Folk etymology

Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called popular etymology, analogical reformation, or etymological reinterpretation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one. The form or the meaning of an archaic, foreign, or otherwise unfamiliar word is reanalyzed as resembling more familiar words or morphemes. Rebracketing is a form of folk etymology in which a word is broken down or "bracketed" into a new set of supposed elements. Back-formation, creating a new word by removing or changing parts of an existing word, is based on folk etymology; the term folk etymology is a loan translation from German Volksetymologie, coined by Ernst Förstemann in 1852. Folk etymology is a productive process in historical linguistics, language change, social interaction. Reanalysis of a word's history or original form can affect pronunciation, or meaning; this is seen in relation to loanwords or words that have become archaic or obsolete. Examples of words created or changed through folk etymology include the English dialectal form sparrowgrass from Greek ἀσπάραγος remade by analogy to the more familiar words sparrow and grass, or the derived word burger, created by reanalyzing the word hamburger as ham + burger though the true original etymology consists of Hamburg + -er.

The technical term "folk etymology" refers to a change in the form of a word caused by erroneous popular beliefs about its etymology. The English word is a translation of the German term Volksetymologie, coined by Ernst Förstemann. Förstemann noted that in addition to scientific etymology based on careful study in philology, there exist scholarly but unsystematic accounts, as well as popular accounts for the history of linguistic forms; until academic linguists developed comparative philology and described the laws underlying sound changes, the derivation of words was a matter of guess-work. Speculation about the original form of words in turn feeds back into the development of the word and thus becomes a part of a new etymology. Believing a word to have a certain origin, people begin to pronounce, spell, or otherwise use the word in a manner appropriate to that perceived origin; this popular etymologizing has had a powerful influence on the forms. Examples in English include crayfish or crawfish, which are not related to fish but come from Middle English crevis, cognate with French écrevisse.

Chaise lounge, from the original French chaise longue, has come to be associated with the word lounge. Rebracketing is a process of language change in which parts of a word that appear to be meaningful are mistaken as elements of the word's etymology. Rebracketing functions by reanalyzing the constituent parts of a word. For example, the Old French word orenge comes from Arabic النرنج‎ an nāranj, with the initial n of nāranj understood as part of the article. Rebracketing in the opposite direction saw the Middle English a napron become an apron. In back-formation a new word is created by removing elements thought to be affixes. For example, Italian pronuncia is derived from the verb pronunciare and English edit derives from editor; some cases of back-formation are based on folk etymology. In linguistic change caused by folk etymology, the form of a word changes so that it better matches its popular rationalisation; this happens either to unanalyzable foreign words or to compounds where the word underlying one part of the compound becomes obsolete.

There are many examples of words borrowed from foreign languages, subsequently changed by folk etymology. The spelling of many borrowed words reflects folk etymology. For example, andiron borrowed from Old French was variously spelled aundyre or aundiren in Middle English, but was altered by association with iron. Other Old French loans altered in a similar manner include belfry by association with bell, female by male, penthouse by house; the variant spelling of licorice as liquorice comes from the supposition that it has something to do with liquid. Anglo-Norman licoris and Late Latin liquirītia were respelled for similar reasons, though the ultimate origin of all three is Greek γλυκύρριζα "sweet root". Reanalysis of loan words can affect pronunciation, or meaning; the word cockroach, for example, was borrowed from Spanish cucaracha but was assimilated to the existing English words cock and roach. Jerusalem artichoke, from Italian girasole, is a kind of sunflower; the phrase forlorn hope meant "storming party, body of skirmishers" from Dutch verloren hoop "lost troop".

But confusion with English hope has given the term an additional meaning of "hopeless venture". Sometimes imaginative stories are created to account for the link between a borrowed word and its popularly assumed sources; the names of the serviceberry, service tree, related plants, for instance, come from the Latin name sorbus. The plants were called syrfe in Old English, which became service. Fanciful stories suggest that the name comes from the fact that the trees bloom in spring, a time when circuit-riding preachers resume church services or when funeral services are carried out for people who died during the winter. A plausible but no less speculative etymology accounts for the form of Welsh rarebit, a dish made of cheese and toasted bread; the earliest known reference to the dish in 1725 called. The origin of that name i

Hush (Billy Joe Royal song)

