A forester's lodge, forester's house or forester's hut is the residence of a forester one, in charge of a forest district. Woodcutters' huts are as old as forestry itself. To begin with, temporary accommodation was built for the clearing of areas of forest, but they became more permanent in the High Middle Ages in Europe as more and more timber was felled for mining, saltworks and firewood, in order to reduce the distance from home to workplace; the foresters could remain in an area of timber felling for weeks. With the development of forestry rights, the profession of foresters emerged and so the forester's lodge became a place of work. In some cases, large forester's estates were created. Forester's houses are solid, brick-built structures that are permanently occupied, for example as forestry administrative offices, in or near settlements, while forester's huts are less well built, simpler shelters and overnight accommodation in the more remote regions of a forest district. Today, a forester's house and several forester's huts may be only temporarily constructed in a larger forest district, during forest management work.
The development of forest tracks and logging lorries, has meant that overnighting on site is no longer necessary in Central Europe, but is still common in the large forests of northern Europe. Sometimes a combined site is used for forestry. Together with hunting lodges, alm huts and other transhumance stations, mountain huts, forest lodge and huts are among the most important settlement forms of the sparsely populated areas such as large forests or highlands, where they are not located within settlements.. Forest houses in Europe have a certain architecture, both designed to be in keeping with the countryside and to be recognisable for what they are, thus they occupy an exposed site. A stag's head is placed above the entrance or on a gable. Forester's houses have a defensive character. For example, the 1812 lodge of Schießhaus in the Solling was surrounded by a defensive wall with embrasures
Chile the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty; the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, features a string of volcanoes and lakes; the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, islands.
Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the 1960s and 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil; this development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.
The modern sovereign state of Chile is among South America's most economically and stable and prosperous nations, with a high-income economy and high living standards. It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, low perception of corruption, it ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, democratic development. Chile is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, joining in 2010, it has the lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.
Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls". Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile; the Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli". Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such; the older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile". Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating indigenous Peoples settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile.
Settlement sites from early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodón and the Pali-Aike Crater's lava tube. The Incas extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization, they fought against his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile; the next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting; the conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.
Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognize
Christian Ditlev Frederik Reventlow
Christian Ditlev Frederik, Count of Reventlow was a Danish statesman and reformer, the son of Privy Councillor Christian Ditlev Reventlow by his first wife, baroness Johanne Sophie Frederikke von Bothmer. His influence on the life of the Danish people and the conditions of the peasantry, made him popular, he was the brother of Johan Ludvig Reventlow which in the late 1700s served as his colleague, of salonist Louise Stolberg, his intellectual partner and opponent through their extensive mail correspondence, of Commodore Conrad Georg Reventlow. C. D. F. Reventlow was one of the politicians behind the dissolution of the stavnsbånd, a serfdom-like institution, bonding men between the ages of 18 and 36 to live on the estate where they were born; this dissolution is regarded as having been the work of Reventlow and his two good friends and colleagues Andreas Peter Bernstorff and Christian Colbjørnsen. From 1789, Reventlow was a leading member of the school commission which prepared the Danish School Law of 1814, he contributed to the establishment of teacher seminars.
Within the field of forestry, Reventlow was the pioneer behind the "Fredsskovforordning" of 1805, which ensured that new trees was strategically planted as logging was carried out. On his own estates, he practiced his political ideas long before they were made laws - moreover, he founded schools, abolished the Danish version of Corvée - hoveri - in 1797, he was appointed Minister of the State - statsminister. Reventlow's criticism of king Frederik's foreign and economic politics, which led to war with England and state bankruptcy, increased the distance between him and the king. In 1813, he left his political offices - after having been President of the Danish Exchequer for 29 years - as a protest against the Decree of the State Bankruptcy, he was formally a member of the Council of State - the konseil, but he did not participate in the Council's meetings. Reventlow retreated to his Lolland estates, where he being his own architect, erected the main building of Pederstrup and lived a peaceful life, although still working with the development of his estates.
When the old statesman died in 1827, he was honoured for having fought for civil liberty and the rights of the common people, for having commenced the agrarian reforms. Christian Ditlev Frederik was born into the Reventlow family, an ancient Danish-German family of high nobility, his paternal great-grandfather was in reality the first Danish Prime Minister, Conrad Reventlow, his paternal grandfather was the renowned military leader and diplomat Christian Ditlev Reventlow. The influence of Christian Ditlev Frederik Reventlow's family was in slow decline at the time of his birth. No more than around 30 years earlier, his grandfather Christian Ditlev was at the top of his career – being appointed General of the Infantry by king Frederick IV of Denmark – the highest title king Frederick gave anyone. Few years in 1721, his half-sister Anne Sophie – Christian Ditlev Frederik's great aunt – was crowned Queen of Denmark, having been king Frederick's mistress for a decade. There was talk of the "Reventlow gang" as Anna Sophie and her relatives were called – a testament to the influence of the Reventlow and von Holstein families during the time.
