The Football League Second Division was the second level division in the English football league system between 1892 and 1992. Following the formation of the FA Premier League, it became the third level division. After the rebranding of the football league in 2003-04, it became known as Football League One. In 1888, Scotsman William McGregor a director of Aston Villa, was the main force between meetings held in London and Manchester involving 12 football clubs, with an eye to a league competition; these 12 clubs would become the Football League's 12 founder members. The meetings were held in London on 22 March 1888; the main concern was that an early exit in the knockout format of the FA Cup could leave clubs with no matches for a year. Matters were finalised on 17 April in Manchester. McGregor had voted against the name The Football League, as he was concerned that it would be associated with the Irish Land League, but this name still was selected. The competition guaranteed fixtures for all of its member clubs.
Geographically, these were split between the North and the Midlands. A rival English league called the Football Alliance operated from 1889 to 1892. In 1892 it was decided to formally merge the two leagues, so the Football League Second Division was formed, consisting of Football Alliance clubs; the existing League clubs, plus three of the strongest Alliance clubs, comprised the Football League First Division. The Second Division was formed in 1892 with 12 clubs, most of which had played in the Football Alliance; the original members were: Ardwick, Burton Swifts, Crewe Alexandra, Grimsby Town, Lincoln City, Northwich Victoria, Port Vale, Sheffield United, Small Heath, Walsall. Manchester City and Leicester City jointly hold the record for most second tier championships, it expanded over the years to its final total of 24 clubs, as follows: 1893 – 15 clubs 1894 – 16 1898 – 18 1905 – 20 1919 – 22 1987 – 23 1988 – 24For the first few years, there was no automatic promotion to the First Division.
Instead, the top few teams in Division Two, including the winners, contested a series of test matches against the bottom teams in Division One. Small Heath, Second Division champions in 1892–93, were denied promotion after losing in test matches to Newton Heath. However, runners-up Sheffield United beat Accrington to become the first team to win promotion to the First Division. Test matches were abolished in 1898 after Burnley and Stoke conspired to deliberately draw their test match 0–0, which resulted in Burnley being promoted and Stoke being saved from relegation. Relegation to the Football League Third Division was in place in the season before the latter started, as Grimsby Town made way for Cardiff City and formed the new Third Division with southern clubs. For subsequent seasons, two clubs were relegated into either the Third Division North or Third Division South depending on their geographical location; when the Third Division was reunified in 1958–59, the relegation arrangement was kept.
See List of teams promoted from the English Football League Championship and predecessors for winners from 1893 to 1992 and List of winners of English Football League One and predecessors for winners from 1993 to 2004
Onyx is a multi-member collective, active in New York City from 1968 through the early 1970s and active intermittently to the present. Its members - Ron Williams, Woody Rainey, Tommy Simpson, Mike Hinge, Bob Buxbaum, Davis Allen, Sheridan Bell and Jack Wells among others—published architectural projects in the form of offset-printed posters or "broadsheets" that were mailed internationally; the members went by a number of pseudonyms including Charles Albatross, Okra Plantz, Patrick Redson and Harvey Grapefruit. The poster format allowed the rapid reproduction and easy circulation of their ideas. While the collective distributed their posters through the postal service they pasted the posters up throughout the streets of the city. There are many connections to the "mail art" phenomenon. Characterized by an intricate layering of text and images, the ONYX posters described speculative architectural projects, made allusions to architectural history, explored practices of architectural representation, commented obscurely on current sociopolitical events.
The moniker ONYX was selected in reference to the multilayered stone. According to Williams, “There were many descriptions of what ONYX meant but it was an attempt to bring different sensibilities together and to resist the temptation to declare a manifesto."In the mid 1960s, Ron Williams and Woody Rainey began to create posters to document their conversations on architecture and communicate their experiences in New York to their friends who shared their interests in art and architecture. The two met while studying architecture at the University of Utah, worked in the early years of ONYX as designers/architects in the offices of Pei Cobb Freed, Richard Meier, Peter Blake and James Baker, S. O. M. and Russo+Sonder. Both went on to careers in architecture with separate private practices, they each won the New York Architectural League's Birch Burdette Long prize for architectural drawings and went on to teach architectural drawing at Columbia University. Williams met Onyx-member Mike Hinge at the design office of Donald Deskey Associates in the mid 1960s where they designed exhibits for the USIS.
Hailing from New Zealand, Hinge had a prolific career as a graphic designer, art director, typographer, with an avid interest in illustrating science fiction publications. Hinge's work was included in various advertising annual publications and science fiction anthologies. Tommy Simpson is a professional artist, continuing to exhibit. Stewart Brand's Whole Earth Catalog included a review of a book by Williams and multiple reviews contributed by ONYX in its various supplements; the collective's work was featured in Design Quarterly’s 1970 issue on "Conceptual Architecture", edited by John Margolies, Jim Burns's book Arthropods. Onyx's posters are in the permanent collection of the Frac Centre. Margolies, John, ed.. "Conceptual Architecture". Design Quarterly. Archived from the original on 2014-02-02. "ONYX"
The Deseret News Publishing Company is a publishing company headquartered in Salt Lake City, United States. It is a subsidiary of Deseret Management Corporation, a holding company owned by the Corporation of the President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; the company publishes the daily Salt Lake City area newspaper, Deseret News, its weekly inserts the Church News and Mormon Times. It publishes a semi-weekly Spanish language paper, OKespañol, the Deseret News Church Almanac; the company was incorporated in 1931 to direct the operations of the Deseret News, which until was owned directly by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. For many years the company operated a jobs press, known as the Deseret News Press, in which they used their presses to publish content for other publishers, such as Deseret Book; the Deseret News referred to as the News, was first published on June 15, 1850 in Salt Lake City. The paper was started under the direction of LDS Church President Brigham Young, with Willard Richards as editor and "Truth and Liberty" as its motto.
The News would start out as a weekly publication, but semi-weekly and daily editions were added. The semi-weekly was discontinued in 1922, only the daily edition is published. Since its first issue the News has always been under the ownership of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, but held by various Church owned companies; because of financial troubles The Deseret News Company leased the News along with the company's jobs press, merchandising—on October 1, 1892—to the Cannon family. The Cannon family formed a company to be the lessee of the News and called this company the Deseret News Publishing Company. But, the Cannon family was unable to make the paper financially sound, the lease was returned to the Church owned Deseret News Company on September 7, 1898. Soon after the LDS Church took over direct ownership of the News and dissolved The Deseret News Company. On December 29, 1931 the Deseret News Publishing Company was incorporated by the LDS Church, its articles of incorporation, filed with the Salt Lake County Clerk, provided for 500 shares of stock, all retained by the Church.
This new company took over direct control of the News and its jobs press. In 1966 the company became a subsidiary of Deseret Management Corporation. Deseret News Church News Mormon Times OKespañol Deseret News Church Almanac The Deseret News Consumer Analysis, annual Salt Lake City area consumer analysis 2002 Salt Lake City: Memorable Photographs and Stories from the Games of 2002 Ashton, Wendell J.. Voice in the West: Biography of a Pioneer Newspaper, New York: Duell and Pearce