United States Postal Service
The United States Postal Service, is an independent agency of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States. It is one of the few government agencies explicitly authorized by the United States Constitution, Mail traces its roots to 1775 during the Second Continental Congress, where Benjamin Franklin was appointed the first postmaster general. The USPS as of February 2015 has 617,254 active employees, the USPS is the operator of the largest civilian vehicle fleet in the world. The USPS is legally obligated to serve all Americans, regardless of geography, at uniform price, the USPS has exclusive access to letter boxes marked U. S. The USPS lost $5.5 billion in fiscal year 2014 and $5.1 billion in 2015, in the early years of the North American colonies, many attempts were made to initiate a postal service. These early attempts were of small scale and usually involved a colony, Massachusetts Bay Colony for example, for example, informal independently-run postal routes operated in Boston as early as 1639, with a Boston to New York City service starting in 1672.
A central postal organization came to the colonies in 1691, when Thomas Neale received a 21-year grant from the British Crown for a North American Postal Service, the patent included the exclusive right to establish and collect a formal postal tax on official documents of all kinds. The tax was repealed a year later, Neale appointed Andrew Hamilton, Governor of New Jersey, as his deputy postmaster. The first postal service in America commenced in February 1692, rates of postage were fixed and authorized, and measures were taken to establish a post office in each town in Virginia. Massachusetts and the other colonies soon passed laws, and a very imperfect post office system was established. Neales patent expired in 1710, when Parliament extended the English postal system to the colonies, the chief office was established in New York City, where letters were conveyed by regular packets across the Atlantic. Before the Revolution, there was only a trickle of business or governmental correspondence between the colonies, most of the mail went back and forth to counting houses and government offices in London.
The Revolution made Philadelphia, the seat of the Continental Congress, new laws, political intelligence, and military orders circulated with a new urgency, and a postal system was necessary. Journalists took the lead, securing post office legislation that allowed them to reach their subscribers at very low cost, overthrowing the London-oriented imperial postal service in 1774-1775, printers enlisted merchants and the new political leadership, and created a new postal system. The United States Post Office was created on July 26,1775, the official post office was created in 1792 as the Post Office Department. It was based on the Constitutional authority empowering Congress To establish post offices, the 1792 law provided for a greatly expanded postal network, and served editors by charging newspapers an extremely low rate. The law guaranteed the sanctity of personal correspondence, and provided the country with low-cost access to information on public affairs. Rufus Easton was appointed by Thomas Jefferson first postmaster of St.
Louis under the recommendation of Postmaster General Gideon Granger, Rufus Easton was the first postmaster and built the first post office west of the Mississippi
The Cherokee language is part of the Iroquoian language group. The Cherokee were one of the first, if not the first, article 8 in the 1817 treaty with the Cherokee stated Cherokees may wish to become citizens of the United States. The Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma has around 300,000 tribal members, in addition, numerous groups claiming Cherokee lineage, some of which are state-recognized, have members who are among those 819, 000-plus people claiming Cherokee ancestry on the US census. Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the Cherokee Nation and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians have headquarters in Tahlequah, the UKB are mostly descendants of Old Settlers, Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817. They are related to the Cherokee who were relocated there in the 1830s under the Indian Removal Act. The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is on the Qualla Boundary in western North Carolina, the Cherokee refer to themselves as Ani-Yunwiya, which means Principal People.
Many theories—though none proven—abound about the origin of the name Cherokee and it may have originally been derived from the Choctaw word Cha-la-kee, which means people who live in the mountains, or Choctaw Chi-luk-ik-bi, meaning people who live in the cave country. The earliest Spanish rendering of the name Cherokee, from 1755, is Tchalaquei, Another theory is that Cherokee derives from a Lower Creek word, Cvlakke. The Iroquois in New York have historically called the Cherokee Oyata’geronoñ, Tsalagi is sometimes misused as a name for the people, Tsalagi is actually the Cherokee word for the Cherokee language. There are two theories of Cherokee origins. Another theory is that the Cherokee had been in the Southeast for thousands of years, researchers in the 19th century recorded conversations with elders who recounted an oral tradition of the Cherokee peoples migrating south from the Great Lakes region in ancient times. They may have moved south into Muscogee Creek territory and settled at the sites of mounds built by the Mississippian culture, in the 19th century, European-American settlers mistakenly attributed several Mississippian culture sites to the Cherokee, including Moundville and Etowah Mounds.
