The Flynn effect is the substantial and long-sustained increase in both fluid and crystallized intelligence test scores that were measured in many parts of the world over the 20th century. When intelligence quotient tests are standardized using a sample of test-takers, by convention the average of the test results is set to 100 and their standard deviation is set to 15 or 16 IQ points; when IQ tests are revised, they are again standardized using a new sample of test-takers born more than the first. Again, the average result is set to 100. However, when the new test subjects take the older tests, in every case their average scores are above 100. Test score increases have been continuous and linear from the earliest years of testing to the present. For the Raven's Progressive Matrices test, a study published in the year 2009 found that British children's average scores rose by 14 IQ points from 1942 to 2008. Similar gains have been observed in many other countries in which IQ testing has long been used, including other Western European countries and South Korea.
There are numerous proposed explanations of the Flynn effect, as well as some skepticism about its implications. Similar improvements have been reported for other cognitions such as episodic memory. Research suggests that there is an ongoing reversed Flynn effect, i.e. a decline in IQ scores, in Norway, Australia, the Netherlands, Finland and German-speaking countries, a development which appears to have started in the 1990s. The Flynn effect is named for James R. Flynn, who did much to document it and promote awareness of its implications; the term itself was coined by authors of The Bell Curve. Although the general term for the phenomenon—referring to no researcher in particular—continues to be "secular rise in IQ scores", many textbooks on psychology and IQ testing have now followed the lead of Herrnstein and Murray in calling the phenomenon the Flynn effect. IQ tests are updated periodically. For example, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children developed in 1949, was updated in 1974, 1991, 2003 and again in 2014.
The revised versions are standardized based on the performance of test-takers in standardization samples. A standard score of IQ 100 is defined as the median performance of the standardization sample, thus one way to see changes in norms over time is to conduct a study in which the same test-takers take both an old and new version of the same test. Doing so confirms IQ gains over time; some IQ tests, for example tests used for military draftees in NATO countries in Europe, report raw scores, those confirm a trend of rising scores over time. The average rate of increase seems to be about three IQ points per decade in the United States, as scaled by the Wechsler tests; the increasing test performance over time appears on every major test, in every age range, at every ability level, in every modern industrialized country, although not at the same rate as in the United States. The increase was continuous and linear from the earliest days of testing to the mid-1990s. Though the effect is most associated with IQ increases, a similar effect has been found with increases in attention and of semantic and episodic memory.
Ulric Neisser estimated that using the IQ values of 1997, the average IQ of the United States in 1932, according to the first Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales standardization sample, was 80. Neisser states that "Hardly any of them would have scored'very superior', but nearly one-quarter would have appeared to be'deficient.'" He wrote that "Test scores are going up all over the world, but whether intelligence itself has risen remains controversial."Trahan et al. found that the effect was about 2.93 points per decade, based on both Stanford–Binet and Wechsler tests. In contrast and Voracek reported, in their meta-analysis of studies involving nearly 4 million participants, that the Flynn effect had decreased in recent decades, they reported that the magnitude of the effect was different for different types of intelligence, that the effect was stronger for adults than for children. Raven found that, as Flynn suggested, data interpreted as showing a decrease in many abilities with increasing age must be re-interpreted as showing that there has been a dramatic increase of these abilities with date of birth.
On many tests this occurs at all levels of ability. Some studies have found the gains of the Flynn effect to be concentrated at the lower end of the distribution. Teasdale and Owen, for example, found the effect reduced the number of low-end scores, resulting in an increased number of moderately high scores, with no increase in high scores. In another study, two large samples of Spanish children were assessed with a 30-year gap. Comparison of the IQ distributions indicated that the mean IQ scores on the test had increased by 9.7 points, the gains were concentrated in the lower half of the distribution and negligible in the top half, the gains decreased as the IQ of the individuals increased. Some studies have found a reverse Flynn effect with declining scores for those with high IQ. In 1987, Flynn took the position that the large increase indicates that IQ tests do not measure intelligence but only a minor sort of "abstract problem-solving ability" with little practical significance, he argued that if IQ gains do reflect intelligence increases, there would have been consequent ch
Herman IV was the Duke of Swabia. He was the second son of Ernest Gisela of Swabia, he was one of the Babenberg dukes of Swabia. Herman became duke in 1030 following the death of his older brother Ernest II. At the time he was still a minor. Seven years his stepfather, the Emperor Conrad II, married him to Adelaide of Susa, the marchioness of Turin, in January 1037. Herman was invested as margrave of Turin. In July of the next year, while campaigning with Conrad in Southern Italy, he was struck down by an epidemic near Naples. Conrad transferred rule of the duchy of Swabia to his own son, Henry I, while Adelaide remarried to Henry of Montferrat, he was buried in Trento Cathedral on 28 July 1038, because the summer heat made it impossible to bring his corpse back to Germany. Because of a late Austrian source, Herman is sometimes mistakenly said to have had children; this was not the case. Herman was on campaign for much of his short marriage to Adelaide and he died without heirs. Ryley, Caroline M..
