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Floppy disk

A floppy disk known as a floppy, diskette, or disk, is a type of disk storage composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic enclosure lined with fabric that removes dust particles. Floppy disks are written by a floppy disk drive. Floppy disks as 8-inch media and in 5 1⁄4-inch and ​3 1⁄2 inch sizes, were a ubiquitous form of data storage and exchange from the mid-1970s into the first years of the 21st century. By 2006 computers were manufactured with installed floppy disk drives; these formats are handled by older equipment. The prevalence of floppy disks in late 20th century culture was such that many electronic and software programs still use the floppy disks as save icons. While floppy disk drives still have some limited uses with legacy industrial computer equipment, they have been superseded by data storage methods with much greater capacity and transfer speeds, such as USB flash drives, flash storage cards, optical discs and storage available through computer networks such as cloud storage.

The first commercial floppy disks, developed in the late 1960s, were 8 inches in diameter. These disks and associated drives were produced and improved upon by IBM and other companies such as Memorex, Shugart Associates, Burroughs Corporation; the term "floppy disk" appeared in print as early as 1970, although IBM announced its first media as the "Type 1 Diskette" in 1973, the industry continued to use the terms "floppy disk" or "floppy". In 1976, Shugart Associates introduced the ​5 1⁄4-inch FDD. By 1978 there were more than 10 manufacturers producing such FDDs. There were competing floppy disk formats, with hard- and soft-sector versions and encoding schemes such as FM, MFM, M2FM and GCR; the ​5 1⁄4-inch format displaced the 8-inch one for most applications, the hard-sectored disk format disappeared. The most common capacity of the ​5 1⁄4-inch format in DOS-based PCs was 360 KB, for the DSDD format using MFM encoding. In 1984 IBM introduced with its PC-AT model the 1.2 MB dual-sided ​5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk, but it never became popular.

IBM started using the 720 KB double-density ​3 1⁄2-inch microfloppy disk on its Convertible laptop computer in 1986 and the 1.44 MB high-density version with the PS/2 line in 1987. These disk drives could be added to older PC models. In 1988 IBM introduced a drive for 2.88 MB "DSED" diskettes in its top-of-the-line PS/2 models, but this was a commercial failure. Throughout the early 1980s, limitations of the ​5 1⁄4-inch format became clear. Designed to be more practical than the 8-inch format, it was itself too large. A number of solutions were developed, with drives at 2-, ​2 1⁄2-, 3-, ​3 1⁄4-, ​3 1⁄2- and 4-inches offered by various companies, they all shared a number of advantages over the old format, including a rigid case with a sliding metal shutter over the head slot, which helped protect the delicate magnetic medium from dust and damage, a sliding write protection tab, far more convenient than the adhesive tabs used with earlier disks. The large market share of the well-established ​5 1⁄4-inch format made it difficult for these diverse mutually-incompatible new formats to gain significant market share.

A variant on the Sony design, introduced in 1982 by a large number of manufacturers, was rapidly adopted. The term floppy disk persisted though style floppy disks have a rigid case around an internal floppy disk. By the end of the 1980s, ​5 1⁄4-inch disks had been superseded by ​3 1⁄2-inch disks. During this time, PCs came equipped with drives of both sizes. By the mid-1990s, ​5 1⁄4-inch drives had disappeared, as the ​3 1⁄2-inch disk became the predominant floppy disk; the advantages of the ​3 1⁄2-inch disk were its higher capacity, its smaller size, its rigid case which provided better protection from dirt and other environmental risks. If a person touches the exposed disk surface of a ​5 1⁄4-inch disk through the drive hole, fingerprints may foul the disk—and the disk drive head if the disk is subsequently loaded into a drive—and it is easily possible to damage a disk of this type by folding or creasing it rendering it at least unreadable; however due to its simpler construction the ​5 1⁄4-inch disk unit price was lower throughout its history in the range of a third to a half that of a ​3 1⁄2-inch disk.

