Fonterra Co-operative Group Limited is a New Zealand multinational dairy co-operative owned by around 10,500 New Zealand farmers. The company is responsible for 30% of the world's dairy exports and with revenue exceeding NZ$17.2 billion, is New Zealand's largest company. Fonterra was established in October 2001 following the merger of the country's two largest dairy co-operatives, New Zealand Dairy Group and Kiwi Cooperative Dairies, with the New Zealand Dairy Board; the name Fonterra comes from Latin fons de terra, meaning "spring from the land". In New Zealand, as in most Western countries, dairy co-operatives have long been the main organisational structure in the industry; the first dairy co-operative was established in Otago in 1871. By 1920, there were 600 dairy processing factories. In the 1930s there were around 500 co-operatives but after World War II, improved transportation, processing technologies and energy systems led to a trend of consolidation, where the co-operatives merged and became larger and fewer in number.
By the end of the 1990s, there were only four co-operatives nationwide: the Waikato-based New Zealand Dairy Group 404, the Taranaki-based Kiwi Co-operative Dairies 404, Westland Milk Products, Tatua Co-operative Dairy Company. Fonterra was formed in 2001 from the merger of the two largest co-operatives, New Zealand Dairy Group and Kiwi Co-operative Dairies, together with the New Zealand Dairy Board, the marketing and export agent for all the co-operatives. Fonterra has monopsony control of the New Zealand domestic and export dairy industry; the merger was turned down by the New Zealand Commerce Commission, but approved by the New Zealand Government, with subsequent legislation deregulating the dairy industry, allowing for the export of dairy products to be undertaken by any company. The two smaller co-operatives and Westland, did not join Fonterra, preferring to remain independent; the company has an annual turnover of around NZ$17 billion. Its core business consists of exporting dairy products under the NZMP brand.
It operates a fast-moving consumer goods business for dairy products, Fonterra Brands. Fonterra has a number of subsidiaries and joint-venture companies operating in markets around the world. In 2005, the company purchased a large factory in Dennington, Australia, from Nestlé, after they moved out of the collection of milk from farmers and the manufacture of powdered milk in Australia. In 2005 the company made moves towards purchasing Australian companies Dairy Farmers and National Foods, it converted its 50 per cent stake in Victoria dairy producer Bonlac to full ownership. At this time $1 billion of Fonterra's revenue was from Australian sales, 14 per cent of the dairy products it sells around the world. In June 2008, the company acquired the yoghurt and dairy dessert business of Nestlé Australia, which it on-sold to Parmalat Australia in December 2015. In 2010, US embassy cables leaked by WikiLeaks suggested New Zealand had only sent troops to Iraq in 2003, following the initial invasion, so Fonterra would keep valuable Oil for Food contracts.
In 2019, the Tip Top ice cream brand was sold for NZ$380 million to Froneri, a global joint venture between Nestlé and PAI Partners. In September 2019, Fonterra agreed to sell its 50% stake in DFE Pharma for NZ$633 million. In November 2007, the board of directors announced a two-year consultation programme regarding their preferred capital re-structuring option: putting the business operations in a separate listed company, with the co-operative maintaining a controlling interest; the aim was to give more access to funds for global growth. Praised by some as a bold move which would allow better access to outside capital, the proposals encountered significant opposition from both farmer shareholders and the government. Despite including a range of safeguards, farmers were concerned at the risk of losing control; the board responded in 2008 by shelving the November 2007 proposal and continuing consultation and discussion with farmer shareholders. In September 2009, the board announced a three-step process to revamp Fonterra's capital structure.
The new approach abandoned thoughts of a public listing of Fonterra shares and retained 100% farmer control and ownership of the co-operative. A key goal of the capital structure changes was to stop large amounts of money washing in and out of Fonterra's balance sheet each year as milk production fluctuates. Under the previous structure, farmers matched their shareholding with their milk production by owning one co-operative share for each kilogram of milksolids produced annually. If their milk production dropped in any season, they could redeem shares back to the co-operative, required to buy the shares back off them. Fonterra faced the risk of losing large amounts of share capital through redemptions during times of declining milk production. For instance, after milk production fell during the 2007/08 drought, Fonterra had to pay out $742 million of share capital to farmers via redemptions; the capital structure changes sought to provide greater incentives for farmers to increase their investment in Fonterra shares, helping ensure Fonterra has sufficient share capital to fund profitable business opportunities and drive a higher payout to dairy farmers.
