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Food additive

Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities. Some additives have been used for centuries. With the advent of processed foods in the second half of the twentieth century, many more additives have been introduced, of both natural and artificial origin. Food additives include substances that may be introduced to food indirectly in the manufacturing process, through packaging, or during storage or transport. To regulate these additives and inform consumers, each additive is assigned a unique number called an "E number", used in Europe for all approved additives; this numbering scheme has now been adopted and extended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to internationally identify all additives, regardless of whether they are approved for use. E numbers are all prefixed by "E", but countries outside Europe use only the number, whether the additive is approved in Europe or not. For example, acetic acid is written as E260 on products sold in Europe, but is known as additive 260 in some countries.

Additive 103, alkannin, is not approved for use in Europe so does not have an E number, although it is approved for use in Australia and New Zealand. Since 1987, Australia has had an approved system of labelling for additives in packaged foods; each food additive has to be numbered. The numbers are the same as in Europe, but without the prefix "E"; the United States Food and Drug Administration lists these items as "generally recognized as safe". See list of food additives for a complete list of all the names. Food additives can be divided into several groups, although there is some overlap because some additives exert more than one effect. For example, salt is both a preservative as well as a flavor. Acidulents Acidulants confer sour or acid taste. Common acidulents include vinegar, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, lactic acid. Acidity regulators Acidity regulators are used for controlling the pH of foods for stability or to affect activity of enzymes. Anticaking agents Anticaking agents keep powders such as milk powder from sticking.

Antifoaming and foaming agents Antifoaming agents prevent foaming in foods. Foaming agents do the reverse. Antioxidants Antioxidants such as vitamin C are preservatives by inhibiting the degradation of food by oxygen. Bulking agents Bulking agents such as starch are additives that increase the bulk of a food without affecting its taste. Food coloring Colorings are added to food to replace colors lost during preparation or to make food look more attractive. Fortifying agents Vitamins and dietary supplements to increase the nutritional value Color retention agents In contrast to colorings, color retention agents are used to preserve a food's existing color. Emulsifiers Emulsifiers allow water and oils to remain mixed together in an emulsion, as in mayonnaise, ice cream, homogenized milk. Flavors Flavors are additives that give food a particular taste or smell, may be derived from natural ingredients or created artificially. Flavor enhancers Flavor enhancers enhance a food's existing flavors. A popular example is monosodium glutamate.

Some flavor enhancers have their own flavors. Flour treatment agents Flour treatment agents are added to flour to improve its color or its use in baking. Glazing agents Glazing agents provide a shiny appearance or protective coating to foods. Humectants Humectants prevent foods from drying out. Tracer gas Tracer gas allow for package integrity testing to prevent foods from being exposed to atmosphere, thus guaranteeing shelf life. Preservatives Preservatives prevent or inhibit spoilage of food due to fungi and other microorganisms. Stabilizers Stabilizers and gelling agents, like agar or pectin give foods a firmer texture. While they are not true emulsifiers, they help to stabilize emulsions. Sweeteners Sweeteners are added to foods for flavoring. Sweeteners other than sugar are added to keep the food energy low, or because they have beneficial effects regarding diabetes mellitus, tooth decay, or diarrhea. Thickeners Thickening agents are substances which, when added to the mixture, increase its viscosity without modifying its other properties.

Packaging Bisphenols and perfluoroalkyl chemicals are indirect additives used in manufacturing or packaging. In July 2018 the American Academy of Pediatrics called for more careful study of those three substances, along with nitrates and food coloring, as they might harm children during development. With the increasing use of processed foods since the 19th century, food additives are more used. Many countries regulate their use. For example, boric acid was used as a food preservative from the 1870s to the 1920s, but was banned after World War I due to its toxicity, as demonstrated in animal and human studies. During World War II, the urgent need for cheap, available food preservatives led to it being used again, but it was banned in the 1950s; such cases led to a general mistrust of food additives, an application of the precautionary principle led to the conclusion that only additives that are known to be safe should be used in foods. In the United States, this led to the adoption of the Delaney clause, an amendment to the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act of 1938, stating that no carcinogenic substances may be used as food additives.