"The Emperor Henry III". In Gwatkin, H. W.. P.. R.. W.. The Cambridge Medieval History:Germany and the Western Empire. III. Cambridge University Press. Wolfram, Herwig. Conrad II, 990-1039: Emperor of Three Kingdoms. Translated by Kaiser, Denise A; the Pennsylvania State University Press.'Hermann IV. Hzg. v. Schwaben,' in: Lexikon des Mittelalters, vol. 4, cols. 2161–2162. D. Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten. S. Hellmann, Die Grafen von Savoyen und das Reich: bis zum Ende der staufischen Periode, accessible online at: Genealogie Mittelalter Cawley, Medieval Lands Project on Hermann IV of Swabia, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Hermann IV, Herzog von Schwaben, Markgraf von Turin-Susa Marek, Miroslav. "A listing of descendants of Leopold I, Margrave of Austria". Genealogy. EU
The Cagiva C593 was a racing motorcycle made by Cagiva, used in the 500cc class of Grand Prix motorcycle racing during the 1993 season. The name is formed by an amalgamation of words and letters, namely the "C", "5" and "93"; the "C" stands for the company, the "5" stands for the class the company races in as well as the engine capacity and the "93" stands for the season the bike raced in. The bike replaced the C592 model used in 1992 and was replaced by Cagiva's last model, the C594; this bike had respectable characteristics, such as the various titanium expansions and the carbon silencers as with the previous model, this one adopts a distribution of the outbreaks called the "Big Bang", but it is increased in maximum power compared to previous year's bike if it loses in linearity of progression where there is an irregularity when opening the electronically controlled CTS valves, requiring a use at higher engine speeds. With this bike, Cagiva tried two different solutions for the air intakes and the swingarm: The first solution was put on the bike used by John Kocinski and was placed by the central position grip on the front fairing and the carbon fiber swingarm while the second solution, put on the bikes of Doug Chandler and Mat Mladin adopted the solution of the side grips on the sides of the bike, similar to the C592, while on this version of the bike the aluminum swingarm with upper reinforcement truss of the previous model is used.
Just like last year, the Cagiva riders continued to be competitive, despite not being as strong as other manufacturers like Yamaha, Honda or Suzuki. Doug Chandler rode the machine into the points and managed to score a third place podium battling with Wayne Rainey's Yamaha for second, at the season opener in Australia; the high point however, came when John Kocinski joined the team late in the season after the 250cc Factory Suzuki team had fired him and went on to win Cagiva's first and only race of the season at the 1993 United States Grand Prix as the rivals on the better machines crashed out. Mat Mladin, replacement rider Juan Garriga and wildcard rider Carl Fogarty scored a decent haul of points as well, the team scoring a total of 199 points and getting two podiums - one of, a win
Anthony Jude "A. J." Pero was an American drummer, in American heavy metal bands Twisted Adrenaline Mob. Pero went to St. Peter's Boys High School in Staten Island, but left because the faculty made him cut his hair, he went to New Dorp High School and graduated in 1977. He was a jazz drummer gravitating to heavier music akin to Rush and Led Zeppelin. Pero worked as a taxi driver for a time, joined Cities, a local New York City band, he joined Twisted Sister in April 1982, after seeing them play at a club and being told they were in need of a drummer. Upon his departure from Twisted Sister in July 1986, he re-joined Cities, he participated in the band's 1997 reunion and continued to perform with Twisted Sister until his death. He was a member of the Ozzy Osbourne cover band, No More Tears, well known around Staten Island, New York. In 2007, Pero formed. In 2011, Pero played drums on a song titled "Elephant Man" on the Eric Carr CD Unfinished Business. On December 3, 2013, Pero was announced as the new drummer of the band Adrenaline Mob.
On March 20, 2015, Adrenaline Mob's band members attempted but failed to wake Pero on their tour bus. The band was traveling from Baltimore to Poughkeepsie. Pero was taken to a hospital. In 2017, the band released their third studio album, We the People, containing Pero's last recording: a cover of Billy Idol's "Rebel Yell". A. J. Pero at AllMusic A. J. Pero discography at Discogs A. J. Pero on IMDb A. J. Pero at Find a Grave
Tidö Castle is a castle located outside Västerås in Västmanland, Sweden. The first building on the site was a medieval house built by the Gren family in the fifteenth century. In 1537, the Gren family sold the castle to Margaret Leijonhufvud. In 1540, her husband, King Gustav Vasa, traded the castle to Ekolsund Castle and Tidö came to the Tott family. Today, minor ruins of the former house can be found next to the present building; the present castle at Tidö was built by the influential statesman and Lord High Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna in 1625–1645. The castle was built around a rectangular courtyard with the main building to the north and the three linked wings to the east and south; the main entrance is through a vault in the south wing. In 1889, the von Schinkel family bought Tidö and they still own it today. Tidö is one of Sweden's best preserved Baroque palaces, in the Dutch Renaissance style. List of castles in Sweden Tidö Official website
George Varghese Kakkanadan known as Kakkanadan, was an Indian short story writer and novelist in the Malayalam language. His works made break from the neo-realism that dominated Malayalam literature through the 1950s and 1960s, he is credited with laying the foundation of modernism in Malayalam literature. He is a recipient of Kendra Sahitya Akademi Award and Kerala Sahitya Akademi Awards in addition to numerous other awards and recognitions. Born in Thiruvalla as the second son of evangelist George Kakkanadan and Rosamma, George Varghese Kakkanadan spent most of his childhood at Kollam and Kottarakkara. Though Kakkanadan's father was associated with the church, he was a Left sympathiser, their house in Kottarakkara was a refuge for prominent Communist leaders of the past, who were forced to go hiding. After completing BSc Chemistry from SN College, Kakkanadan started his career as a school teacher in Kerala, he quit the job to join Southern Railway in Tamil Nadu in 1957. In 1961 shifted to Ministry of Indian Railways in New Delhi where he worked till 1967.