However, the Cherokee did not reach this part of Georgia until the late 18th century, pre-contact Cherokee are considered to be part of the Pisgah Phase of Southern Appalachia, which lasted from circa 1000 to 1500. During the late Archaic and Woodland Period, Indians in the region began to cultivate plants such as elder, pigweed, sunflowers. People created new art forms such as shell gorgets, adopted new technologies, during the Mississippian Culture-period, local women developed a new variety of maize called eastern flint corn. It closely resembled modern corn and produced larger crops, the successful cultivation of corn surpluses allowed the rise of larger, more complex chiefdoms with several villages and concentrated populations during this period. Corn became celebrated among numerous peoples in ceremonies, especially the Green Corn Ceremony. Much of what is known about pre-18th-century Native American cultures has come from records of Spanish expeditions, the earliest ones of the mid-16th-century encountered people of the Mississippian culture, the ancestors to tribes in the Southeast such as the Muscogee and Catawba
Tahlequah is a city in Cherokee County, United States located at the foothills of the Ozark Mountains. The citys population was 15,753 at the 2010 census, the 2014 estimated population is 16,496. It is the county seat of Cherokee County, the main campus of Northeastern State University is located in the city. Tahlequah is the capital of the two federally recognized Cherokee tribes based in Oklahoma, the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians, many linguists believe the word Tahlequah and the word Teh-li-co are the same as di li gwa, the Cherokee word for grain or rice. Scholars report the Cherokee word di li gwa describes a type of grain with a red hue that grew in the flat open areas of east Tennessee. One area, Great Tellico, was named for the grass with the red seed tops, others interpret a word tel-i-quah as plains, there is no word for plains in the Cherokee lexicon, and the word tel-i-quah is not found in the lexicon. The idea that tahlequah means plains lends weight to the belief that the name refers to the open grassy areas of Great Tellico.
Another explanation is the name Tahlequah came from the Cherokee words Ta-li, the story goes that when the Cherokee came to Tahlequah there were supposed to be 3 different Chiefs at the meeting. For whatever reason the 3rd Chief was delayed, the people said two is enough or ta-li-ye-li-quu which became anglicanized to Tahlequah. When the Cherokee first arrived in the Tahlequah area, they noticed the native grasses that grew in the areas around the foothills of the Ozark Mountains. This reminded them of the grassy open areas of Tellico, so they called their new home di li gwa. Local legend states the name is derived from Cherokee words meaning just two or two is enough, supposedly three tribal elders had planned to meet to determine the location of the Cherokee Nations permanent capital. Two elders arrived and waited for the third, as dusk approached, they decided that two is enough. According to tribal elders and Cherokee County elders, this legend first began to circulate in the 1930s, Tahlequah was a settlement as early as 1832.
After the Western Cherokee agreed in 1834 to let the newer migrants settle near them, Tahlequah was named long before it was chosen as the Cherokee capital. In 1839, Tahlequah was designated the capital of ancestors of both the Cherokee Nation and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians, initially the government buildings were a complex of log or framed structures. Most of these buildings were destroyed during the Civil War, during which the Cherokee became divided into two opposing sides. After the war, a brick capitol was built and first occupied in 1870, in 1907, at the time of Oklahoma statehood, the building was converted into the Cherokee County courthouse
Stone County, Missouri
Stone County is a county located in the southwestern portion of the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 32,202, the county was officially organized on February 10,1851, and is named after William Stone, an English pioneer and an early settler in Maryland who served as Taney County Judge. Stone County is part of the Branson, MO Micropolitan Statistical Area, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 511 square miles, of which 464 square miles is land and 47 square miles is water. The population density was 62 people per square mile, there were 16,241 housing units at an average density of 35 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97. 64% White,0. 07% Black or African American,0. 61% Native American,0. 18% Asian,0. 03% Pacific Islander,0. 25% from other races, and 1. 20% from two or more races. Approximately 1. 04% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race, among the major first ancestries reported in Stone County were 24.
