Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey is a joint venture between the U. S. states of New York and New Jersey, established in 1921 through an interstate compact authorized by the United States Congress. In New York, it is classified as a Class D public benefit corporation; the Port Authority oversees much of the regional transportation infrastructure, including bridges, tunnels and seaports, within the geographical jurisdiction of the Port of New York and New Jersey. This 1,500-square-mile port district is encompassed within a 25-mile radius of the Statue of Liberty National Monument; the Port Authority is headquartered at 4 World Trade Center and is a member of the Real Estate Board of New York. The Port Authority operates the Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal, which handled the third-largest volume of shipping among all ports in the United States in 2004 and the largest on the Eastern Seaboard; the Port Authority operates Hudson River crossings, including the Holland Tunnel, Lincoln Tunnel, George Washington Bridge connecting New Jersey with Manhattan, three crossings that connect New Jersey with Staten Island.
The Port Authority Bus Terminal and the PATH rail system are run by the Port Authority, as well as LaGuardia Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport, Teterboro Airport, Stewart International Airport and Atlantic City International Airport; the agency has its own 1,700-member Port Authority Police Department. The Port of New York and New Jersey comprised the main point of embarkation for U. S. troops and supplies sent to Europe via the New York Port of Embarkation. The congestion at the port led experts to realize the need for a port authority to supervise the complex system of bridges, highways and port facilities in the New York-New Jersey area; the solution was the 1921 creation of the Port Authority under the supervision of the governors of the two states. By issuing its own bonds, it was financially independent of either state, it became one of the major agencies of the metropolitan area for large-scale projects. In the early years of the 20th century, there were disputes between the states of New Jersey and New York over rail freights and boundaries.
At the time, rail lines terminated on the New Jersey side of the harbor, while ocean shipping was centered on Manhattan and Brooklyn. Freight had to be shipped across the Hudson River in barges. In 1916, New Jersey launched a lawsuit against New York over issues of rail freight, with the Interstate Commerce Commission issuing an order that the two states work together, subordinating their own interests to the public interest; the Harbor Development Commission, a joint advisory board set-up in 1917, recommended that a bi-state authority be established to oversee efficient economic development of the port district. The Port of New York Authority was established on April 30, 1921, through an interstate compact between the states of New Jersey and New York; this was the first such agency in the United States, created under a provision in the Constitution of the United States permitting interstate compacts. The idea for the Port Authority was conceived during the Progressive Era, which aimed at the reduction of political corruption and at increasing the efficiency of government.
With the Port Authority at a distance from political pressures, it was able to carry longer-term infrastructure projects irrespective of the election cycles and in a more efficient manner. In 1972 it was renamed the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey to better reflect its status as a partnership between the two states. Throughout its history, there have been concerns about democratic accountability, or lack thereof at the Port Authority; the Port District is irregularly shaped but comprises a 1,500-square-mile area within a 25-mile radius of the Statue of Liberty. At the beginning of the 20th century, there were no road bridge or tunnel crossings between the two states; the initial tunnel crossings were completed by the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad in 1908 and 1909, followed by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1910. Under an independent agency, the Holland Tunnel was opened in 1927, with some planning and construction pre-dating the Port Authority. With the rise in automobile traffic, there was demand for more Hudson River crossings.
Using its ability to issue bonds and collect revenue, the Port Authority has built and managed major infrastructure projects. Early projects included bridges across the Arthur Kill, which separates Staten Island from New Jersey; the Goethals Bridge, named after chief engineer of the Panama Canal Commission General George Washington Goethals, connected Elizabeth, New Jersey and Howland Hook, Staten Island. At the south end of Arthur Kill, the Outerbridge Crossing was built and named after the Port Authority's first chairman, Eugenius Harvey Outerbridge. Construction of both bridges was completed in 1928; the Bayonne Bridge, opened in 1931, was built across the Kill van Kull, connecting Staten Island with Bayonne, New Jersey. Construction began in 1927 on the George Washington Bridge, linking the northern part of Manhattan with Fort Lee, New Jersey, with Port Authority chief engineer, Othmar Ammann, overseeing the project; the bridge was completed in October 1931, ahead of schedule and well under the estimated costs.
