Florence Cathedral, formally the Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore, is the cathedral of Florence, Italy. It was begun in 1296 in the Gothic style to a design of Arnolfo di Cambio and was structurally completed by 1436, with the dome designed by Filippo Brunelleschi; the exterior of the basilica is faced with polychrome marble panels in various shades of green and pink, bordered by white, has an elaborate 19th-century Gothic Revival façade by Emilio De Fabris. The cathedral complex, in Piazza del Duomo, includes the Giotto's Campanile; these three buildings are part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site covering the historic centre of Florence and are a major tourist attraction of Tuscany. The basilica is one of Italy's largest churches, until the development of new structural materials in the modern era, the dome was the largest in the world, it remains the largest brick dome constructed. The cathedral is the mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence, whose archbishop is Giuseppe Betori.
Santa Maria del Fiore was built on the site of Florence's second cathedral dedicated to Saint Reparata. The ancient structure, founded in the early 5th century and having undergone many repairs, was crumbling with age, according to the 14th-century Nuova Cronica of Giovanni Villani, was no longer large enough to serve the growing population of the city. Other major Tuscan cities had undertaken ambitious reconstructions of their cathedrals during the Late Medieval period, such as Pisa and Siena where the enormous proposed extensions were never completed; the new church was designed by Arnolfo di Cambio and approved by city council in 1294. Di Cambio was architect of the church of Santa Croce and the Palazzo Vecchio, he designed three wide naves ending under the octagonal dome, with the middle nave covering the area of Santa Reparata. The first stone was laid on 9 September 1296, by Cardinal Valeriana, the first papal legate sent to Florence; the building of this vast project was to last 140 years.
After Arnolfo died in 1302, work on the cathedral slowed for 50 years. When the relics of Saint Zenobius were discovered in 1330 in Santa Reparata, the project gained a new impetus. In 1331, the Arte della Lana, the guild of wool merchants, took over patronage for the construction of the cathedral and in 1334 appointed Giotto to oversee the work. Assisted by Andrea Pisano, Giotto continued di Cambio's design, his major accomplishment was the building of the campanile. When Giotto died on 8 January 1337, Andrea Pisano continued the building until work was halted due to the Black Death in 1348. In 1349, work resumed on the cathedral under a series of architects, starting with Francesco Talenti, who finished the campanile and enlarged the overall project to include the apse and the side chapels. In 1359, Talenti was succeeded by Giovanni di Lapo Ghini who divided the center nave in four square bays. Other architects were Giovanni d'Ambrogio, Neri di Fioravante and Andrea Orcagna. By 1375, the old church Santa Reparata was pulled down.
The nave was finished by 1380, by 1418, only the dome remained incomplete. On 19 August 1418, the Arte della Lana announced an architectural design competition for erecting Neri's dome; the two main competitors were two master goldsmiths, Lorenzo Ghiberti and Filippo Brunelleschi, the latter of whom was supported by Cosimo de Medici. Ghiberti had been the winner of a competition for a pair of bronze doors for the Baptistery in 1401 and lifelong competition between the two remained sharp. Brunelleschi received the commission. Ghiberti, appointed coadjutator, drew a salary equal to Brunelleschi's and, though neither was awarded the announced prize of 200 florins, was promised equal credit, although he spent most of his time on other projects; when Brunelleschi became ill, or feigned illness, the project was in the hands of Ghiberti. But Ghiberti soon had to admit. In 1423, Brunelleschi took over sole responsibility. Work started on the dome in 1420 and was completed in 1436; the cathedral was consecrated by Pope Eugene IV on 25 March 1436.
It was the first'octagonal' dome in history to be built without a temporary wooden supporting frame. It was one of the most impressive projects of the Renaissance. During the consecration in 1436, Guillaume Dufay's motet Nuper rosarum flores was performed; the decoration of the exterior of the cathedral, begun in the 14th century, was not completed until 1887, when the polychrome marble façade was completed with the design of Emilio De Fabris. The floor of the church was relaid in marble tiles in the 16th century; the exterior walls are faced in alternate vertical and horizontal bands of polychrome marble from Carrara, Siena, Lavenza and a few other places. These marble bands had to repeat the existing bands on the walls of the earlier adjacent baptistery the Battistero di San Giovanni and Giotto's Bell Tower. There are two side doors: the Doors of the Canonici and the Door of the Mandorla with sculptures by Nanni di Banco and Jacopo della Quercia; the six side windows, notable for their delicate tracery and ornaments, are separated by pilasters.