The first two steps of capital structure change received good support from farmer shareholders at Fonterra's annual meeting in November 2009. The first step allowed farmers to hold shares above their level of annual milk production.
Milltown is a town in Polk County, United States. The population was 1,146 at the 2000 census; the village of Milltown is located within the town. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 33.5 square miles, of which, 31.2 square miles of it is land and 2.2 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,146 people, 441 households, 336 families residing in the town; the population density was 36.7 people per square mile. There were 811 housing units at an average density of 26.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.78% White, 0.26% Black or African American, 0.87% Native American, 0.09% from two or more races. 0.44 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 441 households out of which 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.3% were married couples living together, 6.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.8% were non-families. 17.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 2.94. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.3% under the age of 18, 5.5% from 18 to 24, 25.7% from 25 to 44, 29.3% from 45 to 64, 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 110.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $46,944, the median income for a family was $52,946. Males had a median income of $36,912 versus $25,000 for females; the per capita income for the town was $19,991. About 2.7% of families and 4.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.2% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over. Town of Milltown, Wisconsin website
"Glamour Girl" is a song written and recorded by Belgian acid house musician Praga Khan. It was featured on Freakazoids. Belgian CD Single"Glamour Girl" - 3:19 "Glamour Girl" - 4:15Belgian Antler-Subway 12" Single"Plastic People" - 6:04 "Glamour Girl" - 7:34 "Glamour Girl" - 5:24 "Glamour Girl" - 7:14Belgian Fingerlicking Good 12" Single"Glamour Girl" - 4:15 "Glamour Girl" - 7:14 "Glamour Girl" - 7:37 "Glamour Girl" - 7:02European CD Single"Glamour Girl" - 3:19 "Glamour Girl" - 4:15 "Glamour Girl" - 6:04 "Glamour Girl" - 7:34 "Glamour Girl" - 5:24 "Glamour Girl" - 7:14US 12" Single"Glamour Girl" - 3:19 "Glamour Girl" - 4:15 "Glamour Girl" - 7:02 "Glamour Girl" - 7:37 "Glamour Girl"
A mountain bike or mountain bicycle is a bicycle designed for off-road cycling. Mountain bikes share similarities with other bicycles, but incorporate features designed to enhance durability and performance in rough terrain; these include a front or full suspension, large knobby tires, more durable wheels, more powerful brakes, straight handlebars, lower gear ratios for climbing steep grades.) Mountain bikes are specialized for use on mountain trails, single track, fire roads, other unpaved surfaces, although the majority of them are never used off pavement, it is common to find hybrid road bikes based on "mountain bike" frames for sale. This type of terrain has rocks, loose dirt, steep grades. Many trails have additional TTFs such as log piles, log rides, rock gardens, gap jumps, wall-rides. Mountain bikes are built to handle these types of terrain and features; the heavy-duty construction combined with stronger rims and wider tires has made this style of bicycle popular with urban riders and couriers who must navigate through potholes and over curbs.
Since the development of the sport in the 1970s, many new subtypes of mountain biking have developed, such as cross-country, all-day endurance, downhill, a variety of track and slalom types. Each of these place different demands on the bike, requiring different designs for optimal performance. MTB development has led to an increase in suspension travel, now up to 8 inches, gearing up to 27 speeds, to facilitate both climbing and rapid descents. Advancements in gearing have led to a "1x" trend, simplifying the gearing to one chainring in the front and a cassette at the rear with 9 to 12 sprockets; the expressions "all terrain bicycle", "all terrain bike", the acronym "ATB" are used as synonyms for "mountain bike", but some authors consider them passé. The original mountain bikes were modified heavy cruiser bicycles used for freewheeling down mountain trails; the sport became popular in the 1970s in Northern California, USA, with riders using older, single-speed balloon tire bicycles to ride down rugged hillsides.
These modified bikes were called "ballooners" in CA, "klunkers" in CO, "dirt bombers" in OR. Joe Breeze, a bicycle frame builder, used this idea and developed what is considered the first mountain bike, it was not until the late 1970s and early 1980s that road bicycle companies started to manufacture mountain bicycles using high-tech lightweight materials, such as M4 aluminum. The first production Mountain bike available was the 1979 Lawwill Pro Cruiser; the frame design was based on a frame that Don Koski fabricated from electrical conduit and a Schwinn Varsity frame. Mert Lawwill had Terry Knight of Oakland build the frames; the bikes sold for about $500 new and were made from 1979 though 1980. The first mass production mountain bike was the Specialized Stumpjumper, first produced in 1981. With the rising popularity of mountain bikes, Randolph Ross, executive vice president of Ross Bicycles Inc. was quoted in the New York Times saying I'd say these bikes are one of the biggest things that happened to the biking industry.