This efficiency exhibited by the Port Authority impressed President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who used this as a model in creating the Tennessee Valley Authority and other such entities. In 1930, the Holland Tunnel was placed under control of the Port Authority, providing significant toll revenues. During the late 1930
New York Harbor
New York Harbor, part of the Port of New York and New Jersey, is at the mouth of the Hudson River where it empties into New York Bay and into the Atlantic Ocean at the East Coast of the United States. It is one of the largest natural harbors in the world. Although the United States Board on Geographic Names does not use the term, New York Harbor has important historical, governmental and ecological usages; the original population of the 16th century New York Harbor, the Lenape, used the waterways for fishing and travel. In 1524 Giovanni da Verrazzano anchored in what is now called The Narrows, the strait between Staten Island and Long Island that connects the Upper and Lower New York Bay, where he received a canoe party of Lenape. A party of his sailors may have taken on fresh water at a spring called "the watering place" on Staten Island—a monument stands in a tiny park on the corner of Bay Street and Victory Boulevard at the approximate spot—but Verrazzano's descriptions of the geography of the area are a bit ambiguous.
It is firmly held by historians that his ship anchored at the approximate location where the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge touches down in Brooklyn today. He observed what he believed to be a large freshwater lake to the north, he did not travel north to observe the existence of the Hudson River. In 1609 Henry Hudson explored a stretch of the river that now bears his name, his journey prompted others to engage in trade with the local population. In 1624 the first permanent European settlement was started on Governors Island, eight years in Brooklyn; the colonial Dutch Director-General of New Netherland, Peter Stuyvesant, ordered construction of the first wharf on the Manhattan bank of the lower East River sheltered from winds and ice, completed late in 1648 and called Schreyers Hook Dock. This prepared New York as a leading port for the British colonies and within the newly independent United States. In 1686, the British colonial officials gave the municipality control over the waterfront. In 1808, Lieutenant Thomas Gedney of the United States Coast Survey discovered a new, deeper channel through The Narrows into New York Harbor.
The passage was complex and shallow enough that loaded ships would wait outside the harbor until high tide, to avoid running into the huge sandbar, interrupted in a number of places by channels of shallow depth: 21 feet at low tide and 33 feet at high tide. Because of the difficulty of the navigation required, since 1694, New York had required all ships to be guided into the harbor by an experienced pilot; the new channel Gedney discovered was 2 feet deeper, enough of an added margin that laden ships could come into the harbor at slack tide. Gedney's Channel, as it came to be called, was shorter than the previous channel, another benefit appreciated by the ship owners and the merchants they sold to. Gedney received the praise of the city, as well as an expensive silver service. In 1824 the first American drydock was completed on the East River; because of its location and depth, the Port grew with the introduction of steamships. By about 1840, more passengers and a greater tonnage of cargo came through the port of New York than all other major harbors in the country combined and by 1900 it was one of the great international ports.
The Morris Canal, carrying anthracite and freight from Pennsylvania through New Jersey to its terminus at the mouth of the Hudson in Jersey City. Portions in the harbor are now part of Liberty State Park. In 1870, the city established the Department of Docks to systematize waterfront development, with George B. McClellan as the first engineer in chief. By the turn of the 20th century numerous railroad terminals lined the western banks of the North River in Hudson County, transporting passengers as well as freight from all over the United States; the freight was ferried across by the competing railroads with small fleets of towboats, 323 car floats, specially designed barges with rails so cars could be rolled on. New York subsidized this service. Major road improvements allowing for trucking and containerization diminished the need; the Statue of Liberty stands on Liberty Island in the harbor, the Statue of Liberty National Monument recalls the period of massive immigration to the United States at the turn of the 20th century.
The main port of entry at Ellis Island processed 12 million arrivals from 1892 to 1954. While many stayed in the region, others spread across America, with more than 10 million leaving from the nearby Central Railroad of New Jersey Terminal. After the United States entered World War II, the German navy's Operation Drumbeat set the top U-boat aces loose against the merchant fleet in U. S. territorial waters in January 1942. The U-boat captains were able to silhouette target ships against the glow of city lights, attacked with relative impunity, in spite of U. S. naval concentrations within the Harbor. Casualties included the tankers Coimbria off Sandy Norness off Long Island. New York Harbor, as the major convoy embarkation point for the U. S. was a staging area in the Battle of the Atlantic, with the U. S. Merchant Marine losses of 1 of 26 exceeding those of the other U. S. forces. Bright city lights made it easier for German U-boats to spot targets at night, but local officia
An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo. Such aircraft are most operated by airlines. Although the definition of an airliner can vary from country to country, an airliner is defined as an aeroplane intended for carrying multiple passengers or cargo in commercial service; the largest of them are wide-body jets which are called twin-aisle because they have two separate aisles running from the front to the back of the passenger cabin. These are used for long-haul flights between airline hubs and major cities. A smaller, more common class of airliners is the single-aisle; these are used for short to medium-distance flights with fewer passengers than their wide-body counterparts. Regional airliners seat fewer than 100 passengers and may be powered by turbofans or turboprops; these airliners are the non-mainline counterparts to the larger aircraft operated by the major carriers, legacy carriers, flag carriers, are used to feed traffic into the large airline hubs. These regional routes form the spokes of a hub-and-spoke air transport model.
