The pommel horse is an artistic gymnastics apparatus. Traditionally, it is used by only male gymnasts. Made of a metal frame with a wooden body and a leather cover, modern pommel horses have a metal body covered with foam rubber and leather, with plastic handles; the pommel horse was developed centuries ago as an artificial horse used by soldiers to practice mounting and dismounting. Alexander the Great is believed to have used two. Measurements of the apparatus are published by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique in the Apparatus Norms brochure. Height from top surface to floor: 115 centimetres ± 1 centimetre Length at top: 160 centimetres ± 1 centimetre Length at bottom: 155 centimetres ± 1 centimetre Width at top: 35 centimetres ± 1 centimetre Width at bottom: 30 centimetres ± 1 centimetre Height of the pommels: 12 centimetres ± 0.5 centimetres Distance between the pommels: 40 centimetres – 45 centimetres A typical pommel horse exercise involves both single leg and double leg work.
Single leg skills are in the form of scissors. Double leg work however, is the main staple of this event; the gymnast swings both legs in a circular motion and performs such skills on all parts of the apparatus. To make the exercise more challenging, gymnasts will include variations on a typical circling skill by turning, by straddling their legs, placing one or both hands on the pommel or the leather, or moving up and down the horse placing their hands on the pommel and/or the leather. Routines end when the gymnast performs a dismount, either by swinging his body over the horse or going through a handstand to land on the mat; the pommel horse, its gymnastic elements, various rules are all regulated by the Code of Points. Pommel horse is considered one of the more difficult men's events. While it is well noted that all events require a certain build of muscle and technique, pommel horse tends to favor technique over muscle; this is because horse routines are done from the shoulders in a leaning motion and that no moves need to be held unlike other events.
Therefore, stress induced in one's arms is reduced meaning less muscle is needed in this event than events like still rings or parallel bars. A pommel horse routine should contain at least one element from all element groups: Single leg swings and scissors Circles and flairs, with and/or without spindles and handstands Side and cross support travels Dismounts As with all events in the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique guidelines, form is crucial to any successful routine. For pommel horse, form consists of keeping one's feet pointed and legs straight during the entire routine; the gymnast should keep his legs together during all elements, exceptions beings scissors, single legged elements, flairs. Gymnasts are deducted for not using all three sections of the horse and pausing or stopping on the apparatus. Deductions apply for brushing and hitting the apparatus
Artistic gymnastics is a discipline of gymnastics in which athletes perform short routines on different apparatuses, with less time for vaulting. The sport is governed by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique, which designs the code of points and regulates all aspects of international elite competition. Within individual countries, gymnastics is regulated by national federations, such as Gymnastics Canada, British Gymnastics, USA Gymnastics. Artistic gymnastics is a popular spectator sport at many competitions, including the Summer Olympic Games; the gymnastic system was mentioned in works by ancient authors, such as Homer and Plato. It included many disciplines that would become separate sports, such as swimming, wrestling and riding, was used for military training. In its present form, gymnastics evolved in Bohemia and what is now at the beginning of the 19th century, the term "artistic gymnastics" was introduced at the same time to distinguish free styles from the ones used by the military.
The German educator Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, known as the father of gymnastics, invented several apparatus, including the horizontal bar and parallel bars, which are used to this day. Two of the first gymnastics clubs were Sokols. In 1881, the FIG was founded, it remains the governing body of international gymnastics, it included only three countries and was called the European Gymnastics Federation until 1921, when the first non-European countries joined the federation and it was reorganized into its present form. Gymnastics was included in the program of the 1896 Summer Olympics, but women have been allowed to participate in the Olympics only since 1928; the World Championships, held since 1903, were open only to men until 1934. Since that time, two branches of artistic gymnastics have developed: women's artistic gymnastics and men's artistic gymnastics. Unlike men's and women's branches of many other sports, WAG and MAG differ in apparatus used at major competitions and in techniques. Women's gymnastics entered the Olympics as a team event in 1928 and was included in the 12th gymnastics world championships in 1950.