"Hush" is a song written by American composer and musician Joe South, for recording artist Billy Joe Royal, whose single peaked at number 52 on the Billboard Hot 100 on 28 October – 11 November 1967, No. 45 in Canada. South himself recorded the song in 1968, included it on his second album, Games People Play. Deep Purple and Kula Shaker had hits with covers of the song, in 1968 and 1996 respectively; the song features a refrain in the intro and repeated in the "outro", a direct take off of the melody that connects the bridge back to the last verse of A Day In the Life by the Beatles from Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, released in June of 1967; the chorus begins "Hush, hush, I thought I heard her calling my name", a takeoff from the traditional gospel song lyrics "Hush, somebody's calling my name". Session musician Barry Bailey, who became the lead guitarist for the Atlanta Rhythm Section, plays guitar on the track; the promo clip for Billy Joe Royal's release of the song was filmed at the boardwalk amusement park and outskirts of an unidentified Southern beach town.

The song was subsequently recorded by British hard rock band Deep Purple for their 1968 debut album Shades of Deep Purple. The track became the group's first hit single peaking at number 4 on the Hot 100 on 21–28 September 1968 and number 2 in Canada while going unnoticed in the United Kingdom. A live, US-televised version of "Hush" appeared as a bonus track on the 2000 CD-reissue of the Shades of Deep Purple album. In 1968, Hugh Hefner introduced Deep Purple. After Hefner heard a ghost story from Jon Lord and had a guitar lesson from Ritchie Blackmore, Deep Purple performed "Hush", available in the Playboy After Dark -2nd Collection 2007 DVD release. In celebration of the band's 20th anniversary, Deep Purple re-recorded the song in 1988 for their album Nobody's Perfect; the track was released as a single and reached number 62 on the UK singles chart and number 44 on the US Hot Mainstream Rock chart. "Hush" is one of four songs recorded with vocals sung by Rod Evans that the band have performed with Ian Gillan on vocals on.

Others are "Kentucky Woman" from the album The Book of Taliesyn from 1968. The song can be heard in the movie Bad Times at the El Royale; the song was featured in Quentin Tarantino's 2019 film Once Upon a Time in Hollywood. Jenny Rock, a Canadian artist, recorded a French adaptation version in 1970 entitled Mal. Kula Shaker recorded a version which peaked at No.2 in the UK Charts in 1997 and was used on the soundtrack to the blockbuster movie I Know What You Did Last Summer. Somebody's Image recorded a version, a minor hit in Australia in 1967. Love Affair recorded a version for their 1968 album The Everlasting Love Affair in 1968 The Partridge Family performed a version on their TV series, with David Cassidy on vocals. Milli Vanilli recorded a version on their debut album All or Nothing in 1988. Funky Junction recorded a version of "Hush" on their only album Funky Junction Play a Tribute to Deep Purple in 1973; the band featured Phil Lynott, Eric Bell, Brian Downey from Thin Lizzy. Captain Jack covered "Hush" on the Eurodance album Party Warriors, released in Europe in 2003.

1968 Deep Purple version Ritchie Blackmore – guitar Rod Evans – lead vocals Nick Simperbass guitar, backing vocals Ian Paicedrums Jon Lord – Hammond organ, backing vocals1988 Deep Purple version Ritchie Blackmore – guitar Ian Gillan – vocals, harmonica Roger Glover – bass Ian Paice – drums Jon Lord – organ, keyboards Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Evenk Autonomous Okrug

Evenk Autonomous Okrug, or Evenkia, was a federal subject of Russia. It had been created in 1930, its administrative center was the urban-type settlement of Tura. As of 2006, at 767,600 km², it was Russia's seventh largest federal subject, the country's least populous: 17,697 . In 1999, the governor of Krasnoyarsk, General Alexander Lebed, demanded the okrug recognize the central district government of Krasnoyarsk had authority over it, which the okrug refused to do, causing a power struggle between the central district and the okrug's government. Following a referendum on the issue held on April 17, 2005, Evenk and Taymyr Autonomous Okrugs were merged into Krasnoyarsk Krai effective January 1, 2007. Administratively, they are now considered to be districts with special status within Krasnoyarsk Krai. Boris Zolotaryov was the last governor of the autonomous okrug. Before 2007, Evenk AO contained three districts: Baykitsky District Ilimpiyskiy District Tungussko-Chunsky District: 17,697. Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service Of the 17,697 residents 2 chose not to specify their ethnic background.

Of the rest, residents identified themselves as belonging to 67 ethnic groups, including ethnic Russians, Yakuts, Kets, 162 Tatars, 152 Khakas and 127 Volga Germans. Music of Evenkia