When Frederik IV died and the legitimate son of his first marriage was crowned king Christian VI of Denmark, the golden days of the Reventlow gang were over. King Christian detested his fathers new queen and banished her from Copenhagen to Clausholm manor – her birthplace – where she spent the rest of her life under house arrest. C. D. F. Reventlow's father named Christian Ditlev held symbolical political offices, but most never took any interest in life at court or in the lifestyle of 18th century Danish aristocracy. A large part of his life was dedicated to the administration and welfare of his estates, most of all the upbringing of his four children, his famous sons as well as his daughter emphasised the importance of their ideally rural childhood – and of their father's full satisfaction in working for the benefit of the subjects of the estate. Christian Ditlev Reventlow was appointed Chamberlain in 1735 and Councillor of the State in 1745 and received two honorary awards, as he was made a hvid ridder and blå ridder - white and blue knight.
After having been educated at the academy of Sorø and at Leipzig, C. D. F. Reventlow, in company with his younger brother Johan Ludwig and the distinguished Saxon economist Carl Wendt, the best of cicerones on such a tour, travelled through Germany, Switzerland and England, to examine the social and agricultural conditions of civilized Europe. A visit to Sweden and Norway to study mining and metallurgy completed the curriculum, when Reventlow in the course of 1770 returned to Denmark he was an authority on all the economic questions of the day; when the grand tour of Reventlow and his brother Johan Ludvig had come to an end, Reventlow started his career in the service of the state, there were very few other noblemen with the knowledge and education corresponding to that of Reventlow's. In the year of his wedding, 1774, he held a high position in the Board of Kommercekollegiet, he had, in 1774, married Frederica Charlotte von Beulwitz, who bore him thirteen children, on his father's death in 1775 inherited the family estate in Laaland.
Reventlow overflowed with progr
Jean-Baptiste Colbert was a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1661 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. Colbert worked to increase France's colonial holdings. Colbert worked to develop the domestic economy by raising tariffs and by encouraging major public works projects, to ensure that the French East India Company had access to foreign markets, so that they could always obtain coffee, dyewoods, fur and sugar. In addition, Colbert founded the French merchant marine. Colbert's market reforms included the foundation of the Manufacture royale de glaces de miroirs in 1665 to supplant the importation of Venetian glass and to encourage the technical expertise of Flemish cloth manufacturing in France, he founded royal tapestry works at Gobelins and supported those at Beauvais. Colbert issued more than 150 edicts to regulate the guilds. Colbert's father and grandfather were merchants in his birthplace of France, he claimed to have Scottish ancestry. A general belief exists that he spent his early youth at a Jesuit college, working for a Parisian banker.
Before the age of 20, Colbert had a post in the war office, a position attributed to the marriage of an uncle to the sister of Secretary of War Michel le Tellier. Colbert spent some time as an inspector of troops becoming the personal secretary of Le Tellier. In 1647, through unknown means, Colbert acquired the confiscated goods of Pussort. In 1648, he and his wife Marie Charron, received 40,000 crowns from an unknown source. In 1657, he purchased the Barony of Seignelay. Colbert was recommended to King Louis XIV by Mazarin. While Cardinal Mazarin was in exile, Louis' trust in Colbert grew. In 1652 Colbert was asked to manage the affairs of the Cardinal; this new responsibility would detach Colbert from his other responsibility as commissaire des guerres. Although Colbert was not a supporter of Mazarin in principle, he would defend the cardinal's interests with unflagging devotion. Colbert's earliest recorded attempt at tax reform came in the form of a mémoire to Mazarin, showing that of the taxes paid by the people, not one-half reached the King.
The paper contained an attack upon the Superintendent Fouquet. The postmaster of Paris, a spy of Fouquet's, read the letter, leading to a dispute which Mazarin attempted to suppress. In 1661, Mazarin died and Colbert "made sure of the King's favour" by revealing the location of some of Mazarin's hidden wealth. In January 1664 Colbert became the Superintendent of buildings. In short, Colbert acquired power in every department except that of war. A great financial and fiscal reform at once claimed all his energies. Not only the nobility, but many others who had no legal claim to exemption, paid no taxes. Supported by the young king Louis XIV, Colbert aimed the first blow at the man accused of being the greatest of the royal embezzlers, the superintendent Nicolas Fouquet. Fouquet's fall secured Colbert's own advancement. With the abolition of the office of superintendent and of many other offices dependent upon it, the supreme control of the finances became vested in a royal council; the sovereign functioned as its president.