The Malta Police Force

The Malta Police Force is the national police force of Malta. It falls under the responsibility of the Ministry for Home Affairs and National Security and its objectives are set out in The Police Act, Chapter 164 of the Laws of Malta. Presently, the force is made up of around 2,400 members; the Malta Police Force holds mixed responsibilities in national security issues. It is always in search of the truth within the parameters of its investigative powers, combined with those afforded by the judicial authority; the role of a police officer is multifaceted. It includes the preservation of public peace; the Force operates the following specialised branches: Administrative Law Enforcement Unit Criminal Investigation Department Drug Squad Financial Crimes Units Protective Services Rapid Intervention Unit Special Branch Special Intervention Unit Vice Squad Furthermore, a department known as the International Relations Unit coordinates activities with EUROPOL, INTERPOL and the Schengen Information System, is tasked with exchange of information.

The Malta Police Force in its present form dates from a proclamation during the governorship of Sir Thomas Maitland. When Malta became a crown colony of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland by the Treaty of Paris, Maitland was appointed Governor and commander-in-chief of Malta and its dependencies by the Prince Regent's Commission of 23 July 1813. On his appointment Maitland, embarked on many far reaching reforms, including the maintenance of Law and Order. By Proclamation XXII of 1 July 1814, Maitland ordered and directed that all powers up to exercised with respect to the administration of the police of the island of Malta and its dependencies were, after 12 July 1814 to be administered by the authorities under established procedures; the police was to be divided into two distinct departments - the judicial. The inspector general of police was to be the head of the executive police; the Magistrates for Malta and the Magistrates of Police for Gozo were to be the heads of the judicial police.

From 12 July 1814 onwards, the entire management and control of the executive police came under the immediate superintendence of the inspector general of police who received his orders from the governor. After the grant of self-government in 1921, the police department became the responsibility of the Maltese government; the first minister appointed, responsible for justice and the police, was Dr Alfredo Caruana Gatto. The Police Depot, as it is known today, was built by the Portuguese Grand Master Manoel De Vilhena in 1734 and at first it served as an institute called ‘Casa D’Industria’, a home for homeless women, they were taught basic skills and education such as reading and some trades like weaving and processing cotton. In 1850, during the British occupation period, this building was used as the General Hospital. Beneath this building, a shelter was dug at the beginning of the Second World War in order to tend to wounded patients who could not be moved from one place to another; this space therefore provided a safer environment for patients during air bombardments.

Imagine what would have happened if during an operation, doctors would have to stop from their medical intervention on patients. That is, it is interesting to note that this is not only the only shelter in the Maltese Islands used for this function, because as far as we know, there is no underground hospital on the continent, built or dug out to operate in this way. It was in 1954 that the Police Force moved into this building and turned it into its General Headquarters, from where it still operates today; the Museum is divided into two sections: each section is housed in a separate hall. The first section deals with the administrative history of the force and the second part is about some of the criminal cases. In the first hall, one will see various objects and belongings, for example uniforms, medals, decorations and many other interesting things including tools and vehicles which were all required and used in different periods which helped the Police Force to carry out its duty to the best of its ability.

