Carl Laemmle was an American filmmaker and a founder of Universal Studios. He worked on over 400 films. Regarded as one of the most important of the early film pioneers, Laemmle was born in what is now Germany, he emigrated to the United States in 1884 and worked in Chicago for 20 years before he began buying nickelodeons expanding into a film distribution service, the Laemmle Film Service. Laemmle was born on 17 January 1867 to a Jewish family in Laupheim, in the German Kingdom of Württemberg; as a youth, he was an apprentice in Ichenhausen. He followed his older brother and emigrated to the United States in 1884, settling in Chicago, where he married Recha Stern, with whom he would have a son, Carl Laemmle, Jr. and a daughter, Rosabelle Laemmle Bergerman. Laemmle became a naturalized American citizen in 1889, he worked a variety of jobs, but by 1894 he was the bookkeeper of the Continental Clothing Company in Oshkosh, where he introduced a bolder advertising style. In 1906, Laemmle quit his job and started one of the first motion picture theaters in Chicago, branched out into film exchange services.
He challenged Thomas Edison's monopoly on moving pictures under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. As part of his offensive against Edison's company, Laemmle began advertising individual "stars," such as Mary Pickford and Florence Lawrence, thus increasing their individual earning power, thus their willingness to side with the "Independents."After moving to New York, Carl Laemmle got involved in producing movies, forming Independent Moving Pictures. On April 30, 1912, in New York, Laemmle of IMP, Pat Powers of Powers Motion Picture Company, Mark Dintenfass of Champion Film Company, William Swanson of Rex Motion Picture Company, David Horsley of Nestor Film Company, Charles Baumann and Adam Kessel of the New York Motion Picture Company, merged their studios and incorporated the Universal Film Manufacturing Company, with Laemmle assuming the role of president, they founded the Company with studios in Fort Lee, New Jersey, where many early film studios in America's first motion picture industry were based at the beginning of the 20th century.
In 1915, the studio moved to 235 acres of land in California. Universal maintained two East Coast offices: The first was located at 1600 Broadway, New York City; this building known as The Studebaker building, was razed around 2004-5. The second location to house Universal's executive offices was at New York City. Many years 445 Park Avenue was the location of Universal's executive offices. After moving to California, Laemmle purchased as a residence for his family the former home of film pioneer Thomas Ince on Benedict Canyon Drive, Beverly Hills; the house was razed in the early 1940s. Laemmle maintained a large apartment for himself and his two children at 465 West End Avenue, New York City, one block off Riverside Drive near the Hudson River. In 1916, Laemmle sponsored the $3,000 three-foot-tall solid silver Universal Trophy for the winner of the annual Universal race at the Uniontown Speedway board track in southwestern Pennsylvania. Universal filmed each race from 1916 to 1922. Carl Laemmle, although having made hundreds of movies in his active years as a producer, is best remembered for The Hunchback of Notre Dame, The Phantom of The Opera, both with Lon Chaney Sr. in the title role, The Man Who Laughs.
In the early and mid-1930s, Laemmle's son, Carl Laemmle, Jr. produced a series of commercially successful films for the studio, among them several now-famous horror movies, such as Dracula and Frankenstein which became influential classics. Other films of note included 1936's Show Boat. Carl Laemmle and his son were both forced out of the company in 1936 during the Great Depression, he died from cardiovascular disease on September 24, 1939 in Beverly Hills, California, at the age of 72. Laemmle was entombed in the Chapel Mausoleum at Home of Peace Cemetery. Laemmle remained connected to his home town of Laupheim throughout his life, providing financial support to it and by sponsoring hundreds of Jews from Laupheim and Württemberg to emigrate from Nazi Germany to the United States in the 1930s, paying both emigration and immigration fees, thus saving them from the Holocaust. To ensure and facilitate their immigration, Laemmle contacted American authorities, members of the House of Representatives and Secretary of State Cordell Hull.