Individual women were recognized in the all-around as early as the tenth world championships in 1934. Two years after the full women's program was introduced at the 1950 World Championships, it was added to the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki and the format has remained to this day; the earliest champions in women's gymnastics tended to be in their 20s, most had studied ballet for years before entering the sport. Larisa Latynina, the first great Soviet gymnast, won her first Olympic all-around medal at the age of 22 and her second at 26. Věra Čáslavská of Czechoslovakia, who followed Latynina to become a two-time Olympic all-around champion, was 22 before she started winning gold medals. In the 1970s, the average age of Olympic gymnasts began to decrease. While it was not unheard-of for teenagers to compete in the 1960s—Ludmilla Tourischeva was 16 at her first Olympics in 1968—younger female gymnasts became the norm as the sport's difficulty increased. Smaller, lighter girls excelled in the more challenging acrobatic elements required by the redesigned Code of Points.
The 58th Congress of the FIG—held in July 1980, just before the Olympics—decided to raise the minimum age for senior international competition from 14 to 15. The change, which came into effect two years did not eliminate the problem. By the time of the 1992 Summer Olympics, elite competitors consisted exclusively of "pixies"—underweight, prepubertal teenagers—and concerns were raised about athletes' welfare; the FIG responded to this trend by raising the minimum age for international elite competition to 16 in 1997. This, combined with changes in the Code of Points and evolving popular opinion in the sport, led to the return of older gymnasts. While the average elite female gymnast is still in her middle to late teens and of below-average height and weight, it is common to see gymnasts competing well into their 20s. At the 2004 Olympics, both the second-place American team and the third-place Russians were captained by women in their mid-20s. At the 2008 Olympics, the silver medalist on vault, Oksana Chusovitina, was a 33-year-old mother.
She received another silver medal on vault at the 2011 World Championships in Tokyo, when she was 36. At the age of 41, Chusovitina competed at her 7th consecutive Olympics at the 2016 Olympics, a world record for gymnastics. Both male and female gymnasts are judged on all events for execution, degree of difficulty, overall presentation skills. Vault The vault is an event as well as the primary piece of equipment used in that event. Unlike most of the gymnastic events employing apparatuses, the vault is common to both men's and women's competition, with little difference between the two categories. A gymnast sprints down a runway, a maximum of 25 m in length, before leaping onto a springboard. Harnessing the energy of the spring, the gymnast directs his or her body hands-first towards the vault. Body position is maintained while "popping" the vaulting platform; the gymnast rotates his or her body so as to land in a standing position on the far side of the vault. In advanced gymnastics, multiple twists and somersaults may be added before landing.
Successful vaults depend on the speed of the run, the length of the hurdle, the power the gymnast generates from the legs and shoulder girdle, kinesthetic awareness
1976 Summer Olympics
The 1976 Summer Olympics called the Games of the XXI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event in Montreal, Quebec, in 1976, the first Olympic Games held in Canada. Montreal was awarded the rights to the 1976 Games on May 12, 1970, at the 69th IOC Session in Amsterdam, over the bids of Moscow and Los Angeles, it was the first and, so far, only Summer Olympic Games. Calgary and Vancouver hosted the Winter Olympic Games in 1988 and 2010, respectively. Twenty-nine countries African, boycotted the Montreal Games when the International Olympic Committee refused to ban New Zealand, after the New Zealand national rugby union team had toured South Africa earlier in 1976 in defiance of the United Nations' calls for a sporting embargo; the vote occurred on May 1970, at the 69th IOC Session in Amsterdam, Netherlands. While Los Angeles and Moscow were viewed as the favourites given that they represented the world's two main powers, many of the smaller countries supported Montreal as an underdog and as a neutral site for the games.
Los Angeles was eliminated after the first round and Montreal won in the second round. Moscow would go on to host Los Angeles the 1984 Summer Olympics. One blank vote was cast in the final round. Toronto had made its third attempt for the Olympics but failed to get the support of the Canadian Olympic Committee, which selected Montreal instead. Robert Bourassa the Premier of Quebec, first asked Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau to advise Canada's monarch, Elizabeth II, to attend the opening of the games. However, Bourassa became unsettled about how unpopular the move might be with sovereigntists in the province, annoying Trudeau, who had made arrangements; the leader of the Parti Québécois at the time, René Lévesque, sent his own letter to Buckingham Palace, asking the Queen to refuse her prime minister's request, though she did not oblige Lévesque as he was out of his jurisdiction in offering advice to the Sovereign. In 1976, succumbing to pressure from the Communist Chinese, issued an order barring Taiwan from participating as China in the 1976 Montreal Olympics, although technically it was a matter for the IOC.