In the second hall one can see made-up scenes of crime. Mission: To Promote and maintain Malta as a safe and secure state. Vision: To enhance public respect and confidence by distinguishing itself in its strategies and behaviors, as a dedicated, professional and responsible Police Force. Col. Francesco Rivarola Lt. Col. Henry Balneavis Mr. Charles Godfrey Mr. Frederick Sedley Mr. Hector Zimelli Mr. Raffaele Bonello Col. Attillo Sceberras Capt. Richard Casolani, RMFA Mr. Melitone Caruana Comm. Hon. Clement La Primaudaye, MVO. RN Mr. Tancred Curmi Mr. Claude W. Duncan Col. Henry W. Bamford, OBE Mr. Antonio Busuttil Mjr. Frank Stivala Lt. Col. Gustavus S. Brander, OBE Mr. Joseph Axisa Mr. Joseph Ullo Mr. Herbert Grech Mr. George Cachia, L. P. Mr. Vivian Byres de Gray, MVO. MBE. BEM Comm. Alfred J. Bencini Mr. Edward Bencini Mr. Enoch Tonna Mr. John N. Cachia Dr. Lawrence Pullicino, LL. D. Bgdr. John Spiteri, AFM Mr. Alfred A. Calleja Mr. George Grech Mr. John Rizzo Mr. Peter Paul Zammit, L. P. Mr

K. Jayaprakash Hegde

Korgi Jayaprakash Hegde is an Indian politician, a Minister in the Government of Karnataka. As Minister in charge of undivided Mangalore and Chikmagalur, in 1997, he is the reason for the creation of Udupi District, from undivided Mangalore and Udupi, he was a Member of India's Parliament representing Udupi Chikmagalur Born in Korgi, Kundapura taluk, Udupi district, Jayaprakash Hegde is a practicing advocate and entered politics early in his life. He has been elected thrice to the Karnataka Legislative Assembly as an independent candidate from the Brahmavara constituency and served as Minister holding the portfolio of Ports and Fisheries, he has two children, a son, Nishanth and a daughter, Divya. He was Minister in charge for undivided Udupi District, it is due to his fight and determination that Udupi was declared as an independent district in 1997. When his Brahmavar constituency was divided by central govt. and it no longer existed, he was forced to join Congress party for political survival.

In 2009 he contested unsuccessfully from the Udupi Chikmagalur for the 2009 Indian general election on an Indian National Congress ticket. Hegde has been elected to Lok Sabha from the same constituency following a by election in 2012, he was the most popular MP the constituency has had and had a tremendous track record of work in only 1.5 years. However, in 2014, because of the unprecedented Modi wave, Shobha Karandlaje, a close associate of BJP heavyweight B. S. Yediyurappa defeated Jayaprakash Hegde, by a margin of nearly one lac votes; the Congress on Monday December 14, 2015 expelled Jayaprakash Hegde, from the party for six years due to his popularity causing insecurities for Rajya Sabha MP Sri Oscar Fernandes. Jayaprakash Hegde being a worker's candidate and not a top leaders follower, faced several issues in the Congress and due to his inability to obey orders of Oscar Fernandes, he was removed from the party without notice. Standing as an independent candidate in the Dakshina Kannada constituency, he gave the Congress party a run for its money, when more than half of the party workers voted for him instead of the official Congress candidate.

The Indian National Congress has not seen victory in coastal Karnataka since the ejection of Jayaprakash Hegde. His exit has left a big gap in tea building in Coastal Karnataka Congress, he is said to be on of the cleanest politician in the state, well respected by the general public and other politicians. He had completed his MP term by undertaking many good things in few months of term, that couldn't be continued in the next terms by the other MP. Despite being out of power, he continues to do public service and brings in important projects for the constituency, he had refused to return to the Congress party despite repeated requests. Official Website

Sheyene Gerardi

Sheyene Gerardi is a Venezuelan actress and television host. She is the founder of two philanthropic foundations; the Sheyene School. The Sheyene e-health, an electronic healthcare information delivery network for rare diseases, after becoming a survivor of an unclassifiable splenic hairy small B-Cell lymphoma non-Hodgkin, a rare cancer.. Sheyene is the Lead for Robotics Outreach at NASA Center for Lunar and Asteroid Surface Science, she is working with governments introducing robotics education into low-resource communities or conflict areas, such as rural schools, refugee camps, non-formal school systems and prison system, her career as a professional model began in conjunction with her medical education. Sheyene studied Medicine at the Universidad Central de Venezuela, she participated in the Miss Venezuela Pageant. During her time at the university, the school plunged into turmoil, reaching the verge of closing as students protested. Around that time, a TV producer discovered Sheyene, she garnered a starring role on a popular soap opera series, broadcast internationally.

