Fog is a visible aerosol consisting of tiny water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface. Fog can be considered a type of low-lying cloud resembling stratus, is influenced by nearby bodies of water and wind conditions. In turn, fog has affected many human activities, such as shipping and warfare; the term "fog" is distinguished from the more generic term "cloud" in that fog is low-lying, the moisture in the fog is generated locally. By definition, fog reduces visibility to less than 1 kilometre, whereas mist causes lesser impairment of visibility. For aviation purposes in the UK, a visibility of less than 5 kilometres but greater than 999 metres, considered to be mist if the relative humidity is 95% or greater. Fog forms when the difference between air temperature and dew point is less than 2.5 °C. Fog begins to form when water vapor condenses into tiny liquid water droplets that are suspended in the air; some examples of ways that water vapor is added to the air are by wind convergence into areas of upward motion.
Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. Fog, like its elevated cousin stratus, is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. Fog occurs at a relative humidity near 100%; this occurs from either added moisture in the air, or falling ambient air temperature. However, fog can form at lower humidities, can sometimes fail to form with relative humidity at 100%. At 100% relative humidity, the air cannot hold additional moisture, the air will become supersaturated if additional moisture is added. Fog produces precipitation in the form of drizzle or light snow. Drizzle occurs when the humidity of fog attains 100% and the minute cloud droplets begin to coalesce into larger droplets; this can occur when the fog layer is lifted and cooled sufficiently, or when it is forcibly compressed from above by descending air. Drizzle becomes freezing drizzle; the thickness of a fog layer is determined by the altitude of the inversion boundary, which in coastal or oceanic locales is the top of the marine layer, above which the air mass is warmer and drier.
The inversion boundary varies its altitude in response to the weight of the air above it, measured in terms of atmospheric pressure. The marine layer, any fogbank it may contain, will be "squashed" when the pressure is high, conversely, may expand upwards when the pressure above it is lowering. Fog can form in a number of ways, depending on how the cooling that caused the condensation occurred. Radiation fog is formed by the cooling of land after sunset by infrared thermal radiation in calm conditions with a clear sky; the cooling ground cools adjacent air by conduction, causing the air temperature to fall and reach the dew point, forming fog. In perfect calm, the fog layer can be less than a meter thick, but turbulence can promote a thicker layer. Radiation fog occurs at night, does not last long after sunrise, but it can persist all day in the winter months in areas bounded by high ground. Radiation fog is most common in early winter. Examples of this phenomenon include the Tule fog. Ground fog is fog that obscures less than 60% of the sky and does not extend to the base of any overhead clouds.
However, the term is a synonym for shallow radiation fog. Advection fog occurs when moist air is cooled, it is common. It is most common at sea when moist air encounters cooler waters, including areas of cold water upwelling, such as along the California coast. A strong enough temperature difference over water or bare ground can cause advection fog. Although strong winds mix the air and can disperse, fragment, or prevent many kinds of fog, markedly warmer and humid air blowing over a snowpack can continue to generate advection fog at elevated velocities up to 80 km/h or more – this fog will be in a turbulent moving, comparatively shallow layer, observed as a few centimeters/inches in depth over flat farm fields, flat urban terrain and the like, and/or form more complex forms where the terrain is different such as rotating areas in the lee of hills or large buildings and so on. Fog formed by advection along the California coastline is propelled onto land by one of several processes. A cold front can push the marine layer coast-ward, an occurrence most typical in the spring or late fall.
During the summer months, a low pressure trough produced by intense heating inland creates a strong pressure gradient, drawing in the dense marine layer. During the summer, strong high pressure aloft over the desert southwest in connection with the summer monsoon, produces a south to southeasterly flow which can drive the offshore marine layer up the coastline. However, if the monsoonal flow is sufficiently turbulent, it might instead break up the marine
Benjamin Lewis Fairchild was a U. S. Representative from New York. Born in Sweden, Monroe County, New York, Fairchild attended the public schools of Washington, D. C. and a business college. He was graduated from the law department of Columbian University at Washington, D. C. in 1885. He commenced practice in New York City, he was employed in the draftsman division of the United States Patent Office 1877-1879. He served as clerk in the Bureau of Engraving and Printing 1879-1885. Fairchild was elected as a Republican to the Fifty-fourth Congress, he unsuccessfully contested the election of William L. Ward to the Fifty-fifth Congress, he resumed the practice of law in New York City. Fairchild was elected to the Sixty-fifth Congress, he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1918 to the Sixty-sixth Congress. Fairchild was again elected to the Sixty-seventh Congress, he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1922 to the Sixty-eighth Congress, but was subsequently elected to that Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of James V. Ganly.
He was reelected to the Sixty-ninth Congress and served from November 6, 1923, to March 3, 1927. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1926 to the Seventieth Congress, he resumed the practice of law in New York City. He died in Pelham Manor, New York, October 25, 1946, he was interred in Woodlawn Cemetery, New York City. United States Congress. "Benjamin L. Fairchild". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Media related to Benjamin L. Fairchild at Wikimedia Commons Benjamin L. Fairchild at Find a Grave This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov
Wild & Bare Co. is a tea and produce retailing company founded in 2008 in Macau, a former Portuguese territory that became a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. Its founder and chief executive officer, Jean Alberti, is restaurateur. Through catalog and online outlets, the company promotes and markets natural, authentic food and drink, including several varieties and blends of Chinese artisan teas, tea accessories, teaware. Related business interests include a television series still in development. Wild & Bare sells natural foods, including heirloom varieties of tea. Several tea growers who sell their teas through Wild & Bare are located in isolated areas of mainland China, such as the Yunnan Province, the company works with Chinese tea masters to source its products. Alberti has described the searching out and marketing of authentic teas as characterising his business philosophy, he has stated a commitment to food biodiversity, sustainable agriculture, fair trade, cultural preservation.
The twin concepts of organic farming and fair trade, which are most grounded in European movements, have become central to the Wild & Bare business model. Jean Alberti was introduced to food preparation by his restaurant-owning family and his early culinary interest developed into a career as an international chef; the French native is a graduate of Ecole de Hotelier de Murbach in Alsace, in 1976 was named the top apprentice chef in France. After working as a chef de partie in several exclusive restaurants in his native country, Alberti moved to the west coast of the United States and was named executive chef of The Tower Restaurant in Los Angeles, he subsequently became executive chef in then-new Jumby Bay Resort in Antigua, before opening two Mediterranean restaurants in San Francisco, Evvia Estiatorio in 1996 and Kokkari Estiatorio in 1998. In 2002, Alberti was a chef for the James Beard Foundation Awards gala. Alberti opened the Shikumen Bistro, a high-end French brasserie, in Shanghai, China, in 2005.
His interest in quality and variety of teas began during his California days when he discovered artisan teas. Official Website