Its basic look constitutes "a total shift in image" for the industry. Throughout the 1990s and 2000s, mountain biking moved from a little-known sport to a mainstream activity complete with an international racing circuit and a world championship, in addition to various free ride competitions, such as the FMB World Tour and the Red Bull Rampage. Mountain bikes can be divided into three broad categories based on suspension configuration: Rigid: A mountain bike with large, knobby tires and straight handlebars, but with neither front nor rear suspension. Hard tail: A mountain bike equipped with a suspension fork for the front wheel, but otherwise a rigid frame. Full suspension: A mountain bike equipped with both front and rear suspension; the front suspension is a telescopic fork similar to that of a motorcycle, the rear is suspended by a mechanical linkage with components for absorbing shock. There are several different styles of mountain biking defined by the terrain, therefore the type of bikes employed.
Styles of mountain bike riding and mountain bikes have evolved in recent years leading to terms such as Freeride and "Trail bike" being used to categorise mountain bikes. Definitions for the most used terms are listed below. Cross country mountain bikes are designed around the discipline of cross country racing, placing emphasis on climbing speed and endurance, therefore demanding lightweight, efficient bikes. In the 1980s and early 1990s, XC mountain bikes consisted of a lightweight steel hardtail frame with rigid forks. Throughout the 1990s XC bikes evolved to incorporate lightweight aluminum frames and short travel front suspension forks. Full suspension designs have become more popular among racers and enthusiasts alike, the use of advanced carbon fiber composites has allowed bike designers to produce full-suspension designs under 10 kilograms. In recent years 29" wheels have replaced the original standard of 26"; the geometry of Cross Country bikes favours climbing ability and fast responses over descending and stability, as a result typical head angles are 70–71°.
Although intended for off-road use, Cross Country bikes are not designed for use on steep or rough terrain. Put in terms of rider emphasis, XC bikes are designed for 80% uphill or flat riding, 20% downhill. "Trail" Bikes are a development of XC b
Theodorus the Atheist, of Cyrene, was a philosopher of the Cyrenaic school. He lived before ending his days in his native city of Cyrene; as a Cyrenaic philosopher, he taught that the goal of life was to obtain joy and avoid grief, that the former resulted from knowledge, the latter from ignorance. But his principal claim to fame was his alleged atheism, he was designated by ancient writers ho atheos, "the atheist." Theodorus was a disciple of Aristippus the Younger, grandson of the elder and more celebrated Aristippus. He heard the lectures of a number of philosophers beside Aristippus, he was banished for what reason is not stated. Of his subsequent history there is no connected account; the influence, however, of Demetrius Phalereus shielded him. As Theodorus was banished from Athens, was afterwards in the service of Ptolemy in Egypt, it is not unlikely that he shared the overthrow and exile of Demetrius; the account of Amphicrates of Athens cited by Diogenes Laërtius, that he was condemned to drink hemlock and so died, is doubtless an error.
While in the service of Ptolemy, Theodorus was sent on an embassy to Lysimachus, whom he offended by the freedom of his remarks. One answer which he made to a threat of crucifixion which Lysimachus had used, was celebrated by many ancient writers: "Employ such threats to those courtiers of yours. From the court or camp of Lysimachus he returned to that of Ptolemy. We read of his going to Corinth with a number of his disciples: but this was only a transient visit during his residence at Athens, he returned at length to Cyrene, lived there, says Diogenes Laërtius, with Magas, the stepson of Ptolemy, who ruled Cyrene for fifty years as viceroy and as king. Theodorus ended his days at Cyrene. Various characteristic anecdotes of Theodorus are preserved, from which he appears to have been a man of keen and ready wit. Theodorus was the founder of a sect, called after him Theodoreioi, "Theodoreans"; the opinions of Theodorus, as can be gathered from the perplexed statement of Diogenes Laërtius, were of the Cyrenaic school.