3% American,20. 4% German,11. 3% English, and 10. 8% Irish ancestry. 21. 40% of all households were made up of individuals and 10. 30% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.76. In the county, the population was out with 21. 40% under the age of 18,6. 20% from 18 to 24,23. 80% from 25 to 44,29. 70% from 45 to 64. The median age was 44 years, for every 100 females there were 96.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.10 males, the median income for a household in the county was $40,487, and the median income for a family was $46,675. Males had an income of $26,224 versus $19,190 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,813, about 8. 50% of families and 12. 80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19. 00% of those under age 18 and 8. 10% of those age 65 or over. Of adults 25 years of age and older in Stone County,80. 4% possesses a school diploma or higher while 14. 2% holds a bachelors degree or higher as their highest educational attainment.
The County Commission oversees the Planning and Zoning Department, Senior Citizens Services Board, a Law Enforcement Restitution Board, all elected Officials in Stone County serve 4 year terms. The county employed 170 full-time employees and 10 part-time employees on December 31,2014. The Government primarily operates out of the County Seat of Galena, the Stone County Sheriffs office, Circuit Clerk, and Jail are all in the Stone County Judicial Center on the east side of the square. The Assessor and Planning and Zoning offices are located in buildings on the side of the square. The Republican Party completely controls politics at the level in Stone County. All current office holders are members of the Republican Party, elected Officials in Stone County on average have a long tenure one elected to office
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States, the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C. it maintains the Packard Campus in Culpeper, which houses the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center. The Library of Congress claims to be the largest library in the world and its collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages. Two-thirds of the books it acquires each year are in other than English. The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800, after sitting for years in the temporary national capitals of New York. John J. Beckley, who became the first Librarian of Congress, was two dollars per day and was required to serve as the Clerk of the House of Representatives.
The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s, most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814, during the War of 1812. To restore its collection in 1815, the bought from former president Thomas Jefferson his entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection. The Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to have two copies deposited of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections of British and other European works and it included several stories built underground of steel and cast iron stacks. Although the Library is open to the public, only high-ranking government officials may check out books, the Library promotes literacy and American literature through projects such as the American Folklife Center, American Memory, Center for the Book, and Poet Laureate.
James Madison is credited with the idea for creating a congressional library, part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress. And for fitting up an apartment for containing them. Books were ordered from London and the collection, consisting of 740 books and 3 maps, was housed in the new Capitol, as president, Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. The new law extended to the president and vice president the ability to borrow books and these volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the only congressional volumes to have survived was a government account book of receipts and it was taken as a souvenir by a British Commander whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, former president Jefferson offered to sell his library as a replacement
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western United States and the Mountain West states and it is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix, Arizona is one of the Four Corners states. It has borders with New Mexico, Nevada and Mexico, Arizonas border with Mexico is 389 miles long, on the northern border of the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the states to be admitted to the Union. Historically part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, after being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848. The southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase, Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with very hot summers and mild winters. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff, Alpine, in addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, and national monuments.
To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like Arissona, the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the Oodham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area, There is a misconception that the states name originated from the Spanish term Árida Zona. See lists of counties, rivers, state parks, national parks, Arizona is in the Southwestern United States as one of the Four Corners states. Arizona is the sixth largest state by area, ranked after New Mexico, of the states 113,998 square miles, approximately 15% is privately owned. The remaining area is public forest and park land, state trust land, Arizona is well known for its desert Basin and Range region in the states southern portions, which is rich in a landscape of xerophyte plants such as the cactus. This regions topography was shaped by volcanism, followed by the cooling-off. Its climate has hot summers and mild winters. The state is well known for its pine-covered north-central portion of the high country of the Colorado Plateau.