The lightest of short-haul regional feeder airliner type aircraft that carry a small number of passengers are called commuter aircraft, commuterliners and air taxis, depending on their size, how they are marketed, region of the world, seating configurations. The Beechcraft 1900, for example, has only 19 seats; when the Wright brothers made the world’s first sustained heavier-than-air flight, they laid the foundation for what would become a major transport industry. Their flight in 1903 was just 11 years before what is defined as the world’s first airliner; these airliners have had a significant impact on global society and politics. In 1913, Igor Sikorsky developed the first large multi-engine airplane, the Russky Vityaz, refined into the more practical Ilya Muromets with dual controls for a pilot plus copilot and a comfortable cabin with a lavatory, cabin heating and lighting; the large four-engine biplane was derived in a bomber aircraft, preceding subsequent transport and bomber aircraft.
Due to the onset of World War I, it was never used as a commercial airliner. It first flew on December 10, 1913 and took off for its first demonstration flight with 16 passengers aboard on February 25, 1914. In 1915, the first airliner was used by Elliot Air Service; the aircraft was a Curtiss JN 4, a small biplane, used in World War I as a trainer. It was used as a tour and familiarization flight aircraft in the early 1920s. In 1919, after World War I, the Farman F.60 Goliath designed as a long-range heavy bomber, was converted for commercial use into a passenger airliner. It could seat 14 passengers from 1919, around 60 were built. Several publicity flights were made, including one on 8 February 1919, when the Goliath flew 12 passengers from Toussus-le-Noble to RAF Kenley, near Croydon, despite having no permission from the British authorities to land. Another important airliner built in 1919 was the Airco DH.16. In March 1919, the prototype first flew at Hendon Aerodrome. Nine aircraft were built, all but one being delivered to the nascent airline, Aircraft Transport and Travel, which used the first aircraft for pleasure flying, on 25 August 1919, it inaugurated the first scheduled international airline service from London to Paris.
One aircraft was sold to the River Plate Aviation Company in Argentina, to operate a cross-river service between Buenos Aires and Montevideo. Meanwhile, the competing Vickers converted its successful WWI bomber, the Vickers Vimy, into a civilian version, the Vimy Commercial, it was redesigned with a larger-diameter fuselage, first flew from the Joyce Green airfield in Kent on 13 April 1919. The world's first all-metal transport aircraft was the Junkers F.13 from 1919, with 322 built. The Dutch Fokker company produced the Fokker F. II and the F. III; these aircraft were used by the Dutch airline KLM when it reopened an Amsterdam-London service in 1921. The Fokkers were soon flying to destinations across Europe, including Bremen, Brussels and Paris, they proved to be reliable aircraft. The Handley Page company in Britain produced the Handley Page Type W as the company's first civil transport aircraft, it housed two crew in 15 passengers in an enclosed cabin. Powered by two 450 hp Napier Lion engines, the prototype first flew on 4 December 1919, shortly after it was displayed at the 1919 Paris Air Show at Le Bourget.
