Folk music includes traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time, it has been contrasted with classical styles. The term originated in the 19th century. Starting in the mid-20th century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music; this process and period is reached a zenith in the 1960s. This form of music is sometimes called contemporary folk music or folk revival music to distinguish it from earlier folk forms. Smaller, similar revivals have occurred elsewhere in the world at other times, but the term folk music has not been applied to the new music created during those revivals; this type of folk music includes fusion genres such as folk rock, folk metal, others. While contemporary folk music is a genre distinct from traditional folk music, in U.
S. English it shares the same name, it shares the same performers and venues as traditional folk music; the terms folk music, folk song, folk dance are comparatively recent expressions. They are extensions of the term folklore, coined in 1846 by the English antiquarian William Thoms to describe "the traditions and superstitions of the uncultured classes"; the term further derives from the German expression volk, in the sense of "the people as a whole" as applied to popular and national music by Johann Gottfried Herder and the German Romantics over half a century earlier. Though it is understood that folk music is music of the people, observers find a more precise definition to be elusive; some do not agree that the term folk music should be used. Folk music may tend to have certain characteristics but it cannot be differentiated in purely musical terms. One meaning given is that of "old songs, with no known composers", another is that of music, submitted to an evolutionary "process of oral transmission....
The fashioning and re-fashioning of the music by the community that give it its folk character". Such definitions depend upon " processes rather than abstract musical types...", upon "continuity and oral transmission...seen as characterizing one side of a cultural dichotomy, the other side of, found not only in the lower layers of feudal and some oriental societies but in'primitive' societies and in parts of'popular cultures'". One used definition is "Folk music is what the people sing". For Scholes, as well as for Cecil Sharp and Béla Bartók, there was a sense of the music of the country as distinct from that of the town. Folk music was "...seen as the authentic expression of a way of life now past or about to disappear" in "a community uninfluenced by art music" and by commercial and printed song. Lloyd rejected this in favour of a simple distinction of economic class yet for him true folk music was, in Charles Seeger's words, "associated with a lower class" in culturally and stratified societies.
In these terms folk music may be seen as part of a "schema comprising four musical types:'primitive' or'tribal'. Music in this genre is often called traditional music. Although the term is only descriptive, in some cases people use it as the name of a genre. For example, the Grammy Award used the terms "traditional music" and "traditional folk" for folk music, not contemporary folk music. Folk music may include most indigenous music. From a historical perspective, traditional folk music had these characteristics: It was transmitted through an oral tradition. Before the 20th century, ordinary people were illiterate; this was not mediated by books or recorded or transmitted media. Singers may extend their repertoire using broadsheets or song books, but these secondary enhancements are of the same character as the primary songs experienced in the flesh; the music was related to national culture. It was culturally particular. In the context of an immigrant group, folk music acquires an extra dimension for social cohesion.
It is conspicuous in immigrant societies, where Greek Australians, Somali Americans, Punjabi Canadians, others strive to emphasize their differences from the mainstream. They learn songs and dances that originate in the countries their grandparents came from, they commemorate personal events. On certain days of the year, including such holidays as Christmas and May Day, particular songs celebrate the yearly cycle. Birthdays and funerals may be noted with songs and special costumes. Religious festivals have a folk music component. Choral music at these events brings children and non-professional singers to participate in a public arena, giving an emotional bonding, unrelated to the aesthetic qualities of the music; the songs have been performed, by custom, over a long period of time several generations. As a side-effect, the following characteristics are sometimes present: There is no copyright on the songs. Hundreds of folk songs from the 19th century have known authors but have continued in oral tradition to the point where they are considered traditional for purposes of music publishing.
This has become much less frequent since the 1940s. Today every folk song, recorded is credited with an arranger. Fusion of cultures: Because cultures interact a
Richardt Strauss is a retired South African born Irish rugby union player who played for Leinster Rugby and Ireland. Strauss' choice of position was Hooker. Strauss attended Bloemfontein, he won the Under 19 Rugby World Championship in 2005 with South Africa. He played for the Free State Cheetahs in the Currie Cup, former club of other past and present Leinster players, Ollie Le Roux and CJ van der Linde, he scored 14 tries in 54 appearances for the Free State Cheetahs, winning the 2006 Currie Cup in the process. In 2007, Strauss joined the Cheetahs in the Super 14 playing in scoring 1 try. Strauss stayed with the Central Cheetahs until 2009 when he signed a contract with Heineken Cup champions Leinster Rugby. Strauss made his first appearance for Leinster as a substitute in their Celtic League victory over the Scarlets. Strauss played in his second game a week as a substitute in Leinster's Celtic League win over the Cardiff Blues. Since his Leinster career has gone from strength, racking up a total of 35 appearances – including 9 in the Heineken Cup – culminating in Leinster's 2nd Heineken Cup victory against Northampton Saints on 21 May 2011.
By this stage, Strauss had established himself as a firm fan favourite and his barn-storming loose displays and solid set-piece played an integral part in Leinster's triumph. In October 2013, Strauss was diagnosed with a heart condition that required surgery, ruling him out for the rest of the 2013–14 season. However,he made a surprising early return in Leinster's Heineken Cup Round 6 pool match against the Ospreys on 17 January 2014. Strauss retired from professional rugby at the end of the 2017/18 season. Strauss has never been capped at senior level by the Springboks. Strauss is an Irish citizen; the Irish Rugby Football Union sanctioned Leinster's signing of Strauss as a so-called "project player" meaning that he could be developed into a future Irish international. In February 2012 however, he attended training sessions for the Irish rugby team in the run up to the postponed test match against France. Speculation was ended however when Strauss was named in the Ireland squad in October 2012 for the November internationals against South Africa and Fiji.