His action strained relations with the United States – from President Ford, future President Carter and the press. The Oxford Olympics Study estimates the outturn cost of the Montreal 1976 Summer Olympics at USD 6.1 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 720% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games; the cost overrun for Montreal 1976 is the highest cost overrun on record for any Olympics.
The cost and cost overrun for Montreal 1976 compares with costs of USD 4.6 billion and a cost overrun of 51% for Rio 2016 and USD 15 billion and 76% for London 2012. Average cost for the Summer Games from 1960 to 2016 is 5.2 billion 2015 US dollars, average cost overrun is 176%. Much of the cost overruns were caused by the Conseil des métiers de la construction union whose leader was André "Dede" Desjardins, who kept the construction site in "anarchic disorder" as part of a shakedown; the French architect Roger Taillibert who designed the Olympic stadium recounted in his 2000 book Notre Cher Stade Olympique that he and Montreal mayor Jean Drapeau tried hard to buy off Desjardins taking him to a lunch at the exclusive Ritz-Carlton hotel in a vain attempt to end the "delays". Quebec Premier Robert Bourassa made some sort of secret deal to buy off Desjardins, which allowed work to proceed. Taillibert wrote in Notre Cher Stade Olympique "If the Olympic Games took place, it was thanks to Dede Desjardins.
What irony!" The opening ceremony of the 1976 Summer Olympic Games was held on Saturday, July 17, 1976, at the Olympic Stadium in Montreal, Quebec in front of an audience of some 73,000 in the stadium, an estimated half billion watching on television. Following an air show by the Canadian Forces Air Command's Snowbirds aerobatic flight demonstration squadron in the sunny skies above the stadium, the ceremony began at 3:00 pm with a trumpet fanfare and the arrival of Elizabeth II, as Queen of Canada; the Queen was accompanied by Michael Morris, Lord Killanin, President of the International Olympic Committee, was greeted to an orchestral rendition of'O Canada', an arrangement that for many years would be used in schools across the country as well as in the daily sign off of TV broadcasts in the country. The queen entered the Royal Box with her consort, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, her son, Prince Andrew, she joined a number of Canadian and Olympic dignitaries, including: Jules Léger, Governor General of Canada, his wife, Gabrielle.
The parade o
Acro dance is a style of dance that combines classical dance technique with precision acrobatic elements. It is defined by its athletic character, its unique choreography, which seamlessly blends dance and acrobatics, its use of acrobatics in a dance context, it is a popular dance style in amateur competitive dance as well as in professional dance theater and in contemporary circus productions such as those by Cirque du Soleil. This is in contrast to acrobatic and rhythmic gymnastics, which are sports that employ dance elements in a gymnastics context under the auspices of a governing gymnastics organization and subject to a Code of Points. Acro dance is known by various other names including acrobatic dance and gymnastic dance, though it is most referred to as acro by dancers and dance professionals. Acro is an challenging dance style for dancers as it requires them to be trained in both dance and acrobatic skills. Acro dancers must be in excellent physical condition as well, because acro is a physically demanding activity.
Acrobatic dance emerged in the United States and Canada in the early 1900s, as one of the types of acts performed in vaudeville. Although individual dance and acrobatic acts had been performed in vaudeville for several decades prior to 1900, it was not until the early 1900s that it became popular to perform acts that combined dance and acrobatic movements. Acrobatic dance did not appear in vaudeville. Sherman Coates, who performed with the Watermelon Trust from 1900 to 1914, was recalled by fellow dancers as the first acrobatic dancer they had seen. Another of the earliest documented acrobatic dance performers was Tommy Woods, who became well known for his slow-motion acrobatic dance in Shuffle Along, in which he would execute acrobatic movements in time with the music. In 1914, acrobat Lulu Coates formed the Crackerjacks, a popular vaudeville troupe that included acrobatic dance in their performance repertoire up until the group disbanded in 1952. Many other popular vaudeville companies combined acrobatics and dance in their shows, including the Gaines Brothers.