It was the world's first airliner to be designed with an on-board lavatory. Meanwhile in France, the Bleriot-SPAD S.33 was a great success throughout the 1920s serving the Paris-London route, on continental routes. The enclosed cabin could carry four passengers with an extra seat in the cockpit. By 1921, aircraft capacity needed to be larger for the economics to remain favourable; the English company de Havilland, therefore built the 10-passenger DH.29 monoplane, while starting work on the design of the DH.32, an eight-seater biplane with a less powerful but more economical Rolls-Royce Eagle engine. Owing to the urgent need for more capacity, work on the DH.32 was stopped and the DH.34 biplane was designed, accommodating 10 passengers. The Fokker trimotor was an important and popular transport, manufactured under license in Europe and America. Throughout the 1920s, companies in Britain and France were at the forefront of the civil airliner industry considerably aided by governme
Upper New York Bay
Upper New York Bay, or Upper Bay, is the traditional heart of the Port of New York and New Jersey, called New York Harbor. It is enclosed by the New York City boroughs of Manhattan and Staten Island and the Hudson County, New Jersey, municipalities of Jersey City and Bayonne; the Upper Bay is fed by the waters of the Hudson River, as well as the Gowanus Canal. It is connected to Lower New York Bay by the Narrows, to Newark Bay by the Kill Van Kull, to Long Island Sound by the East River, which despite the name, is a tidal strait, it provides the main passage for the waters of the Hudson River. The channel of the Hudson as it passes through the harbor is called the Anchorage Channel and is 50 feet deep in the midpoint of the harbor. A project to replace two water mains between Brooklyn and Staten Island which will allowing for dredging of the channel to nearly 100 feet was begun in April 2012, it contains several islands including Governors Island, near the mouth of the East River, as well Ellis Island, Liberty Island, Robbins Reef which are supported by a large underwater reef on the New Jersey side of the harbor.
The reef was one of the largest oyster beds in the world and provided a staple for the diet of all classes of citizens both locally and regionally until the end of the 19th century, when the beds succumbed to pollution. It has played an important role in the commerce of the New York metropolitan area; the Statue of Liberty National Monument recalls the immigrant experience during the late 19th and early 20th century. Since the 1950s, container ship traffic has been routed through the Kill Van Kull to Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal, where it is consolidated for easier automated transfer to land conveyance; as a consequence, the waterfront industries of the Upper Bay experienced a decline leading to diverse plans for revitalization, though important maritime uses remain at Red Hook, Port Jersey, MOTBY, Constable Hook, parts of the Staten Island shore. Liberty State Park opened in 1976. In recent years, it has become a popular site for recreation kayaking; the harbor is traversed by the Staten Island Ferry, which runs between Whitehall Street at the southernmost tip of Manhattan near Battery Park and St. George Ferry Terminal on Richmond Terrace in Staten Island near Richmond County Borough Hall and Richmond County Supreme Court.
NY Waterway operates routes through The Narrows to locations near Sandy Hook. The Upper Bay supports a diverse population of marine species, allowing for recreational fishing, most for striped bass and bluefish
World's Fair Marina
The World's Fair Marina is a public marina in Flushing Bay, New York. It is located at the northern edge of Flushing Meadows–Corona Park and operated by the Marine Division of the Department of Parks and Recreation; the marina is situated next to a 1.4-mile long stretch of promenade around Flushing Bay and is near LaGuardia Airport and Citi Field. The marina has over 250 slips for vessels up to 120 feet in length, a boat and kayak launch, a ferry landing; the ferry landing is used by SeaStreak, which provides service to Highlands, New Jersey for selected New York Mets games. Ferry service to baseball games began in 1989 with American Skimmer providing service between Pier 11/Wall Street and the East 34th Street Ferry Landing in Manhattan. NY Waterway began operating a similar ferry service in 1998. A free ferry service operated by New York Water Taxi provides service between Pier 11/Wall Street and the East 34th Street Ferry Landing in Manhattan and the World's Fair Marina for the US Open, as well as before Mets games.
The history of the World's Fair Marina traces back to a boat basin, constructed for the 1939 New York World's Fair. Robert Moses had the marina redesigned and expanded to accommodate 800 boats for the 1964 New York World's Fair, held in the same location; the Parks Department has run the marina since 1999. It had been run by a private concessionaire. Parking for the marina is available in a lot next to the Grand Central Parkway; the marina's administration building constructed for the 1964 World's Fair now houses the New York City Department of Parks & Recreation Marine Division office as well as the World's Fair Marina Restaurant & Banquet Hall. Several party and event boats operate cruises from the Worlds Fair Marina. World's Fair Marina
Nathan Hale was an American soldier and spy for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He volunteered for an intelligence-gathering mission in New York City but was captured by the British and executed. Hale has long been considered an American hero and in 1985, he was designated the state hero of Connecticut. Nathan Hale was born in Connecticut, in 1755 to Richard Hale and Elizabeth Strong. In 1769, when he was fourteen years old, he was sent with his brother Enoch, sixteen, to Yale College. Nathan was a classmate of fellow patriot spy Benjamin Tallmadge; the Hale brothers belonged to the Linonian Society of Yale, which debated topics in astronomy, mathematics and the ethics of slavery. Nathan graduated with first-class honors in 1773 at age 18 and became a teacher, first in East Haddam and in New London. After the Revolutionary War began in 1775, he joined a Connecticut militia and was elected first lieutenant within five months, his militia unit participated in the Siege of Boston.
