bourgogne as part of the Trophy of Bourgogne, an amateur competition, he is the father of racing cyclist Julien Bernard. Palmares of Jean Francois Bernard at the Wayback Machine Jean-François Bernard at the International Olympic Committee

Daniel Building

The Daniel Building is a 20 story, 238 foot office building located in downtown Birmingham, Alabama. Built in 1970, the building served as a regional office for the engineering and construction company Daniel International, it served as the corporate headquarters for Daniel International's real estate division, Daniel Realty, which today is known as Daniel Corporation. In 1993, Compass Bancshares bought the building from Daniel Corporation. After completing an extensive renovation, Compass moved its corporate headquarters into the building from its old headquarters, sold to UAB for expanded administrative offices; the building continues to serve as the corporate headquarters of successor BBVA Compass. The bank's main branch is located in the building, it is the tallest building in downtown Birmingham that does not directly lie within the Central Business District. On July 5, 2010, a two-alarm electrical fire broke out in the basement of the Daniel Building. There was severe damage to the basement, with water damage to the first floor and smoke damage extending several floors into the building.

Employees were relocated to other facilities. On June 5, 2019, the exterior signage for BBVA Compass was removed from the west side of the building. Building is undergoing a renaming process to BBVA. BBVA Compass BBVA USA Birmingham, Alabama Fluor Corp. Emporis Website AL. COM