Since the decline of the vaudeville era, acrobatic dance has undergone a multi-faceted evolution to arrive at its present-day form. The most significant aspect of this evolution is the integration of ballet technique as the foundation for dance movements, thus bringing into acro dance a precision of form and movement, absent in vaudeville acrobatic dance. Vaudeville acrobatic dances were little more than acrobatics set to music, whereas modern acro dance is fundamentally dance, with its acrobatic movements performed in a dance context. A defining characteristic of acro is the smooth, graceful transitions between dance and acrobatic movements. A dance must have a significant percentage of dance movement, with respect to its acrobatic content, in order for it to be categorized as acro. For example, a gymnastics floor exercise is not considered to be acro because it has little or no dance movement compared to its acrobatic content, because it lacks smooth transitions between dance and gymnastic movements.
The dance movements in acro are founded in ballet, jazz and modern dance styles. Acro dance movements are not restricted to these dance styles, but the complete absence of these styles will cause a dance to be categorized as something other than acro; the acrobatic movements and acts of balance performed in an acro dance are referred to as tricks. A variety of tricks are performed in acro dance, varying in complexity and the skills required to perform them. Aside from the obvious requirement that dancers possess the requisite skills to perform tricks, the types of tricks that can be performed in an acro dance depends on the number of dancers. Solo tricks can be performed by independent dancers in group dances. Examples of this are: Double tricks—also known as partnering tricks—can only be performed by a pair of dancers. An example of this is the pitch tuck; the second dancer steps onto the saddle and the first dancer thrusts the saddle upward. The second dancer, propelled upward with back rotation, lands on her feet after a complete revolution in the air.
Acro partners will sometimes execute lifts and adagio in addition to double tricks. Group tricks require three or more dancers. Examples of this are: Bridge pyramid Triple cartwheel Acro dances are performed on hard stages with varying surfaces; such floors differ from a gymnastics floor, constructed by layering a standard surface over cushioning foam and spring floor. Whereas gymnasts perform barefoot and rely on the standard gymnastics floor for traction and cushioning, acro dancers dance barefoot, instead depending on footwear such as acro shoes or foot thongs to provide the necessary traction and cushioning. All of the most common types of acro footwear provide both cushioning. In addition, acro performance surfaces are rough, so acro footwear must protect the bottom of the foot from skin abrasion. Abrasion protection is important on the ball of the foot, subjected to a great deal of friction during dance turns and leaps. Traction is essential to prevent lateral slipping that could result in dangerous falls to the hard floor.
Cushioning serves to soften the impact when performing tricks such as tucks and layouts, in which a dancer's feet may strike the floor at high velocity. Cushioning is important when a Marley floor is unavailable, because uncover
Cheerleading is an activity wherein the participants cheer for their team as a form of encouragement. It can range from chanting slogans to intense physical activity, it can be for competition. Competitive routines range anywhere from one to three minutes, contain components of tumbling, jumps and stunting. Cheerleading originated in the United States, remains predominantly in America, with an estimated 1.5 million participants in all-star cheerleading. The global presentation of cheerleading was led by the 1997 broadcast of ESPN's International cheerleading competition, the worldwide release of the 2000 film Bring It On. Due in part to this recent exposure, there are now an estimated 100,000 participants scattered around the globe in Australia, China, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom. Cheerleading began during the late 18th century with the rebellion of male students. After the American Revolutionary War, students experienced harsh treatment from teachers. In response to faculty's abuse, college students violently acted out.
The undergraduates began to riot, burn down buildings located on their college campuses, assault faculty members. As a more subtle way to gain independence, students invented and organized their own extracurricular activities outside their professors' control; this brought about American sports. In the 1860s, students from Great Britain began to cheer and chant in unison for their favorite athletes at sporting events. Soon, that gesture of support crossed overseas to America. On November 6, 1869, the United States witnessed its first intercollegiate football game, it took place between Princeton and Rutgers University, marked the day the original "Sis Boom Rah!" Cheer was shouted out by student fans. Organized cheerleading started as an all-male activity; as early as 1877, Princeton University had a "Princeton Cheer", documented in the February 22, 1877, March 12, 1880, November 4, 1881, issues of The Daily Princetonian. This cheer was yelled from the stands by students attending games, as well as by the athletes themselves.