He intervened to try to secure entry for the refugees on board the SS St. Louis, who were sent back from Havana to Europe in 1939, where many died. Asked how to pronounce his name, he told The Literary Digest, "The name means little lamb, is pronounced as if it were spelled'lem-lee'."His niece, Rebekah Isabelle Laemmle, known professionally as Carla Laemmle, appeared in several films until her retirement from acting at the end of the 1930s. His great-grandniece, Antonia Carlotta, talks about him at length in her web series Universally Me, about the history of Universal Studios; the poet Ogden Nash observed the following about Laemmle's habit of giving his son and nephews top executive positions in his studios: "Uncle Carl LaemmleHas a large faemmle." Harold Robbins, a former Universal Studios employee, based a main character in the novel The Dream Merchants on Carl Laemmle. Laemmle was featured as an historic character in the movie The Adventures of Young Indiana Jones. David Menefee's novel, Sweet Memories, features Carl Laemmle as a character.
History of the Jews in Laupheim Laemmle T
Cesare Gravina was an Italian actor of the silent era who appeared in more than 70 films between 1911 and 1929. Born in Naples, Gravina was an orchestra conductor in his native Italy; as the conductor at La Scala, among the noted vocalists he worked with were Mary Garden and Enrico Caruso. At some point he left music to become a character actor, sharing his reasons for the career change with no one; as the owner of many theaters in South America, Gravina was financially secure enough to retire from motion pictures by 1924, but he preferred to remain in acting. Cesare Gravina on IMDb
A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound. In silent films for entertainment, the plot may be conveyed by the use of title cards, written indications of the plot and key dialogue lines; the idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as film itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, the introduction of synchronized dialogue became practical only in the late 1920s with the perfection of the Audion amplifier tube and the advent of the Vitaphone system. During the silent-film era that existed from the mid-1890s to the late 1920s, a pianist, theater organist—or in large cities, a small orchestra—would play music to accompany the films. Pianists and organists would play either from improvisation; the term silent film is a retronym—a term created to retroactively distinguish something. Early sound films, starting with The Jazz Singer in 1927, were variously referred to as the "talkies," "sound films," or "talking pictures." Within a decade, the widespread production of silent films for popular entertainment had ceased, the industry had moved into the sound era, in which movies were accompanied by synchronized sound recordings of spoken dialogue and sound effects.
Most early motion pictures are considered lost because the nitrate film used in that era was unstable and flammable. Additionally, many films were deliberately destroyed because they had little value in the era before home video, it has been claimed that around 75 percent of silent films have been lost, though these estimates may be inaccurate due to a lack of numerical data. The earliest precursors to film began with image projection through the use of a device known as the magic lantern, which utilized a glass lens, a shutter, a persistent light source to project images from glass slides onto a wall; these slides were hand-painted, after the advent of photography in the 19th century, still photographs were sometimes used. Thus the invention of a practical photography apparatus preceded cinema by only fifty years; the next significant step toward the invention of cinema was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828—only four years after Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called "Persistence of Vision."
Roget showed that when a series of still images is shown at a considerable speed in front of a viewer's eye, the images merge into one registered image that appears to show movement. This is an optical illusion, since the image is not moving; this experience was further demonstrated through Roget's introduction of the thaumatrope, a device that spun at a high speed a disk with an image on its surface. The three features necessary for motion pictures to work were "a camera with sufficiently high shutter speed, a filmstrip capable of taking multiple exposures swiftly, means of projecting the developed images on a screen." The first projected proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge between 1877 and 1880. Muybridge set up a row of cameras along a racetrack and timed image exposures to capture the many stages of a horse's gallop; the oldest surviving film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888. It was a two-second film of people walking in "Oakwood streets" garden, titled Roundhay Garden Scene.