Sheyene is known for her work in more than 30 countries, including Russia, Peru, Ecuador and Puerto Rico. Given her influence on the culture, a non-profit charity foundation in Barlovento, Venezuela —the Sheyene School—is named after her, she has graduated with distinction from institutions such as Charles III University of Madrid, Sotheby's Institute of Art, Harvard University. Sheyene earned a master’s-level certificate in Space Resource Utilization offered by NASA Center for Lunar and Asteroid Surface Science with 100% final grade, in 2018. Gerardi has won the "Dos de Oro" award, She has received the key of the city in Barlovento and the Imagen del Mundo award; the actress has added credits in her role as a TV host. In 2016, Sheyene Gerardi was named a Mogul Influencer in New York City. Sheyene Gerardi, is working with NASA Kennedy Space Center Swamp Works and the Florida Space Institute to teach Planetary engineering and creating Robotics Competitions for low-income children through Sheyene School..

She operates Sheyene E-health, which provides free medical consultations via Internet and via phone for people suffering from rare diseases. In 2018, Sheyene has been appointed as the Lead for Robotics Outreach at NASA’s Center for Lunar and Asteroid Surface Science, The Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute and The Florida Space Institute network.. She is working with governments introducing robotics education into low-resource communities or conflict areas, such as rural schools, refugee camps, non-formal school systems; the program is serving prison systems in the U. S. and other countries, providing assistance with education to people, wrongfully convicted. Sheyene was born in the only child of a family of Italian and Brazilian descent. During the sixth month of her mother's pregnancy, Sheyene's biological father tragically died in a car accident, her mother was both a veterinarian and the chair of a family-owned mining company located in southeastern in Venezuela. In 2006, her mother and stepfather were killed in an automobile accident, leaving Sheyene with no living relatives.

A year she received a diagnosis of advanced lymphoma Stage IV, a rare type of cancer with only 60 cases reported worldwide with no survivors. The cancer had spread throughout her whole body, doctors gave her three months to live. Sheyene was treated in Florida. During her chemotherapy treatments, Gerardi worked in two films in Mexico, starring in La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre. Six months she was in Santa Juanita de los Lagos, she underwent three years of chemotherapy, she suffered no hair loss and was photographed by Tina Nibbana during her treatments. Official website Sheyene Geradi on IMDb CNN interview CNN interview La Invasora


Thingwall is a village on the Wirral Peninsula, England. The village is situated north east of Heswall, it is part of the Pensby & Thingwall Ward of the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral and is situated within the parliamentary constituency of Wirral West. At the 2001 Census, Thingwall had 3,140 inhabitants. From the Old Norse þing vollr, meaning'assembly field', the name indicates that it was once the site of a Germanic thing. Similar place names in the British Isles include Tynwald and Tingwall; the settlement was recorded in the Domesday Book as Tuigvelle, has been variously known as Fingwalle. A township in Woodchurch Parish, Wirral Hundred, the county of Chester it was added to Birkenhead county borough in 1933; the population was 52 in 1801, 96 in 1851 and 156 in 1901. Traditional buildings/walls in the area are constructed of locally quarried yellow sandstone. Several small sandstone quarries once existed in the area including one at the top of the appropriately named Quarry Lane. Little evidence of these quarries now exists as the land has been redeveloped for housing or for the construction of a second above ground fresh water reservoir.