The cheer, "Hurrah! Hurrah! Hurrah! Tiger! S-s-s-t! Boom! A-h-h-h!" remains in use with slight modifications today, where it is now referred to as the "Locomotive". Princeton class of 1882 graduate Thomas Peebles moved to Minnesota in 1884, he transplanted the idea of organized crowds cheering at football games to the University of Minnesota. The term "Cheer Leader" had been used as early as 1897, with Princeton's football officials having named three students as Cheer Leaders: Thomas and Guerin from Princeton's classes of 1897, 1898, 1899 on October 26, 1897; these students would cheer for the team at football practices, special cheering sections were designated in the stands for the games themselves for both the home and visiting teams. It was not until 1898 that University of Minnesota student Johnny Campbell directed a crowd in cheering "Rah, Rah! Ski-u-mah, Hoo-Rah! Hoo-Rah! Varsity! Varsity! Varsity, Minn-e-So-Tah!", making Campbell the first cheerleader. November 2, 1898 is the official birth date of organized cheerleading.
Soon after, the University of Minnesota organized a "yell leader" squad of six male students, who still use Campbell's original cheer today. In 1903, the first cheerleading fraternity, Gamma Sigma, was founded. In 1923, at the University of Minnesota, women were permitted to participate in cheerleading. However, it took time for other schools to follow. In the late 1920s, many school manuals and newspapers that were published still referred to cheerleaders as "chap," "fellow," and "man". Women cheerleaders were overlooked until the 1940s. In the 1940s, collegiate men were drafted for World War II, creating the opportunity for more women to make their way onto sporting event sidelines; as noted by Kieran Scott in Ultimate Cheerleading: "Girls took over for the first time." An overview written on behalf of cheerleading in 1955 explained that in larger schools, "occasionally boys as well as girls are included,", in smaller schools, "boys can find their place in the athletic program, cheerleading is to remain a feminine occupation."
During the 1950s, cheerleading in America increased in popularity. By the 1960s, some began to consider cheerleading a feminine extracurricular for boys, by the 1970s, girls cheered at public school games. However, this did not stop its growth. Cheerleading could be found at every school level across the country pee wee and youth leagues began to appear. In 1975, it was estimated by a man named Randy Neil that over 500,000 students participated in American cheerleading from grade school to the collegiate level, he approximated that ninety-five percent of cheerleaders within America were female. Since 1973, cheerleaders have started to attend female basketball and other all-female sports as well; as of 2005, overall statistics show around 97% of all modern cheerleading participants are female, although at the collegiate level, cheerleading is co-ed with about 50% of participants being male. In 1948, Lawrence "Herkie" Herkimer, of Dallas, Texas, a former cheerleader at Southern Methodist University, formed the National Cheerleaders Association in order to hold clinics for cheerleading.
In 1949, The NCA held its first clinic in Huntsville, with 52 girls in attendance. Herkimer contributed many firsts to cheerleading: the founding of the Cheerleader & Danz Team cheerleading uniform supply company, inventing the herkie jump (where one leg is bent towards the ground as if kneeling and the other is o
The uneven bars or asymmetric bars is an artistic gymnastics apparatus. It is made of a steel frame; the bars are made of fiberglass with wood coating, or less wood. The English abbreviation for the event in gymnastics scoring is UB or AB, the apparatus and event are referred to as "bars"; the bars are placed at different heights and widths, allowing the gymnast to transition from bar to bar. A gymnast adds white chalk to the hands so that they can grip the bar better. Uneven bars used in international gymnastics competitions has to conform to the guidelines and specifications set forth by the International Gymnastics Federation Apparatus Norms brochure. Several companies manufacture and sell bars, including AAI in the United States and Fritsen in Europe, Acromat in Australia. Gymnasts will use the lower bar to practice skills on for safety and for ease of spotting from coaches. Many gyms have a single bar or a set of uneven bars over a loose foam pit or soft mat for learning new skills to provide an additional level of safety.