It has been suggested that he was unsure as to whether he wanted to fight, or whether he was hindered because his teaching contract in New London did not expire until several months in July 1775. On July 4, 1775, Hale received a letter from his classmate and friend Benjamin Tallmadge, who had gone to Boston to see the siege for himself, he wrote to Hale, "Was I in your condition, I think. Our holy Religion, the honor of our God, a glorious country, & a happy constitution is what we have to defend." Tallmadge's letter was so inspiring that, several days Hale accepted a commission as first lieutenant in the 7th Connecticut Regiment under Colonel Charles Webb of Stamford. In the following spring, the army moved to Manhattan Island to prevent the British from taking over New York City. In September, General Washington was desperate to determine the location of the imminent British invasion of Manhattan Island. To that end, Washington needed a spy behind enemy lines, Hale was the only volunteer; the Battle of Long Island led to British victory and the capture of New York City via a flanking move from Staten Island across Long Island.
Hale volunteered on September 8, 1776, to go behind enemy lines and report on British troop movements. He was ferried across on September 12, it was an act of spying, punishable by death and posed a great risk to Hale. During his mission, New York City fell to British forces on September 15 and Washington was forced to retreat to the island's north in Harlem Heights. On September 21, a quarter of the lower portion of Manhattan burned in the Great New York Fire of 1776; the fire was widely thought to have been started by American saboteurs to keep the city from falling into British hands, though Washington and the Congress had denied this idea. It has been speculated that the fire was the work of British soldiers acting without orders. In the fire's aftermath, more than 200 American partisans were rounded up by the British. An account of Nathan Hale's capture was written by Consider Tiffany, a Connecticut shopkeeper and Loyalist, obtained by the Library of Congress. In Tiffany's account, Major Robert Rogers of the Queen's Rangers saw Hale in a tavern and recognized him despite his disguise.
After luring Hale into betraying himself by pretending to be a patriot himself and his Rangers apprehended Hale near Flushing Bay in Queens, New York. Another story was that Samuel Hale, was the one who revealed his true identity. British General William Howe had established his headquarters in the Beekman House in a rural part of Manhattan, on a rise between what are now 50th and 51st Streets between First and Second Avenues, near where Beekman Place commemorates the connection. Hale was questioned by Howe, physical evidence was found on him. Rogers provided information about the case. According to tradition, Hale spent the night in a greenhouse at the mansion, he requested a Bible. Sometime he requested a clergyman. Again, the request was denied. According to the standards of the time, spies were hanged as illegal combatants. On the morning of September 22, 1776, Hale was marched along Post Road to the Park of Artillery, next to a public house called the Dove Tavern, hanged, he was 21 years old.
Bill Richmond, a 13-year-old former slave and Loyalist who became a boxer in Europe, was one of the hangmen, responsible for securing the rope to a strong tree and preparing the noose. By all accounts, Hale comported himself well before the hanging. Over the years, there has been speculation as to whether he uttered the line: "I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country." The line may be a revision of "I am so satisfied with the cause in which I have engaged that my only regret is that I have not more lives than one to offer in its service."The story of Hale's quote began with John Montresor, a British officer who witnessed the hanging. Soon after the execution, Montresor spoke with the American officer William Hull about Hale's death. Hull publicized Hale's use of the declaration; because Hull was not an eyewitness to Hale's speech, some historians have questioned the reliability of the account. If Hale did not originate the statement, it is possible he instead repeated a passage from Joseph Addison's play Cato, an ideological inspiration to many Whigs: No official records were kept of Hale's speech.
However, Frederick MacKensie, a British officer, wrote this diary entry for the da
Spuyten Duyvil Creek
Spuyten Duyvil Creek is a short tidal estuary in New York City connecting the Hudson River to the Harlem River Ship Canal and on to the Harlem River. The confluence of the three water bodies separate the island of Manhattan from the Bronx and the rest of the mainland. Once a distinct, turbulent waterway between the Hudson and Harlem rivers, the creek has been subsumed by the modern ship canal; the Bronx neighborhood of Spuyten Duyvil lies to the north of the creek, the adjacent Manhattan neighborhood of Marble Hill lies to the north of the Ship Canal. The earliest use of the name "Spuyten Duyvil" was in 1653, in a document from Dutch landowner Adriaen van der Donck to the Dutch West India Company, it may be translated as "Spouting Devil" or Spuitende Duivel in Dutch. It may be translated as "Spewing Devil" or "Spinning Devil", or more loosely as "Devil's Whirlpool" or "Devil's Spate." Spui is a Dutch word involving outlets for water. Historian Reginald Pelham Bolton, argues that the phrase means "sprouting meadow", referring to a fresh-water spring.