He taught that the great end of human life is to obtain joy and avoid grief, that the former resulted from knowledge, the latter from ignorance. He defined the good as prudence and justice, the bad as the opposite. Pleasure and pain, were indifferent, he made light of friendship and patriotism, asserted that the world was his country. He taught that there was nothing disgraceful in theft, adultery, or sacrilege if one ignored public opinion, formed by the consent of fools. Theodorus was attacked for atheism. "He did away with all opinions respecting the Gods," says Laërtius, but some critics doubt whether he was an atheist, or denied the existence of the deities of popular belief. The charge of atheism is sustained by the popular designation of Atheus, by the authority of Cicero, Laërtius, Pseudo-Plutarch, Sextus Empiricus, some Christian writers. Theodorus wrote a book called On the gods. Laërtius had seen it, said that it was not to be dismissed, adding that it was said to have been the source of many of the statements or arguments of Epicurus.
According to the Suda, he wrote many works both on other subjects. According to the Suda, Hipparchia of Maroneia wrote many letters addressed to Theodorus. Although none of them survive, there are anecdotes of her encounters with Theodorus: When she went into a symposium with Crates, she tested Theodorus the Atheist by proposing a sophism like this: "That which if Theodorus did, he would not be said to do wrong, neither should Hipparchia be said to do wrong if she does it. Theodorus hitting himself does not do wrong, nor does Hipparchia do wrong hitting Theodorus." He did not reply to what she pulled up her garment. Hipparchia was neither offended nor ashamed by this "as most women would have been". We are told that when Theodorus, quoting a line from The Bacchae of Euripides, said to her: "Who is the woman who has left behind the shuttles of the loom?" she replied I, Theodorus, am that person, but do I appear to you to have come to a wrong decision, if I devote that time to philosophy, which I otherwise should have spent at the loom?
Diagoras of Melos Dorandi, Tiziano. "Chapter 2: Chronology". In Algra, Keimpe; the Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 52. ISBN 9780521250283. Filonik, Jakub. "Athenian impiety trials: a reappraisal". Dike: 75–76. Doi:10.13130/1128-8221/4290. Laërtius, Diogenes. "Socrates, with predecessors and followers: Aristippus". Lives of the Eminent Philosophers. 1:2. Translated by Hicks, Robert Drew. Loeb Classical Library. § 65–104. Laërtius, Diogenes. "Socrates, with predecessors and followers: Theodorus (subsection of Aristippus
Frederic Fenimore Forrest Jr. is an American actor. Forrest came to public attention for his performance in When the Legends Die, which earned him a nomination for the Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Newcomer, he went on to receive Academy and Golden Globe Award nominations in the Best Supporting Actor category for his portrayal of Huston Dyer in musical drama The Rose. Forrest portrayed Jay "Chef" Hicks in Francis Ford Coppola's epic war film Apocalypse Now, collaborated with Coppola on four other films: The Conversation, One from the Heart and Tucker: The Man and His Dream. Other credits include The Missouri Breaks, The Two Jakes and Falling Down, along with the television series 21 Jump Street, Lonesome Dove and Die Kinder. Forrest was born in Waxahachie, the son of Virginia Allie and Frederic Fenimore Forrest, a furniture store owner, he is known for his roles as Chef in Apocalypse Now, When The Legends Die, It Lives Again, the neo-Nazi surplus store owner in Falling Down, Right to Kill? and for playing the writer Dashiell Hammett twice in film — in Hammett and in Citizen Cohn.
He had a role as the notorious Mexican/Indian bandit Blue Duck in the 1989 miniseries, Lonesome Dove. He was Academy Award-nominated in the Supporting Actor category for his role in The Rose, he was married to Marilu Henner from 1980 to 1982. Notable roles include four films directed by Francis Ford Coppola, Apocalypse Now, The Conversation, One from the Heart and Tucker: The Man and His Dream, along with Hammett, produced by Coppola, he appeared in Valley Girl, The Two Jakes, The Stone Boy, The Missouri Breaks, The Deliberate Stranger, Promise Him Anything and horror maestro Dario Argento's first American film, Trauma. On television, he played Captain Richard Jenko on the first season of the Fox Television series 21 Jump Street, in 1987. Forrest was subsequently replaced by actor Steven Williams, who played Captain Adam Fuller for the remainder of the series. In 1990, he appeared as private investigator Lomax in the BBC miniseries Die Kinder, he played Sgt. McSpadden in the Civil War-themed movie Andersonville and real-life U.