Measurements of the bars are provided by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique in the Apparatus Norms brochure. Height: High bar: 250 centimetres Low bar: 170 centimetres Diameter of bar: 4 centimetres Length of the bars: 240 centimetres Diagonal distance between the two bars. Routines are composed from a set of skills each worth a particular value; the uneven bars apparatus consisted of men's parallel bars set to different heights. The bars were close together, gymnasts could transition from one to the other with little difficulty. Routines of the early 1950s chiefly consisted of simple circles and static balance elements and holds. In the late 1950s the trend shifted toward fluid motion, gymnasts began to perform routines composed of more difficult circles, beats and transitions. Release moves began to come into play, although they were entirely limited to transitions between the low and high bars. In the late 1960s/early 1970s, companies began manufacturing uneven bars as a separate specific apparatus.
The design was changed to allow the bars to be adjustable, with tension cables that held the apparatus to the floor. As a result of this change, coaches could set the bars farther apart. Additionally, the circumference of the bars themselves decreased, allowing gymnasts to grasp and swing from them with greater ease; as other events in gymnastics increased in difficulty, so did the uneven bars. Gymnasts and coaches began experimenting with elements, attempting more challenging dismounts, adapting moves from men's horizontal bar. In 1972, Olga Korbut pioneered the first high bar salto release move. Nadia Comăneci continued the trend with her original Comaneci salto at the 1976 Olympic Games in Montreal and advanced handstand elements four years later; the giant swing, the staple of high bar in men's artistic gymnastics, was adopted into the women's Code of Points, became a basic uneven bars skill. By the mid 1980s, routines had become so based on swing and release moves that the bars were moved farther apart.
The distance between bars increased more as gymnasts developed difficult transition elements that required space, such as the Pak salto. For international elite level gymnasts, there is a required distance between the low and high bar, called FIG setting, where all elite level gymnasts must compete. Of all the apparatus in women's artistic gymnastics, uneven bars is the one that has seen the most radical changes. Most elements from 1950s and 60s bars routines, such as the Hecht dismount and the Radolcha somersault, are now obsolete and never used. In USAG levels 1-5, everyone in the same level performs the same compulsory routine. In levels 1-3 the gymnasts stay only on the low bar. Once the gymnast reaches level 4, she uses both the high bar. In levels 6 through Elite and coaches make up their own routines within specific requirements using both of the bars. In Gymnastics Australia gymnasts in levels 1-6 set routines that are scored out of 10. In levels 7-10, elite, gymnasts perform optional routines that adhere to set guidelines that meet certain requirements.
A routine on the uneven bars must consist of: Flight element from high bar to low bar and vice versa Flight element on the same bar At least two different grips, a close bar circle element Non flight with a turn on the bar, for example turning handstands Dismount Judges score routines based on difficulty, form and composition. Deductions are taken for execution errors, poor form, pauses, "empty" swings, steps on the dismount, other mistakes. Falls incur an automatic deduction of 1 full point in the 2009 FIG CoP. For levels 1-10 a fall is 0.5 points. If the gymnast hits the low bar with her foot/feet, a deduction of 0.1 to 0.5 points will occur depending on the severity of the hit. The same deduction occurs when the gymnast hits one or both feet on the floor while performing a skil
Jade Fernandes Barbosa is a Brazilian artistic gymnast. She is a two-time bronze medalist at the World Championships, represented Brazil at the 2008 and 2016 Summer Olympics. Barbosa was the Brazilian junior national champion in the all-around in 2006, became a senior in 2007, she has been a popular sports personality in Brazil since her first major appearance at the 2007 Pan American Games in Rio de Janeiro. In December 2007, she was named Brazil's Sportswoman of the Year, an award given in previous years to gymnasts Laís Souza and Daiane dos Santos. Barbosa won her first medal in a senior international competition at the 2007 Cottbus World Cup in Germany, where she placed second on the vault. At the 2007 Pan American Games, she placed fourth in the all-around after falling from the uneven bars and balance beam and going out of bounds on floor exercise; the following day, she competed in the vault finals, where she placed first with a score of 14.912, making her the only non-American woman to win a gold medal in gymnastics at the Games.