Only the four windows closest to the transept admit light. The clerestor
Easy Street is an American sitcom television series created by Hugh Wilson and Andy Borowitz, starring Loni Anderson that aired for 22 episodes on NBC from September 13, 1986 to April 29, 1987. The series stars Loni Anderson as L. K. McGuire, a onetime showgirl who manages to nab a young wealthy husband, only to have him die and leave her fending for herself against his embittered family, who are out to get L. K. out of the picture and away from her inherited money. Meanwhile, L. K. reconnects with a down-on-her-luck uncle, Bully Stevenson, on and off the streets of Los Angeles. L. K. invites him and his pal, Ricardo Williams, to move into her vast mansion, to the consternation of her snobbish inlaws and Quentin Standard. Quentin tends to be a bit more tolerant of L. K. and her family, but Eleanor can't stand them, does everything possible to get rid of them all. Arthur Malet co-stars as the McGuire's butler. Loni Anderson as L. K. McGuire Jack Elam as Uncle Alvin "Bully" Stevenson Lee Weaver as Ricardo Williams Dana Ivey as Eleanor Standard James Cromwell as Quentin Standard Arthur Malet as Bobby Easy Street on IMDb
William Cleveland Mims is a Justice on the Supreme Court of Virginia. He is a former member of the Virginia General Attorney General of Virginia, he is the second person in Virginia history to serve in these three offices. Mims was born and grew up in Harrisonburg and graduated from Harrisonburg High School, he is an Eagle Scout. Mims graduated from the College of Mary, where he was student body president, he is a member of the Phi Eta Sigma, Phi Alpha Theta, Omicron Delta Kappa honorary societies. He has law degrees from George Washington Georgetown University. Mims served as deputy legislative director to U. S. Senator Paul S. Trible Jr. from 1983 to 1985, as chief of staff to Congressman Frank R. Wolf from 1985 to 1987, he practiced law in Leesburg, Virginia from 1987 to 2005. He was a distinguished adjunct professor of law, teaching Virginia Evidence, at George Mason University School of Law from 2002 to 2005, he was a partner in the Hunton & Williams law firm in 2010, prior to joining the Supreme Court.
Mims was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates in 1991 and the Senate of Virginia in 1998, serving a total of 14 years. While in the General Assembly, he served as chair of the Virginia Housing Commission and the Virginia Code Commission and vice-chair of the Joint Commission on Health Care, his legislative accomplishments included creating the Virginia Higher Education Tuition Trust Fund. He sponsored numerous successful bills relating to the rights of crime victims, improving traffic safety, reforming mental health policies. Attorney General Robert F. McDonnell appointed Mims as chief deputy attorney general in January 2006, he was responsible for the day-to-day operations of the Office of the Attorney General, with more than 300 attorneys and staff. In that role, he coordinated Virginia’s legal response to the Virginia Tech shooting, including the mediated settlement of all but two liability claims, the re-regulation of Virginia’s electric utilities; when McDonnell resigned as attorney general to run for governor, the General Assembly unanimously elected Mims to complete McDonnell’s term.
Mims did not seek election to a full term and was succeeded by Kenneth Cuccinelli in January 2010. The General Assembly unanimously elected Mims to the Virginia Supreme Court on March 10, 2010, he took the oath of office on April 1, 2010. The 100th justice in the history of Virginia, Mims filled a vacancy created by the retirement of Justice Barbara Milano Keenan upon her appointment to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. Mims has served in numerous capacities relating to improving mental health and foster care policies; these include service on the boards of Voices for Virginia’s Children, the Richmond Behavioral Health Authority, the Virginia Health Care Foundation, on the Commission on Mental Health Law Reform. He has served on the Board of Governors of the Virginia Bar Association, he is an elder at his church. He authors “Faith & Values” guest columns for the ‘’Richmond Times-Dispatch’’, speaks throughout Virginia on the topics of justice and servant leadership. Mims has received an honorary degree from Bridgewater College, the William B.
Spong Award from William & Mary School of Law, the Outstanding Eagle Scout Award from the National Association of Eagle Scouts. He has delivered the Madison Vision Series lecture at James Madison University and the Convocation address at the College of William & Mary. Mims is married to Jane Mims, they have three adult daughters, two sons-in-law, four grandchildren. An avid marathoner and occasional ultra-marathoner, he ran in the 2013 Boston Marathon and crossed the finish line shortly before the two bombs exploded. "William C Mims". Virginia Public Access Project. "Election Results". Virginia State Board of Elections. Archived from the original on 2010-06-17