His ruthlessness in this case, dangerous precedent though it gave, seemed necessary. When he had punished guilty officials, he turned his attention to the fraudulent creditors of the government. Colbert had a simple method of operation, he repudiated some of the public loans and cut off from others a percentage, which varied, at first according to his own decision, afterwards according to that of the council that he established to examine all claims against the state. Much more serious difficulties met his attempts to introduce equality in the pressure of the taxes on the various classes. To diminish the number of the privileged proved impossible, but Colbert resisted false claims for exemption, lightened the unjust direct taxation by increasing the indirect taxes, from which the privileged could not escape. At the same time he immensely improved the mode of collection on his own, his relentless hard work and thrift made him an esteemed minister. He achieved a reputation for his work of improving the state of French manufacturing and bringing the economy back from the brink of bankruptcy.
Historians note that, despite Colbert's efforts, France became impoverished because of the King's excessive spending on wars. Having thus introduced a measure of order and economy into the workings of the government, Colbert now called for the enrichment of the country by commerce; the state, through Colbert's dirigiste policies, fostered manufacturing enterprises in a wide variety of fields. The authorities established new industries, protected inv
A forest is a large area dominated by trees. Hundreds of more precise definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating factors such as tree density, tree height, land use, legal standing and ecological function. According to the used Food and Agriculture Organization definition, forests covered 4 billion hectares or 30 percent of the world's land area in 2006. Forests are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem of Earth, are distributed around the globe. Forests account for 75% of the gross primary production of the Earth's biosphere, contain 80% of the Earth's plant biomass. Net primary production is estimated at 21.9 gigatonnes carbon per year for tropical forests, 8.1 for temperate forests, 2.6 for boreal forests. Forests at different latitudes and elevations form distinctly different ecozones: boreal forests near the poles, tropical forests near the equator and temperate forests at mid-latitudes. Higher elevation areas tend to support forests similar to those at higher latitudes, amount of precipitation affects forest composition.
Human society and forests influence each other in both negative ways. Forests serve as tourist attractions. Forests can affect people's health. Human activities, including harvesting forest resources, can negatively affect forest ecosystems. Although forest is a term of common parlance, there is no universally recognised precise definition, with more than 800 definitions of forest used around the world. Although a forest is defined by the presence of trees, under many definitions an area lacking trees may still be considered a forest if it grew trees in the past, will grow trees in the future, or was designated as a forest regardless of vegetation type. There are three broad categories of forest definitions in use: administrative, land use, land cover. Administrative definitions are based upon the legal designations of land, bear little relationship to the vegetation growing on the land: land, designated as a forest is defined as a forest if no trees are growing on it. Land use definitions are based upon the primary purpose.
For example, a forest may be defined as any land, used for production of timber. Under such a land use definition, cleared roads or infrastructure within an area used for forestry, or areas within the region that have been cleared by harvesting, disease or fire are still considered forests if they contain no trees. Land cover definitions define forests based upon the type and density of vegetation growing on the land; such definitions define a forest as an area growing trees above some threshold. These thresholds are the number of trees per area, the area of ground under the tree canopy or the section of land, occupied by the cross-section of tree trunks. Under such land cover definitions, an area of land can only be known as forest if it is growing trees. Areas that fail to meet the land cover definition may be still included under while immature trees are establishing if they are expected to meet the definition at maturity. Under land use definitions, there is considerable variation on where the cutoff points are between a forest and savanna.
Under some definitions, forests require high levels of tree canopy cover, from 60% to 100%, excluding savannas and woodlands in which trees have a lower canopy cover. Other definitions consider savannas to be a type of forest, include all areas with tree canopies over 10%; some areas covered in trees are defined as agricultural areas, e.g. Norway spruce plantations in Austrian forest law when the trees are being grown as Christmas trees and below a certain height; the word forest comes from Middle English, from Old French forest "forest, vast expanse covered by trees". A borrowing of the Medieval Latin word foresta "open wood", foresta was first used by Carolingian scribes in the Capitularies of Charlemagne to refer to the king's royal hunting grounds; the term was not endemic to Romance languages. The exact origin of Medieval Latin foresta is obscure; some authorities claim the word derives from the Late Latin phrase forestam silvam, meaning "the outer wood". Frankish *forhist is attested by Old High German forst "forest", Middle Low German vorst "forest", Old English fyrhþ "forest, game preserve, hunting ground", Old Norse fýri "coniferous forest", all of which derive from Proto-Germanic *furhísa-, *furhíþija- "a fir-wood, coniferous forest", from Proto-Indo-European *perkwu- "a coniferous or mountain forest, wooded height".