The development of American inventor Thomas Edison's Kinetograph, a photographic device that captured sequential images, his Kinetoscope, a device for viewing those images, allowed for the creation and exhibition of short films. Edison made a business of selling Kinetograph and Kinetoscope equipment, which laid the foundation for widespread film production. Due to Edison's lack of securing an international patent on his film inventions, similar devices were "invented" around the world. In France, for example and Louis Lumière created the Cinématographe, which proved to be a more portable and practical device than both of Edison's as it combined a camera, film processor, projector in one unit. In contrast to Edison's "peepshow"-style kinetoscope, which only one person could watch through a viewer, the cinematograph allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple people, their first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture. The invention of celluloid film, strong and flexible facilitated the making of motion pictures.
This film was 35 mm wide and was pulled using four sprocket holes, which became the industry standard. This doomed the cinematograph; the art of motion pictures grew into full maturity in the "silent era". The height of the silent era was a fruitful period, full of artistic innovation; the film movements of Classical Hollywood as well as French Impressionism, German Expressionism, Soviet Montage began in this period. Silent filmmakers pioneered the art form to the extent that every style and genre of film-making of the 20th and 21st centuries has its artistic roots in the silent era; the silent era was a pioneering one from a technical point of view. Three-point lighting, the close-up, long shot and continuity editing all became prevalent long before silent films were replaced by "talking pictures" or "talkies" in the late 1920s; some scholars claim that the artistic quality of cinema decreased for several years, during the early 1930s, until film directors and production staff adapted to the new "talkies" around the late 1930s.
Pennsylvania State Board of Censors
The Pennsylvania State Board of Censors was an organization under the Pennsylvania Department of Education responsible for approving, redacting, or banning motion pictures which it considered "sacrilegious, indecent, or immoral", or which might pervert morals. The board was composed of three members. Despite a censorship law passed in 1911, due to lack of funding it did not begin its activities until 1914. In 1956 the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania ruled the act which created and provided for the board was unconstitutional, with respect to the Pennsylvania Constitution, so revoked the mandate for the board's existence; the Pennsylvania General Assembly reenacted the statute in 1959, but it was struck down again in 1961 by the Pennsylvania Supreme Court. British Board of Film Censors Film censorship in the United States Indian Film Censor Board List of Pennsylvania state agencies Maryland State Board of Censors Page on the Department of Education from the State Archives The Public Domain film which the above image came from
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late 20th century across philosophy, the arts and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism. The term has more been applied to the historical era following modernity and the tendencies of this era. While encompassing a wide variety of approaches, postmodernism is defined by an attitude of skepticism, irony, or rejection toward the meta-narratives and ideologies of modernism calling into question various assumptions of Enlightenment rationality. Common targets of postmodern critique include universalist notions of objective reality, truth, human nature, reason and social progress. Postmodern thinkers call attention to the contingent or socially-conditioned nature of knowledge claims and value systems, situating them as products of particular political, historical, or cultural discourses and hierarchies. Accordingly, postmodern thought is broadly characterized by tendencies to self-referentiality and moral relativism and irreverence.
Postmodern critical approaches gained purchase in the 1980s and 1990s, have been adopted in a variety of academic and theoretical disciplines, including cultural studies, philosophy of science, linguistics, feminist theory, literary criticism, as well as art movements in fields such as literature and music. Postmodernism is associated with schools of thought such as deconstruction and post-structuralism, as well as philosophers such as Jean-François Lyotard, Jacques Derrida, Fredric Jameson. Criticisms of postmodernism are intellectually diverse, include assertions that postmodernism promotes obscurantism, is meaningless, adding nothing to analytical or empirical knowledge. Postmodernism arose after World War II as a reaction to the perceived failings of modernism, whose radical artistic projects had come to be associated with totalitarianism or had been assimilated into mainstream culture; the basic features of what is now called postmodernism can be found as early as the 1940s, most notably in the work of artists such as Jorge Luis Borges.