He went to Germany in 1967 on a scholarship to pursue research in literature but abandoned it midway and returned to Kerala to become a full-time writer. Kakkanadan worked as an editorial member in S. K. Nair's Malayalanadu weekly published from Kollam, between 1971 and 1973. Artist Rajan Kakkanadan and writers Thampi Kakkanadan and G. Ignatius Kakkanadan are his brothers. Ignatius Kakkanadan, his elder brother, was a journalist and was an editorial board member of Janayugom and Malayalam magazine Soviet Nadu, he was a noted translator and had translated the works of B. R. Ambedkar and Amartya Sen under a Kerala Bhasha Institute Project. Kakkanadan's younger brother Thampi Kakkanadan was a writer who authored several short stories and published a novel- Kalapathinte Orma. Kakkanadan has two sisters Ammini, wife of the former Member of Parliament P. A. Solomon, Annie. Kakkanadan married Ammini in 1965, they have three children: Radha and Rishi. Kakkanadan died on 19 October 2011 aged 76 at Bishop Benziger's hospital in Kollam.
He was battling cancer for the past few years. He was laid to rest with full state honours at the Polayathode public crematorium complex, he is survived by three children - two sons and a daughter. Though he had started writing much before the railway stint and wrote the novel Vasoori, it was his second novel Sakshi that brought him laurels; the book had a great impact on the younger generation of Malayalam readers and was credited with breaking new grounds in Malayalam literature. In early 1960s, he shot into prominence as one of the most promising writers in Malayalam and was among the pioneers of the modernist trend in Malayalam literature. Kakkanadan's early works broke new ground in Malayalam fiction on account of their earnest exploration of deeper realities of life by employing a new diction and narrative methods. Though vast majority of readers found it hard to accept the modern trends ushered in by Kakkanadan and some of his contemporaries, their works soon created a new sensibility marking a radical break from the past.
He was one of the harbingers of modernism in the genres of short story. Though labelled by his readers as a formidable ultramodern Malayalam writer, Kakkanadan himself was of the view that modernism in literature has no convincing rationale. Several of his works are considered landmarks in the history of literary modernism in Malayalam. Moving with ease from apocalyptic visions to tantric imagery, he made his works representative of an important strand in the larger modernist trends in arts and culture in India. Kakkanadan was a rebel, both in literature, his rebellion extended from his selection of themes and use of subversive language to his careful crafting of the philosophy of angst into the writing. He traversed the sweat zones of life and spoke of the valleys of the unknowing. With a stunningly violent style, he shook the roots of the progressive literary sensibilities of the 1960s and 1970s and its innocent certainties, his was darker people, many of them social rejects. He spoke of the seamy side, the world of puss and blood.
Each of his works was an act of rebellion against codes. Sex, like violence, was a leitmotif in many of his works. Kakkanadan's major novels are Sakshi, Ezham Mudra, Ushnamekhala, Parankimala, Ajnathayude Thaazhvara, Innaleyude Nizhal, Orotha, Ee Naaykkalute Lokam and Barsaathi, his most noted short story collections are Yuddhaavasaanam, Purathekkulla Vazhi, Aswathamaavinte Chiri, Alwar Thirunagarile Pannikal, Uchayillaatha Oru Divasam and Jaappaana Pukayila. He has other novels, short story collections and essay collections to his credit. Director Bharathan adapted the novels Parankimala and Adiyaravu for the films Parankimala and Parvathy. K. G. George's Onappudava was based on Kakkanadan's novel of the same name. Kakkanadan's short story Chithalukal was made into a film by Kamal, titled Unnikrishnante Adyathe Christmas, he won the Kerala Sahitya Akademi Award for his short-story collection Aswathamavinte Chiri in 1980 and for his novel Orotha in 1984. In 2005 he won the Kendra Sahitya Akademi Award for Jappana Pukayila and in 2008 he was bestowed with the Kerala Sahitya Akademi Fellowship.