Floppy disks became commonplace during the 1980s and 1990s in their use with personal computers to distribute software, transfer data, create backups. Before hard disks became affordable to the general population, floppy disks were used to store a computer's operating system. Most home computers from that period have an elementary OS and BASIC stored in ROM, with the option of loading a more advanced operating system from a floppy disk. By the early 1990s, the increasing software size meant large packages like Windows or Adobe Photoshop required a dozen disks or more. In 1996, there were an estimated five billion standard floppy disks in use. Distribution of larger packages was replaced by CD-ROMs, DVDs and online distribution. An attempt to en

Hersvik Church

Hersvik Church is a parish church of the Church of Norway in Solund Municipality in Vestland county, Norway. It is located on the northern part of the island of Sula, it is one of the three churches for the Solund parish, part of the Nordhordland prosti in the Diocese of Bjørgvin. The white, wooden church was built in a long church style in 1891 using designs by the architect Jacob Wilhelm Nordan; the church seats about 168 people. The church was designed by the architect Jacob Wilhelm Nordan, it was modelled after the nearby Fedje Church, located to the south of Solund; the church was consecrated on 10 November 1891 by Bishop Fredrik Waldemar Hvoslef. From 1891 until 1 January 2000, the church was the main church for the Hersvik parish. On 1 January 2000, the three parishes in the municipality were merged into one large parish with three churches. List of churches in Bjørgvin

Effie Maud Aldrich Morrison

Effie Maud Aldrich Morrison originated the concept and instigated the plan of the first senior housing project in the United States. She was a deputy director of the Cumberland County Welfare Board in New Jersey, she received several awards for elderly programs. Morrison was the deputy director of the Cumberland County Welfare Board in 1932. At this time she came up with a concept for a colony for senior citizens, she initiated a series of contacts to transform the concept into a policy and into a project and reality. Morrison first conveyed the idea to New Jersey Governor Arthur Harry Moore who in turn passed the concept to Leon Henderson. Henderson and was an economic advisor in the Roosevelt Administration. Henderson transmitted the idea to First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, who shared the concept with her husband, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Thence the project was added to the Works Progress Administration as the first senior housing project in the United States; the WPA spent $30,000 to build the 14 houses, turned them over to the town of Millville, which had donated land for the venture.

Millville served as the landlord. The retirement colony was built on land, repossessed by the town of Millville for back taxes and became known as the "Roosevelt Colony", it was renamed to the "Roosevelt Park" old age colony, was sometimes referred to as the Colony for the Aged at Roosevelt Park and Roosevelt Park Colony for Aged. When it opened on October 23, 1936, it became the first senior citizens retirement colony in the United States; the colony consisted of 14 houses, each named on lots 100 by 200 feet. The houses were in a large square which had graded sidewalks. There was a central community house for social activities within the project square with a resident colonist as a manager and caretaker; the community house had a fireplace, an assembly room, game rooms. Each of the 14 white cottage style houses at Roosevelt Park consisted of a living room, a bedroom and a bathroom. There were seven houses for married people. There were seven houses designed for single people which were a little smaller and rented for $5 per month which included water and electricity.

The houses were designed with the elderly in mind so that housekeeping chores would be minimized, each came with a vegetable or flower garden. Residents received $15 monthly from the state under the Old Age Assistance Act that had established the "old-age assistance" program in 1932. Houses in Roosevelt Park Morrison was a winner of the'South Jersey Woman of the Year' award for 1951 for work with the elderly. Morrison received in 1952 for founding the Roosevelt Park as a retirement community the Cecilia Gaines Holland Award. Kane, Joseph Nathan. Famous First Facts, Fifth Edition. Item 2198: The H. W. Wilson Company. ISBN 0-8242-0930-3. CS1 maint: location "Effie Maud Aldrich Morrison". Find A Grave. 2011. Retrieved October 20, 2015