Brigitte Fossey, is a French actress. The daughter of a schoolteacher, Fossey was five years old when she was cast by director René Clément to star in his film, Fossey played the role of an innocent child orphaned by World War II. The film won awards worldwide including the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film and Fossey was hired by American actor/director Gene Kelly for his 1957 film. When Fossey was ten years old her parents took her out of the business so she could receive proper schooling. While completing her education, Fossey studied piano and dance and went on to work in Geneva, as an adult Fossey acted both on stage and in film, working with French directors such as François Truffaut and Bertrand Blier. Fluent in English, Fossey has appeared in several Hollywood motion pictures, including a 1979 role as the wife of Paul Newman in the Robert Altman-directed film, in 1982, she was a member of the jury at the 32nd Berlin International Film Festival. During the 1990s, she began performing in television productions, brigitte Fossey has a daughter from her marriage to director Jean-François Adam, whom she met while making his 1970 film M comme Mathieu
The guitar is a musical instrument classified as a fretted string instrument with anywhere from four to 18 strings, usually having six. The sound is projected either acoustically, using a wooden or plastic and wood box, or through electrical amplifier. It is typically played by strumming or plucking the strings with the fingers, the guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning. There are three types of modern acoustic guitar, the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, and the archtop guitar. The tone of a guitar is produced by the strings vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar. The term finger-picking can refer to a tradition of folk, bluegrass. The acoustic bass guitar is an instrument that is one octave below a regular guitar. Early amplified guitars employed a body, but a solid wood body was eventually found more suitable during the 1960s and 1970s.
As with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars. The electric guitar has had a influence on popular culture. The guitar is used in a variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as an instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, soul. The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and, later, in the Americas. The modern word guitar, and its antecedents, has applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times. Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar, at least two instruments called guitars were in use in Spain by 1200, the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca. The guitarra morisca had a back, wide fingerboard. The guitarra Latina had a sound hole and a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers moresca or morisca and latina had been dropped, and it had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a sharply cut waist
The National Gendarmerie is one of two national police forces of France. It is a branch of the French Armed Forces placed under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior—with additional duties to the Ministry of Defense and its area of responsibility includes smaller towns and rural areas, while the Police Nationale—a civilian force—is in charge of cities and large towns. Due to its status, the Gendarmerie fulfills a range of military. The Gendarmes have a cybercrime division and it has a strength of more than 100,000 personnel as of 2014. The Gendarmerie is heir to the Maréchaussée, the oldest police force in France and it has influenced the culture and traditions of gendarmerie forces all around the world—and especially in the former French colonial empire. The Gendarmerie is the descendant of the Marshalcy of the ancien regime, more commonly known by its French title. During the Middle Ages, there were two Grand Officers of the Kingdom of France with police responsibilities, The Marshal of France, the marshalcy dates back to the Hundred Years War, and some historians trace it back to the early twelfth century.
Another organisation, the Constabulary, was under the command of the Constable of France, the constabulary was regularised as a military body in 1337. In 1415 the Maréchaussée fought in the Battle of Agincourt and their commander and his existence was rediscovered in 1934. Gallois de Fougières was recorded as the first known gendarme to have died in the line of duty. Under King Francis I, the Maréchaussée was merged with the Constabulary, the resulting force was known as the Maréchaussée, or, the Constabulary and Marshalcy of France. Unlike the former constabulary the new Maréchaussée was not a fully militarized force, in 1720, the Maréchaussée was officially attached to the Household of the King, together with the gendarmerie of the time, which was not a police force at all, but a royal bodyguard. English visitors to France saw their armed and uniformed patrols as royal soldiers with an oppressive role, despite their connection with the king, they were therefore perceived as a force favouring the reforms of the French National Assembly.
As a result, the Maréchaussée Royale was not disbanded but simply renamed as the gendarmerie nationale and its personnel remained unchanged, and the functions of the force remained much as before. However, from this point, the gendarmerie, unlike the Maréchaussée became a military force. During the revolutionary period, the force responsible for policing was the National Guard. Although the Maréchaussée had been the police force of the ancien regime. In 1791 the newly named gendarmerie nationale was grouped into 28 divisions, in turn, two companies of gendarmes under the command of captains were based in each department
Pierre Bost was a French screenwriter and journalist. Primarily a novelist until the 1940s, he was mainly as a screenwriter after 1945. In his 1954 article Une Certaine Tendance du Cinéma Français, François Truffaut attacked the current state of French films, the screenwriting team of Bost and Aurenche were criticized for their style of literary adaptations in particular, which Truffaut considered old-fashioned. The journalist Jacques-Laurent Bost was Pierre Bosts brother, la haute fourche, Paris, Éditions de Minuit,1945,77 p. Monsieur Ladmiral va bientôt mourir, Paris, Éditions Gallimard,1945, réédition 2005, coll. « LImaginaire »,102 p. Porte-Malheur, Paris, Éditions Le Dilettante,2009,160 p. Un an dans un tiroir, Paris, Éditions Le Dilettante,2010,128 p
Random Harvest is a novel written by James Hilton, first published in 1941. Like previous Hilton works, including Lost Horizon and Goodbye, Mr. Chips, the novel was successfully adapted into a film of the same name in 1942 under the direction of Mervyn LeRoy. Claudine West, George Froeschel and Arthur Wimperis adapted the novel for the screen, though the film departs from the novels narrative in several significant ways, the novels surprise ending, cleverly built on inferences drawn by the reader, would not work in a purely visual medium. The novel is divided, not into chapters, but four large parts and it is set in the period immediately preceding the outbreak of the Second World War. The book is prefaced with this quote. German Official Report, According to a British Official report, the novel starts in 1937, and is narrated by Charles Rainiers secretary, Mr. Harrison. Charles and Mrs. Rainier reside at Stourton, their country manor west of London, where she is the hostess. One night Rainier recounts his story to Harrison, from the time he woke up in Liverpool in 1919, Rainiers tale is told in the form of the third person and relates his return to Stourton, where he learns his father is gravely ill.