She won a bronze medal in the floor final, behind Americans Rebecca Bross and Shawn Johnson, a silver with the Brazilian team. At the 2007 World Championships, Barbosa tied with Vanessa Ferrari of Italy for the bronze medal in the women's all-around, scoring 15.9 on vault, 14.95 on bars, 15.7 on beam, 14.0 on floor. She placed fifth in the vault finals, seventh in the beam finals, fifth with the team, behind the United States, China and Italy. In October 2007, Barbosa took part in the World Cup event in Stuttgart and won two silver medals, one on the vault and one on the floor. At the end of the year, she performed a Cheng vault—one of the most difficult vaults in the world, named after the Chinese Olympian Cheng Fei—in a Brazilian competition; because she could perform an Amanar, she became a contender for the Olympic vault title. In 2007, Barbosa won the Brazilian senior national all-around title, along with the national titles on vault and balance beam. Barbosa's first international competition in 2008 was the Cottbus World Cup.
She won two silver medals there, the other on floor. In May 2008, Barbosa took part in the World Cup event in Moscow. During the vault finals, she was expected to perform an Amanar—a Yurchenko vault with 2.5 twists—but instead, she performed a double-twisting Yurchenko and a laid-out Podkopayeva. She won the gold medal, tied with Russian gymnast Anna Pavlova. In June, Barbosa won the silver medal in the all-around at the Brazilian National Championships, behind Ana Claudia Silva and ahead of Hypólito, she won gold medals on beam and floor exercise. In the same month, Barbosa was the all-around champion at the Vitaly Scherbo International Gymnastics Cup, where Brazil won a team gold medal. At the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, Barbosa helped Brazil qualify to the team finals, where they placed eighth. Individually, she qualified to the all-around finals in eighth place and to the vault finals in seventh, she fell on floor and vault in the all-around final and finished tenth, followed by a seventh-place finish on vault.
Barbosa was unable to compete for some months. In 2009, she competed at Nationals and placed 1st on floor, beating Ethiene Franco and Priscila Cobello, her first major international competition after the Olympics was the 2010 World Championships, where she placed 15th in the all-around and third in the vault final, behind Alicia Sacramone and Aliya Mustafina. The following year, she placed fourth on vault at the 2011 World Championships after twisting her ankle on her second vault. Brazil placed 14th in the team competition, not enough to qualify a full team to the 2012 Olympics. At the 2012 Olympic Test Event, Brazil had a second opportunity to qualify to the Olympics, was successful. Barbosa won an individual gold medal on vault at the Test Event, she was not selected for the 2012 Summer Olympics because of a contract dispute with the Brazilian federation. Barbosa struggled with injuries and returned to gymnastics in June 2015 after undergoing surgery on her right knee. Barbosa qualified for the 2016 Summer Olympics through the test event held in April.
She contributed an overall score of 55.823 toward the Brazil team's first-place finish. In qualifications on 7 August, Barbosa finished in 23rd place with an overall score of 56.499, behind teammates Rebeca Andrade and Flávia Saraiva. In the team final on 9 August, she contributed scores of 14.933 on vault, 14.391 on uneven bars, 13.033 on balance beam and 14.266 on floor toward the team's eighth-place finish. Barbosa was substituted in for teammate Flávia Saraiva by the Brazilian federation for the all-around final on 11 August so that Saraiva could concentrate on preparing for the balance beam final. Barbosa scored 13.700 on balance beam, but she suffered an injury while performing her floor routine and had to withdraw. As a result, she Did Not Finish. Barbosa has become a popular sports personality in Brazil since her first major appearance at the 2007 Pan American Games in Rio de Janeiro, she has developed a big fanbase among young teenagers in Brazil. In December 2007 Barbosa was elected Brazil's Sportswoman of the year, an award given in previous years to gymnasts Laís Souza and Daiane dos Santos.
In December 2014, Barbosa has stated. Rather, she says, her increased breast size is due to her being less active and gaining more body fat. Vault: 15.95 Bars: 15.25 Beam: 15.7 (all-around final, 20