Like other states of the Southwest United States, Arizona has an abundance of mountains, despite the states aridity, 27% of Arizona is forest, a percentage comparable to modern-day France or Germany. The worlds largest stand of pine trees is in Arizona
Edward Jean Steichen was a Luxembourgish American photographer and art gallery and museum curator. Steichen was the most frequently featured photographer in Alfred Stieglitz groundbreaking magazine Camera Work during its run from 1903 to 1917, together Stieglitz and Steichen opened the Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession, which eventually became known as 291 after its address. His photos of gowns for the magazine Art et Décoration in 1911 are regarded as the first modern fashion photographs ever published. From 1923 to 1938, Steichen was a photographer for the Condé Nast magazines Vogue, during these years, Steichen was regarded as the best known and highest paid photographer in the world. In 1944, he directed the war documentary The Fighting Lady, after World War II, Steichen was Director of the Department of Photography at New Yorks Museum of Modern Art until 1962. While at MoMA, he curated and assembled the exhibit The Family of Man, Steichen was born Éduard Jean Steichen in Bivange, the son of Jean-Pierre and Marie Kemp Steichen.
Jean-Pierre Steichen initially immigrated to the United States in 1880, Marie Steichen brought the infant Edward along once Jean-Pierre had settled in Chicago, in 1881. The family, with the addition of Eduards younger sister Lilian, moved to Milwaukee in 1889, in 1894, at the age of fifteen, Steichen began a four-year lithography apprenticeship with the American Fine Art Company of Milwaukee. After hours, he would sketch and draw, and began to teach himself to paint. Having come across a shop near to his work, he visited frequently with curiosity until he persuaded himself to buy his first camera. The group hired Richard Lorenz and Robert Schade for occasional lectures. Steichen was naturalized as a U. S. citizen in 1900 and signed the papers as Edward J. Steichen, however. Steichen married Clara Smith in 1903 and they had two daughters and Mary. In 1914, Clara accused her husband of having an affair with artist Marion H. Beckett, the Steichens left France just ahead of invading German troops. In 1915, Clara Steichen returned to France with her daughter Kate, Steichen returned to France with the Photography Division of the American Army Signal Corps in 1917, whereupon Clara returned to the United States.
In 1919, Clara Steichen sued Marion Beckett for having an affair with her husband and Edouart Steichen eventually divorced in 1922. Steichen married Dana Desboro Glover in 1923 and she died of leukemia in 1957. In 1960, aged 80, Steichen married Joanna Taub and remained married to her until his death, Joanna Steichen died on July 24,2010, in Montauk, New York, aged 77
Oroville is the county seat of Butte County, United States. The population was 15,506 at the 2010 census, up from 13,004 in the 2000 census, Oroville is considered the gateway to Lake Oroville and Feather River recreational areas. The city of Oroville has recently annexed two locations in South Oroville, areas A and B, which have a population of 2,725 people. The U. S. Census Bureau estimated the population of the city to be 17,996 as of January 1,2016, the Berry Creek Rancheria of Maidu Indians of California is headquartered here. Oroville is located off of State Route 70, and is in proximity to State Route 99. Chico, California is located about 25 minutes north of the city, Oroville is situated at the base of the foothills on the banks of the Feather River where it flows out of the Sierra Nevada onto the flat floor of the Sacramento Valley. It was established as the head of navigation on the Feather River to supply miners during the California Gold Rush. The town was originally called Ophir City, but the name was changed to Oroville when the first post office opened in 1854, the City Of Oroville was incorporated on January 3,1906.