Rainier so he can change his will back and include Charles, shortly afterwards, Charles receives word that his father has died and returns home. The family gathers to pay their last respects, and included is 14-year-old Kitty, prompted by the family lawyer, each of the Rainier heirs agrees to give up a portion of their inheritance to Charles, so he may have an equal share. Under the poor leadership of Charles older brother Chetwynd, Rainier shares dwindle in worth until Charles has to control of the company to save it from bankruptcy. He takes leave from university and throws himself into work and he saves the family business, but at the price of his own scholarly aspirations. In due course, he and Kitty become engaged, but before their wedding, he receives a note from Kitty breaking off the engagement, and telling him she is going abroad. Rainier goes on to disclose to Harrison that Kitty was to die soon after, war is on the horizon, and Harrison and Rainier spend time together going to music halls and working.
On a lark, they go see a vaudeville show. He starts to remember things, including being in a hospital in Melbury and he and Harrison drive there, where he finds the asylum he was in during the final days of World War I. The encounter causes Rainiers memory to flood back and he remembers his life in the hospital, where he had been deposited after being released from a German prison hospital as an unknown soldier. Escaping from the asylum as the end of the Great War is being celebrated, he goes into Melbury, feeling poorly, he is helped by the young woman – Paula Ridgeway – to a nearby hotel, The Owl, where she is staying. Now assigned the pseudonym of Smith, he takes on odd jobs at the hotel, guarded by Biffer and it is not long before his whereabouts become known to the hospital
1952 Cannes Film Festival
The 5th Cannes Film Festival was held from April 23 to May 10,1952. The Grand Prize of the Festival went to the Two Cents Worth of Hope by Renato Castellani, the festival opened with An American in Paris by Vincente Minnelli. The jury at this festival was all French
A peasant is a member of a traditional class of farmers, either laborers or owners of small farms, especially in the Middle Ages under feudalism, or more generally, in any pre-industrial society. In Europe, peasants were divided into three classes according to their status, slave and free tenant. Peasants either hold title to land in fee simple, or hold land by any of several forms of tenure, among them socage, quit-rent, leasehold. The implication of the term is that the peasant is uneducated, the word peasant is commonly used in a non-pejorative sense as a collective noun for the rural population in the poor and under-developed countries of the world. The word peasant is derived from the 15th century French word païsant, meaning one from the pays, or countryside, ultimately from the Latin pagus, Peasants typically made up the majority of the agricultural labour force in a pre-industrial society. The majority of the people in the Middle Ages were peasants, more generally, the word peasant is sometimes used to refer pejoratively to those considered to be lower class, perhaps defined by poorer education and/or a lower income.
The open field system of agriculture dominated most of northern Europe during medieval times, under this system, peasants lived on a manor presided over by a lord or a bishop of the church. Peasants paid rent or labor services to the lord in exchange for their right to cultivate the land, fallowed land, pastures and wasteland were held in common. The open field system required cooperation among the peasants of the manor and it was gradually replaced by individual ownership and management of land. This process happened in a pronounced and truncated way in Eastern Europe. Lacking any catalysts for change in the 14th century, Eastern European peasants largely continued upon the original medieval path until the 18th and 19th centuries, even before emancipation in 1861, serfdom was on the wane in Russia. The proportion of serfs within the empire had decreased from 45-50 percent at the end of the eighteenth century. In Germany, peasants continued to center their lives in the well into the 19th century.
They belonged to a body and helped to manage the community resources. In the East they had the status of serfs bound permanently to parcels of land, a peasant is called a Bauer in German and Bur in Low German. In most of Germany, farming was handled by tenant farmers who paid rents, Peasant leaders supervised the fields and ditches and grazing rights, maintained public order and morals, and supported a village court which handled minor offenses. Inside the family the patriarch made all the decisions, and tried to arrange marriages for his children. Much of the communal life centered on church services and holy days
Venice Film Festival
The film festival is part of the Venice Biennale, which was founded by the Venetian City Council in 1895. The film festival has taken place in late August or early September on the island of the Lido, Venice. Screenings take place in the historic Palazzo del Cinema on the Lungomare Marconi, since its inception the Venice Film Festival has grown into one of the most prestigious film festivals in the world. The 74th Venice International Film Festival is scheduled to be held from 30 August to 9 September 2017, the first edition of the Venice Film Festival was carried out from the 6 to the 21 of August in 1932. The festival began with an idea of the president of the Venice Biennale Count Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata and Luciano De Feo, with good reason, the festival was considered the first international event of its type, receiving strong support from authorities. This first edition was held on the terrace of the Hotel Excelsior on the Venice Lido, and at that stage it was not a competitive event.