Thingwall Mill was constructed in the eighteenth century on the site of a much older medieval mill. Damaged in a storm in 1897 and subsequently disused, the mill was demolished in 1900. However, remnants of the building, including the original mill stone, can still be found on Mill Road. Thingwall Hall was built in 1849 for a Liverpool merchant and demolished in 1960, it was part of the Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital from 1917, providing care for long-term patients. Thingwall lies on the western side of the northern part of the Wirral Peninsula, 4.7 miles from the Irish Sea at Hoylake, 2.3 miles from the Dee Estuary and about 4.1 miles from the River Mersey at Rock Ferry. Thingwall sits at the western side of the wide and shallow glacial U-shaped valley, formed during the Quaternary Ice Age, between Thurstaston Hill and Storeton Ridge; the underlying bedrock is Triassic sandstone of the Helsby Sandstone Formation and the Wilmslow Sandstone Formation, Triassic siltstone of the Tarporley Siltstone Formation.

This is overlain with boulder clay from the Quaternary Ice Age, similar to the nearby Dee Cliffs, clay soil. The bedrock is not visible, as it is at the summit of Thurstaston Hill. Thingwall is part of the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral, in the metropolitan county of Merseyside; the village is part of the parliamentary constituency of Wirral West. The current Member of Parliament is a Labour Party representative; the village is part of a local government ward of the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral, this being Pensby and Thingwall Ward. Thingwall is represented on Wirral Metropolitan Borough Council by three councillors; these are Phillip Brightmore, Louise Reecejones and Michael Sullivan, who are all Labour councillors. The most recent local elections took place on 22 May 2014; the electorate numbered 10,520, there was a turnout of 39% and the majority is 162. The result was declared at 12:06. Alan Gill and David Balfe, English musicians with the late 70s / early 80s bands Radio Blank, Dalek I Love You and The Teardrop Explodes, both raised in Thingwall.

David Balfe went on to run his own record labels. One of these to which he signed Blur, became the inspiration behind their 1995 number one song, Country House. Marty Willson-Piper, English guitarist and songwriter with Australian band The Church, was raised in Thingwall. Septimus Francom, English athlete, born in Thingwall. George Payne, English footballer, died in Thingwall. Cavill, Paul. Wirral and Its Viking Heritage. English Place-Name Society. ISBN 978-0-904889-59-8. Harding, Stephen. "Chapter 10: The Things of Wirral and West Lancashire". Viking Mersey: Scandinavian Wirral, West Lancashire and Chester. Countryvise Limited. Pp. 141–152. ISBN 978-1-901231-3-42. Harding, Stephen. Viking DNA: The Wirral and West Lancashire Project. Nottingham University Press. ISBN 978-1-907284-94-6. Mortimer, William Williams; the History of the Hundred of Wirral. London: Whittaker & Co. p.289. Viking Wirral Multimap map & satellite image

I Love Velvet

I Love Velvet is a global provider of hardware and software for mobile point of sale transactions and value-added retail services. I Love Velvet manufactures and sells merchant-operated, consumer-facing and self-service mPOS systems to the entertainment, retail and automotive industries. Founded in 2009 by former SAP AG, Oracle Corporation and retailing executives; the system was developed for enterprise retailers looking to process multiple forms of payments in multiple countries all housed in one single device called “The Brain”. In 2013, I Love Velvet purchased a French online wallet company. I Love Velvet mobile POS is a cloud-based iPhone, iPad and Windows tablets, mobile point of sale or checkout system. I Love Velvet mPOS has several large business customers such as German vehicle inspection company, Dekra; the system allows merchants to ring up sales, print or email receipts, open a wireless cash drawer, accept credit and debit card, EMV smart card, NFC/RFID transactions, as well as print remotely from compatible hardware devices using the Velvet Store application.

The back-end, web-based Velvet Cloud allows inventory and customer management, with analytics and reporting. The dashboard interface allows merchants to view real-time store sales and other data remotely. I Love Velvet is headquartered in New York, New York with global design, hardware/software development and security support facilities in South Korea and Bulgaria. Point of Sale Malware Cyber security standards List of cyber attack threat trends Cyber electronic warfare Malware Point of Sale System Official ILV site | Company Review