Gold was found at Bidwell Bar, one of the first gold mining sites in California, Oroville would serve as an important stop for the famous California Zephyr during its 20-year run. In 1983, this became a part of the Union Pacific Railroad as their Feather River Canyon Subdivision, a major highway, State Route 70, roughly parallels the railroad line winding through the canyon. The Chinese Temple is another monument to Orovilles storied past, Chinese laborers from the pioneer era established the Temple as a place of worship for followers of Chinese Popular Religion and the three major Chinese religions, Taoism and Confucianism. The Chinese Temple and Garden, as it is now called, has a collection of artifacts. The olive-canning industry was founded in Oroville by Freda Ehmann, the mother of ripe olives and she built a large cannery in Oroville, and by 1900 was the president of the worlds largest canned olive factory. Ehmann was a believer in womens suffrage and a friend of Susan B, anthony Ishi, Orovilles most famous resident, was the last of the Yahi Indians and is considered the last Stone Age Indian to come out of the wilderness and into western civilization.
When he appeared out of the hills in East Oroville in 1911, the Visitors Center at Lake Oroville has a thorough exhibit and documentary film on Ishi and his life in society. Archaeological finds place the border for the prehistoric Martis people in the Oroville area. On August 7,1881, beloved elderly pioneer Jack Crum was stomped to death by local bully Tom Noacks in Chico, California. The young Noacks was feared by the locals of Butte County, not only because of his size and strength, but because he was mentally unbalanced and enjoyed punching oxen in the head
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
In general, the tribes ceded land they occupied in exchange for land grants in an area purchased by the United States federal government from Napoleonic France, the Louisiana Purchase. The concept of an Indian Territory was an outcome of the 18th-, after the Civil War, the policy of the government was one of assimilation. The term Indian Reserve describes lands the British government set aside for indigenous tribes between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River in the time before the Revolutionary War. The borders of Indian Territory were reduced in size as various Organic Acts were passed by Congress to create incorporated territories of the United States. The 1907 Oklahoma Enabling Act created the state of Oklahoma by combining Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory. Indian Territory, known as the Indian Territories and the Indian Country, was land within the United States of America reserved for the forced re-settlement of Native Americans, the general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834.
The territory was located in the Midwest, while Congress passed several Organic Acts that provided a path for statehood for much of the original Indian Country, Congress never passed an Organic Act for the Indian Territory. Indian Territory was never an organized incorporated territory of the United States, in general, tribes could not sell land to non-Indians. The region never had a government until after the American Civil War. Therefore, the location commonly called Indian Territory was not a traditional territory. These re-written treaties included provisions for a legislature with proportional representation from various tribes. In time, the Indian Territory was reduced to what is now Oklahoma, the Organic Act of 1890 reduced Indian Territory to the lands occupied by the Five Civilized Tribes and the Tribes of the Quapaw Indian Agency. The remaining western portion of the former Indian Territory became the Oklahoma Territory, the Oklahoma organic act applied the laws of Nebraska to the incorporated territory of Oklahoma Territory, and the laws of Arkansas to the still unincorporated Indian Territory.
The proclamation limited the settlement of Europeans to Crown-claimed lands east of the Appalachian Mountains, the territory remained active until the Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolutionary War, and land was ceded to the United States. After the defeat of the British, the Americans twice invaded the Ohio Country and were twice defeated, the period after the American Revolutionary War was one of rapid western expansion. The areas occupied by Native Americans in the United States were called Indian country, in 1803 the United States of America agreed to purchase Frances claim to French Louisiana for a total of $15 million. President Thomas Jefferson doubted the legality of the purchase, the chief negotiator, Robert R. Livingston believed that the 3rd article of the treaty providing for the Louisiana Purchase would be acceptable to congress. Indian removal became the policy of the United States government with the passage of the 1830 Indian Removal Act
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, in most countries it started in 1929 and it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how far the economy can decline. The depression originated in the United States, after a fall in stock prices that began around September 4,1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide GDP fell by an estimated 15%, by comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession. Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s, however, in many countries, the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II. The Great Depression had devastating effects in both rich and poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%, unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%.
Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many countries, farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Even after the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time, john D. Rockefeller said These are days when many are discouraged. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have come, prosperity has always returned and will again. The stock market turned upward in early 1930, returning to early 1929 levels by April and this was still almost 30% below the peak of September 1929. Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered losses in the stock market the previous year. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S, by mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed.
By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928, prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930