Strauss has now become eligible to play for Ireland, was named in the Irish team to play against his native South Africa on 10 November 2012, where he faced off in the front row against his cousin Adriaan Strauss. Strauss made his second appearance for Ireland on 24 November 2012 against Argentina scoring his first international try in the process. Strauss' brother Andries has played in a non-cap international for the Springboks against the Barbarians. Strauss was included in the Irish 2015 Rugby World Cup squad on 31 August 2015 and acquired Irish citizenship two days on 2 September 2015, during the same citizenship ceremony as Ireland head coach Joe Schmidt. Leinster Rugby profile SARugby profile ESPN Profile
In the Valley of Elah is a 2007 American crime drama mystery film written and directed by Paul Haggis, starring Tommy Lee Jones, Charlize Theron, Susan Sarandon. The film's title refers to the Biblical valley where the battle between David and Goliath took place. Paul Haggis's In The Valley of Elah is based on actual events, although the characters' names and locations have been changed; the screenplay was inspired by journalist Mark Boal's "Death and Dishonor", an article about the murder case published in Playboy magazine in 2004. It portrays a military father's search for his son and, after his body is found, subsequent hunt for his son's killers; the film explores themes including the Iraq War, abuse of prisoners, post-traumatic stress disorder following active combat, the apportionment of blame for these denouements of war. The film tells the story of military police veteran Hank Deerfield, his wife Joan and their search for their son Mike. A soldier returned from Iraq, Mike has gone missing.
Deerfield's investigation is aided by a police detective, who becomes involved in the case. Mike's dismembered and burned body is found. Military officials attempt to block the police investigation, his platoonmates who last saw him lie to the police. Deerfield tells the police that although he suspects the soldiers are lying about something, he believes they could not have killed their comrade, it turns out. The soldiers had killed and dismembered Mike after a insignificant quarrel; the soldier who confesses to Deerfield and the police seems detached from his words and actions suggesting he suffers post-traumatic stress disorder from effects of war. Tommy Lee Jones as Hank Deerfield Charlize Theron as Detective Emily Sanders Susan Sarandon as Joan Deerfield Jonathan Tucker as Mike "Doc" Deerfield James Franco as Sergeant First Class Dan Carnelli Josh Brolin as Sheriff Buchwald Frances Fisher as Eve Wayne Duvall as Detective Nugent Jason Patric as First Lieutenant Kirklander Victor Wolf as Private Robert Ortiz Brent Briscoe as Detective Hodge Greg Serano as Detective Manny Nuñez Barry Corbin as Arnold Bickman Brent Sexton as Lieutenant Burke Zoe Kazan as Angie Wes Chatham as Corporal Steve Penning Glenn Taranto as Detective Wayne Jake McLaughlin as Specialist Gordon Bonner Sean Huze as Captain Jim Osher Mehcad Brooks as Specialist Ennis Long Rick Gonzalez as Phone Technician Jo Harvey Allen as Jo Anne Mike Hatfield as Jo Anne's Husband Arlin Alcala as the neighbor Although the film story is fictional, with the names and locations changed, it is based on the facts of the murder case of Richard T. Davis of Baker Company, 1-15 IN.
Davis was an Iraq War veteran, murdered soon after his return home in 2003. Richard Davis's father, Lanny Davis, was a former military police officer, he mounted his own investigation into the crime. Davis commented, "It's a good movie, and it's going to make a lot of people think."In 2004, freelance journalist Mark Boal wrote an article about Richard Davis's murder, entitled "Death and Dishonor," published in Playboy. This inspired Haggis. Davis's story was told in a 2006 episode, "Duty and Dishonor," of the CBS News program 48 Hours Mystery. A non-fiction book about the murder case, by author Cilla McCain, titled Murder in Baker Company: How Four American Soldiers Killed One Of Their Own was published in 2009 by Chicago Review Press. Haggis approached Clint Eastwood to play the part of Hank Deerfield, which Haggis had written for him. Eastwood declined the opportunity; the film premiered September 1, 2007, at the Venice Film Festival and was shown at the Toronto International Film Festival. It opened in a somewhat limited release in the United States on September 14, 2007 grossing $6.5 million domestically in theatrical rentals, making it a box office disappointment.
It cost a reported $23 million to make. It opened in the United Kingdom on January 18, 2008; as of July 17, 2019, review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports a 73% approval rating based on 160 reviews, with an average score of 7.10. The site's consensus reads: "Though some of Paul Haggis's themes are heavy-handed, In the Valley of Elah is otherwise an engrossing murder mystery and antiwar statement, featuring a mesmerizing performance from Tommy Lee Jones". On Metacritic, the film has an average score of 65 out of 100, based on 37 reviews. Time magazine's Richard Corliss named the film one of the Top 10 Movies of 2007, ranking it at #8. In his review, Corliss praised the film as an improvement on Paul Haggis's Oscar-winning Crash, calling it "strong in the sleuthing, sobering in its political conclusions." Corliss singled out Tommy Lee Jones's performance, saying his "drained humanity anchors this excellent drama." Time critic Richard Schickel ranked the film #8 on his own Top 10 list, saying that the film "is a spare, devastating account of what happens to the souls of soldiers forced to fight wars for which not phony or temporary justifications are offered them."The film was criticized by some as having a heavy-handed approach.
Stephen Hunter of The Washington Post wrote, "Haggis appears to have no respect for his audience. At its crudest, the film settles for agitprop." Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times said that "the characters in this sombre film have the glum look of individuals delivering a Very Important Message to the world. And though this film in fact does have something crucial to convey, this is not the way to go