However, most scholars today would agree that postmodernism began to compete with modernism in the late 1950s and gained ascendancy over it in the 1960s. Since postmodernism has been a dominant, though not undisputed, force in art, film, drama, architecture and continental philosophy. Salient features of postmodernism are thought to include the ironic play with styles and narrative levels, a metaphysical skepticism or nihilism towards a "grand narrative" of Western culture, a preference for the virtual at the expense of the Real and a "waning of affect" on the part of the subject, caught up in the free interplay of virtual, endlessly reproducible signs inducing a state of consciousness similar to schizophrenia. Since the late 1990s there has been a small but growing feeling both in popular culture and in academia that postmodernism "has gone out of fashion". Structuralism was a philosophical movement developed by French academics in the 1950s in response to French Existentialism, it has been seen variously as an expression of High modernism, or postmodernism.
"Post-structuralists" were thinkers who moved away from the strict interpretations and applications of structuralist ideas. Many American academics consider post-structuralism to be part of the broader, less well-defined postmodernist movement though many post-structuralists insisted it was not. Thinkers who have been called structuralists include the anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss, the linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, the Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser, the semiotician Algirdas Greimas; the early writings of the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan and the literary theorist Roland Barthes have been called structuralists. Those who began as structuralists but became post-structuralists include Michel Foucault, Roland Barthes, Jean Baudrillard, Gilles Deleuze. Other post-structuralists include Jacques Derrida, Pierre Bourdieu, Jean-François Lyotard, Julia Kristeva, Hélène Cixous, Luce Irigaray; the American cultural theorists and intellectuals whom they influenced include Judith Butler, John Fiske, Rosalind Krauss, Avital Ronell, Hayden White.
Post-structuralism is not defined by a set of shared axioms or methodologies, but by an emphasis on how various aspects of a particular culture, from its most ordinary, everyday material details to its most abstract theories and beliefs, determine one another. Post-structuralist thinkers reject Reductionism and Epiphenomenalism and the idea that cause-and-effect relationships are top-down or bottom-up. Like structuralists, they start from the assumption that people's identities and economic conditions determine each other rather than having intrinsic properties that can be understood in isolation, thus the French structuralists considered themselves to be espousing Constructionism. But they tended to explore how the subjects of their study might be described, reductively, as a set of essential relationships, schematics, or mathematical symbols.. Post-structuralists thinkers went further, questioning the existence of any distinction between the nature of a thing and its relationship to other things.
Postmodernist ideas in philosophy and the analysis of culture and society expanded the importance of critical theory and ha
William Daniels (cinematographer)
William H. Daniels, A. S. C. was a film cinematographer, Greta Garbo's personal lensman. Early in his career he worked with director Erich von Stroheim. Daniels was born in Cleveland, Ohio in 1901, he started his film career in 1919. His career as a cinematographer extended fifty years from the silent film Foolish Wives to Move, although he was an uncredited camera operator on two earlier films, his major films included The Naked City, filmed on the streets of New York, for which he won an Academy Award for Best Cinematography. He was associate producer of a few films in the 1960s and was President of American Society of Cinematographers. On his death in 1970 in Los Angeles, William H. Daniels was interred in the Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, California. Source: Wins Academy Awards: Oscar, Best Cinematography, Black-and-White, for The Naked City. Nominated Academy Awards: Oscar, Best Cinematography, for Anna Christie. Academy Awards: Oscar, Best Cinematography, for Cat on a Hot Tin Roof.
Academy Awards: Oscar, Best Cinematography, How the West Was Won. William H. Daniels on IMDb. William H. Daniels at AllMovie. William H. Daniels at Film Reference
Sigmund Romberg was a Hungarian-born American composer. He is best known for his musicals and operettas The Student Prince, The Desert Song and The New Moon. Early in his career, Romberg was employed by the Shubert brothers to write music for their musicals and revues, including several vehicles for Al Jolson. For the Shuberts, he adapted several European operettas for American audiences, including the successful Maytime and Blossom Time, his three hit operettas of the mid-1920s, named above, are in the style of Viennese operetta, but his other works, from that time employ the style of American musicals of their eras. He composed film scores. Romberg was born in Hungary as Siegmund Rosenberg to a Jewish family and Clara Rosenberg, in Gross-Kanizsa during the Austro-Hungarian kaiserlich und königlich monarchy period. In 1889 Romberg and his family moved to Belišće, in Hungary, where he attended a primary school. Influenced by his father, Romberg learned to play the violin at six, piano at eight years of age.