The very first film to be shown in the history of the Festival was Rouben Mamoulians Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, the second edition was held two years later, from 1 to 20 of August in 1934. For the first time it included a competition, at least 19 countries took part with over 300 accredited journalists. The Mussolini Cup was introduced for best foreign film and best Italian film, other awards were the Great Gold Medals of the National Fascist Association for Entertainment to best actor and actress. The prize for best foreign film went to Robert J. Flahertys Man of Aran and was a confirmation of the taste of the time for auteur documentaries, starting in 1935, the Festival became a yearly event under the direction of Ottavio Croze. The actors award was renamed Volpi Cup, in 1936 an international jury was nominated for the first time and in 1937 the new Cinema Palace, designed by the architect Luigi Quagliata, was inaugurated. The 1940s represent one of the most difficult moments for the review, the conclusion of the Second World War divides the decade in two.
Before 1938 political pressures distorted and ruined the festival, in addition, few countries participated and there was an absolute monopoly of institutions and directors that were members of the Rome-Berlin Axis. The festival resumed full speed in 1946, after the war, with the return of normalcy, Venice once again became a great icon of the film world. In 1947 the festival was held at the Doges Palace, a most magnificent backdrop for hosting a record 90 thousand participants, surely it can be considered one of the greatest editions in the history of the festival. For the next twenty years the festival continued its development and expansion in accordance with the plan set in motion after the war. In 1963 the winds of change blow strongly during Luigi Chiarini’s directorship of the festival, during the years of his presidency, Chiarini aspired to renew the spirit and the structures of the festival, pushing for a total reorganization of the entire system. The social and political unrest of 1968 had strong repercussions on the Venice Bienniale, from 1969 to 1979 no prizes were awarded and the festival returned to the non-competitiveness of the first edition
A melody, voice, or line, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity. In its most literal sense, a melody is a combination of pitch and rhythm, while more figuratively and it may be considered the foreground to the background accompaniment. A line or part need not be a foreground melody, melodies often consist of one or more musical phrases or motifs, and are usually repeated throughout a composition in various forms. Melodies may be described by their melodic motion or the pitches or the intervals between pitches, pitch range and release, continuity and coherence, the true goal of music—its proper enterprise—is melody. All the parts of harmony have as their purpose only beautiful melody. Therefore, the question of which is the significant, melody or harmony, is futile. Beyond doubt, the means is subordinate to the end, given the many and varied elements and styles of melody many extant explanations confine us to specific stylistic models, and they are too exclusive.
Paul Narveson claimed in 1984 that more than three-quarters of melodic topics had not been explored thoroughly, melodies in the 20th century utilized a greater variety of pitch resources than ha been the custom in any other historical period of Western music. While the diatonic scale was used, the chromatic scale became widely employed. Composers allotted a structural role to the dimensions that previously had been almost exclusively reserved for pitch. Kliewer states, The essential elements of any melody are duration and quality, for example, Jazz musicians use the term lead or head to refer to the main melody, which is used as a starting point for improvisation. Rock music, melodic music, and other forms of popular music, indian classical music relies heavily on melody and rhythm, and not so much on harmony, as the music contains no chord changes. Balinese gamelan music often uses complicated variations and alterations of a melody played simultaneously. In western classical music, composers often introduce an initial melody, or theme, classical music often has several melodic layers, called polyphony, such as those in a fugue, a type of counterpoint.
Often, melodies are constructed from motifs or short melodic fragments, richard Wagner popularized the concept of a leitmotif, a motif or melody associated with a certain idea, person or place. Appropriation Hocket Parsons code, a notation used to identify a piece of music through melodic motion—the motion of the pitch up. Harvard Dictionary of Music, 2nd ed. p. 517–19, the Art of Melody, p. xix–xxx. A Textbook of Melody, A course in functional melodic analysis, a History Of Melody and Rockliff, London
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
The Walls of Malapaga
The Walls of Malapaga, is a 1949 Franco-Italian film co-production made by Francinex and Italia Produzione. It was directed by René Clément and produced by Alfredo Guarini from a screenplay by Cesare Zavattini, Suso Cecchi dAmico and Alfredo Guarini adapted by Jean Aurenche, the music score was by Roman Vlad and the cinematography by Louis Page. The film stars Jean Gabin and Isa Miranda, Gabin is a French criminal, Pierre Arrignon, on the run who finds himself in Genoa and falls in love with a local girl, Marta Manfredini. The film is set in Italy but the dialogue is primarily in French, the Walls of Malapaga at the Internet Movie Database