Uses of the word "forest" in English to denote any uninhabited area of non-enclosure are now considered archaic. The word was introduced by the Norman rulers of England as a legal term denoting an uncultivated area set aside for hunting by feudal nobility; these hunting forests were not neces
Lumberjacks are North American workers in the logging industry who perform the initial harvesting and transport of trees for ultimate processing into forest products. The term refers to a bygone era when hand tools were used in harvesting trees; because of its historical ties, the term lumberjack has become ingrained in popular culture through folklore, mass media and spectator sports. The actual work was difficult, intermittent, low-paying, primitive in living conditions. However, the men built a traditional culture that celebrated strength, confrontation with danger, resistance to modernization; the term lumberjack is of Canadian derivation. The first attested use of the word comes from an 1831 letter to the Cobourg Star and General Advertiser in the following passage: "my misfortunes have been brought upon me chiefly by an incorrigible, though useful, race of mortals called LUMBERJACKS, however, I would name the Cossack's of Upper Canada, having been reared among the oaks and pines of the wild forest, have never been subjected to the salutary restraint of laws."The term lumberjack is historical.
When lumberjack is used, it refers to a logger from an earlier time before the advent of chainsaws, feller-bunchers and other modern logging equipment. Other terms for the occupation include shanty boy and the colloquial term woodhick. A logger employed in driving logs down a river was known locally in northern North America as a river pig, catty-man, river hog, or river rat; the term lumberjill has been known for a woman. In Australia, the occupation is referred to cool cutters. Lumberjacks worked in lumber camps and lived a migratory life, following timber harvesting jobs as they opened. Being a lumberjack was seasonal work. Lumberjacks were men, they lived in bunkhouses or tents. Common equipment included the cross-cut saw. Lumberjacks could be found wherever there were vast forests to be harvested and a demand for wood, most in Scandinavia and parts of the United States. In the U. S. many lumberjacks were of Scandinavian ancestry. American lumberjacks were first centred in north-eastern states such as Maine.
They followed the general westward migration on the continent to the Upper Midwest, the Pacific Northwest. Stewart Holbrook documented the emergence and westward migration of the classic American lumberjack in his first book, Holy Old Mackinaw: A Natural History of the American Lumberjack, he wrote colourfully about lumberjacks in his subsequent books, romanticizing them as hard-drinking, hard-working men. Logging camps were phased out between World War II and the early 1960s as crews could by be transported to remote logging sites in motor vehicles; the division of labour in lumber camps led to several specialized jobs on logging crews, such as whistle punk and high climber. The whistle punk's job was to sound a whistle as a signal to the yarder operator controlling the movement of logs, he had to act as a safety lookout. A good whistle punk think fast as the safety of the others depended on him; the high climber used iron climbing hooks and rope to ascend a tall tree in the landing area of the logging site, where he would chop off limbs as he climbed, chop off the top of the tree, attach pulleys and rigging to the tree so it could be used as a spar so logs could be skidded into the landing.
High climbers and whistle punks were both phased out in the 1960s to early 1970s when portable steel towers replaced spar trees and radio equipment replaced steam whistles for communication. The choker setters attached steel cables to downed logs so they could be dragged into the landing by the yarder; the chasers removed the chokers. Choker setters and chasers were entry-level positions on logging crews, with more experienced loggers seeking to move up to more skill-intensive positions such as yarder operator and high climber, or supervisory positions such as hook tender. Despite the common perception that all loggers cut trees, the actual felling and bucking of trees were specialized job positions done by fallers and buckers. Faller and bucker were once two separate job titles. Before the era of modern diesel or gasoline powered equipment, the existing machinery was steam powered. Animal or steam-powered skidders could be used to haul harvested logs to nearby rail roads for shipment to sawmills.
Horse driven logging wheels were a means used for moving logs out of the woods. Another way for transporting logs to sawmills was to float them down a body of water or a specially-constructed log flume. Log rolling, the art of staying on top of a floating log while "rolling" the log by walking, was another skill much in demand among lumberjacks. Spiked boots known as "caulks" or "corks" were used for log rolling and worn by lumberjacks as their regular footwear; the term "skid row", which today means a poor city neighbourhood frequented by homeless people, originated in a way in which harvested logs were once transported. Logs could be "skidded" down hills or along a corduroy road, one such street in Seattle was named Skid Road; this street became frequented by people down on their luck, both the name and its meaning morphed into the modern term. Among the living history museums that preserve and interpret the forest industry are: BC Forest Discovery Centre, Duncan Camp Five Museum, Wisconsin The Lumberjack Stea