A folk etymology, "to spite the Devil" or "in spite of the devil", was popularized by a story in Washington Irving's A Knickerbocker's History of New York published in 1809. Set in the 17th Century, the story tells of trumpeter Anthony Van Corlaer summoned by Dutch colonial governor Peter Stuyvesant to warn settlers of a British invasion attempt, with Corlaer attempting to swim across the creek in treacherous conditions; the local Lenape Native Americans referred to the creek by several names. The first was Shorakapok or Shorackhappok, translated as “the sitting down place” or “the place between the ridges”. A second term, spelled various ways including Paparinemo or Papiriniman, was shared with a triangular island formed by the junction of the creek and Tibbetts Brook in today's Kingsbridge neighborhood; the word has been translated as "place where the stream is shut" or to "parcel out" or "divide". A third name, was used. Spuyten Duyvil Creek runs northeast into the Hudson; when the Dutch settlers arrived they found its tidal waters difficult to handle.
Though its tides raced there was no navigable watercourse joining it with the headwaters of the Harlem River, which flowed in an "S"-shaped course southwest and north into the East River. Steep cliffs along the Spuyten Duyvil's mouth at the Hudson prevented any bridge there, but upstream it narrowed into a rocky drainage. Prior to the development of the Bronx, the creek was fed by Tibbetts Brook, which begins in Yonkers, Westchester County and intersected with the creek at modern West 230th Street; the brook ends above ground within Van Cortlandt Park, emptying into the Harlem River system at the Wards Island Water Pollution Control Plant via underground sewers. During the 17th Century, the only mode of transportation across the Harlem River was by ferry from the east end of 125th Street; the ferry was operated by Johannes Verveelen, a local landowner. Many settlers circumvented the toll for the ferry by crossing the creek from northern Marble Hill to modern Kingsbridge, Bronx, a point where it was feasible to wade or swim through the waters.
This area was known as the "wading place", had been used by Native Americans. In response, Verveelen had the creek fenced off at the wading place, though travelers tore the barrier down. In 1669 Verveelen transplanted his ferry to the northern tip of Marble Hill, at today's Broadway and West 231st Street. In 1693 Frederick Philipse, a Dutch nobleman who had sworn allegiance to the Crown upon the British takeover of Dutch New Netherlands, built the King's Bridge at Marble Hill near what is now West 230th Street in the Bronx. A merchant in New Amsterdam, Philipse had purchased vast landholdings in what was Westchester County. Granted the title Lord of Philipse Manor, he established a plantation and provisioning depot for his shipping business upriver on the Hudson in present-day Sleepy Hollow, his toll bridge opened his land to settlement. It carried the Boston Post Road. In 1758, the Free Bridge was erected by Jacob Dyckman, opening on January 1, 1759. Stagecoach service was established across the span.
The new bridge proceeded to take much of the traffic away from the King's Bridge. The Free Bridge was destroyed during the American Revolution. Following the war, Philipse Manor was forfeited to the state legislature, after which the King's Bridge was free. Over time the channels of the Spuyten Duyvil and Harlem River were joined and widened and additional bridges were constructed, but maritime transit was still difficult and confined to small craft. By 1817, a narrow canal was dug through the south end of Marble Hill at 222nd Street, known as "Boltons' Canal" or "Dyckman Canal". With the completion of the Erie Canal in 1825, the advent of large steamships in the second half of the 19th century, a broad shipping canal was proposed between the Harlem and Hudson Rivers to allow them thru-transit by bypassing the tight turn up and around Marble Hill; the Harlem Canal Company was founded in 1826, but did not make any progress towards building a canal. A second company failed to complete the project.
In 1863 the Hudson and Harlem River Canal Company was created, began the final plans for the canal. The U. S. Congress broke the logjam in 1873 by appropriating money for a survey of the relevant area, following which New York state bought the necessary land and gave it to the federal government. In 1876, the New York State Legislature issued a decree for the construction of the canal. Construction of the Harlem River Ship Canal – the Uni