He enrolled at Osijek gymnasium in 1897. He went to Vienna to study engineering, but he took composition lessons while living there. In June 1909, he boarded the S/S Oceanic as a second-class cabin passenger, sailing from the Port of Southampton, England, to the Port of New York. After a brief stint working in a pencil factory in New York, he was employed as a pianist in cafés and restaurants, he founded his own orchestra and published a few songs, despite their limited success, brought him to the attention of the Shubert brothers, who in 1914 hired him to write music for their Broadway theatre shows. That year he wrote The Whirl of the World, he contributed songs to several American musical adaptations of Viennese operettas, including the successful The Blue Paradise. More successful was the musical Maytime, in 1917. Both involved love across generations and included nostalgic waltzes, along with more modern American dance music. At the same time, Romberg contributed songs to the Shuberts' popular revues The Passing Show of 1916 and The Passing Show of 1918 and to two vehicles for Al Jolson: Robinson Crusoe, Jr. an extravaganza burlesque on the familiar story, Sinbad, an Arabian Nights-themed musical.
Romberg wrote another Jolson vehicle in Bombo. He wrote the music for the musical comedy Poor Little Ritz Girl, which had songs by Richard Rodgers. Romberg's adaptation of melodies by Franz Schubert for Blossom Time was a great success, he subsequently wrote his best-known operettas, The Student Prince, The Desert Song and The New Moon, which are in a style similar to the Viennese operettas of Franz Lehár. He wrote Princess Flavia, an operetta based on The Prisoner of Zenda, his other works, My Maryland, a successful romance. Romberg wrote a number of film scores and adapted his own work for film. Columbia Records asked Romberg to conduct orchestral arrangements of his music for a series of recordings from 1945 to 1950 that were issued both on 78-rpm and 33-1/3 rpm discs; these performances are now prized by record collectors. Naxos Records digitally remastered the recordings and issued them in the U. K. Much of Romberg's music, including extensive excerpts from his operettas, was released on LP during the 1950s and 1960s by Columbia, RCA Victor.
Nelson Eddy and Jeanette MacDonald, who appeared in an MGM adaptation of The New Moon in 1940 recorded and performed his music. There have been periodic revivals of the operettas. Romberg died in 1951, aged 64, of a stroke at his Ritz Towers Hotel suite in New York City and was interred in the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York. Romberg married twice. Little is known about his first wife, who appears on a 1920 federal census form as being Austrian, his second wife was Lillian Harris, whom he married on March 1925, in Paterson, New Jersey. They had no children. Lillian Harris was born March 8, 1898, died April 15, 1967, in New York City. "Her Soldier Boy" – 1917 "Home Again" – 1916, lyrics: Augustus Barratt "Kiss Waltz" – 1916, lyrics: Rida Johnson Young "Mother" – 1916, lyrics: Rida Johnson Young "Sister Susie's Started Syncopation" – 191, lyrics: Harold Atteridge "Won't You Send a Letter to Me?" – 1917, lyrics: Harold Atteridge Romberg was the subject of the 1954 Stanley Donen-directed film Deep in My Heart, in which he was portrayed by José Ferrer.
His operetta The New Moon was the basis for both titled New Moon. "Softly, as in a Morning Sunrise" and "Lover, Come Back to Me" from The New Moon are still jazz-blues/soft-jazz classics and have been performed by many jazz performers. He is featured in the lyrics to the 1963 Allan Sherman comedy song "The Mexican Hat Dance". Romberg starred in An Evening with Romberg on NBC June 10, 1940 – September 2, 1940, as a summer replacement for The Red Skelton Show; the program featured a 58-piece orchestra. Music genres included "operatic arias, short symphoni