Royal Canadian Mounted Police
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police is the federal and national police force of Canada. The RCMP provides law enforcement at the federal level, it provides provincial policing in eight of Canada's provinces and local policing on contract basis in the three territories and more than 150 municipalities, 600 aboriginal communities, three international airports. The RCMP does not provide municipal policing in Ontario or Quebec; the Royal Canadian Mounted Police was formed in 1920 by the merger of the Royal Northwest Mounted Police, founded in 1873, the Dominion Police founded in 1868. The former was named the North West Mounted Police, was given the royal prefix by King Edward VII in 1904. Much of the present-day organization's symbolism has been inherited from its days as the NWMP and RNWMP, including the distinctive Red Serge uniform, paramilitary heritage, mythos as a frontier force; the RCMP-GRC wording is protected under the Trade-marks Act. Despite the name, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police is no longer an actual mounted police force, with horses only being used at ceremonial events.
The predecessor NWMP and RNWMP had relied on horses for transport for most of their history, though the RNWMP was switching to automobiles at the time of the merger. As Canada's national police force, the RCMP is responsible for enforcing federal laws throughout Canada while general law and order including the enforcement of the criminal code and applicable provincial legislation is constitutionally the responsibility of the provinces and territories. Larger cities may form their own municipal police departments; the two most populous provinces and Quebec, maintain provincial forces: the Ontario Provincial Police and Sûreté du Québec. The other eight provinces contract policing responsibilities to the RCMP; the RCMP provides front-line policing in those provinces under the direction of the provincial governments. When Newfoundland joined the confederation in 1949, the RCMP entered the province and absorbed the Newfoundland Ranger Force, which patrolled most of Newfoundland's rural areas; the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary patrols urban areas of the province.
In the territories, the RCMP is the sole territorial police force. Many municipalities throughout Canada contract to the RCMP. Thus, the RCMP polices at the federal and municipal level. In several areas of Canada, it is the only police force; the RCMP is responsible for an unusually large breadth of duties. Under their federal mandate, the RCMP police including Ontario and Quebec. Federal operations include: enforcing federal laws including commercial crime, drug trafficking, border integrity, organized crime, other related matters. Under provincial and municipal contracts the RCMP provides front-line policing in all areas outside of Ontario and Quebec that do not have an established local police force. There are detachments located in small villages in the far north, remote First Nations reserves, rural towns, but larger cities such as Surrey, British Columbia. There, support units investigate for their own detachments, smaller municipal police forces. Investigations include major crimes, forensic identification, collision forensics, police dogs, emergency response teams, explosives disposal, undercover operations.
Under its National Police Services branch the RCMP supports all police forces in Canada via the Canadian Police Information Centre, Criminal Intelligence Service Canada, Forensic Science and Identification Services, Canadian Firearms Program, the Canadian Police College. The RCMP Security Service was a specialized political intelligence and counterintelligence branch with national security responsibilities, replaced by the Canadian Security Intelligence Service in 1984, following revelations of illegal covert operations relating to the Quebec separatist movement. CSIS is its own entity. Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald first began planning a permanent force to patrol the North-West Territories after the Dominion of Canada purchased the territory from the Hudson's Bay Company. Reports from army officers surveying the territory led to the recommendation that a mounted force of between 100 to 150 mounted riflemen could maintain law and order; the Prime Minister first announced the force as the "North West Mounted Rifles".
However, officials in the United States raised concerns that an armed force along the border was a prelude to a military buildup. Macdonald renamed the force the North-West Mounted Police when formed in 1873; the force added "royal" to its name in 1904. It merged with the Dominion Police, the main police force for all points east of Manitoba, in 1920 and was renamed the "Royal Canadian Mounted Police"; the new organization was charged with federal law enforcement in all the provinces and territories, established its modern role as protector of Canadian national security, as well as assuming responsibility for national counterintelligence. As part of its national security and intelligence functions, the
Michif is the language of the Métis people of Canada and the United States, who are the descendants of First Nations women and fur trade workers of European ancestry. Michif is spoken in scattered Métis communities in the provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba in Canada and in North Dakota in the U. S. with about 50 speakers in Alberta, all over age 60. There are some 230 speakers of Michif in the United States, most of whom live in North Dakota in the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation. There are around 300 Michif speakers in northern Canada. Michif emerged in the early 19th century as a mixed language, adopted a consistent character between about 1820 and 1840. Michif combines Cree and Métis French, a variety of Canadian French, with some additional borrowing from English and indigenous languages of the Americas such as Ojibwe and Assiniboine. In general, Michif noun phrase phonology, lexicon and syntax are derived from Métis French, while verb phrase phonology, lexicon and syntax are from a southern variety of Plains Cree.
Articles and adjectives are of Métis French origin but demonstratives are from Plains Cree. The Michif language was first brought to scholarly attention in 1976 by John Crawford at the University of North Dakota. Much of the subsequent research on Michif was related to UND, including four more pieces by Crawford, plus work by Evans and Weaver; the Michif language is unusual among mixed languages, in that rather than forming a simplified grammar, it developed by incorporating complex elements of the chief languages from which it was born. French-origin noun phrases retain adjective agreement; this suggests that instead of haltingly using words from another's tongue, the people who came to speak Michif were fluent in both French and Cree. The number of speakers is estimated at fewer than 1,000. Michif as recorded starting in the 1970s combined two separate phonological systems: one for French origin elements, one for Cree origin elements. For instance, /y/, /l/, /r/ and /f/ exist only in French words, whereas preaspirated stops such as /ʰt/ and /ʰk/ exist only in Cree words.
In this variety of Michif, the French elements were pronounced in ways that have distinctively Canadian French values for the vowels, while the Cree elements have distinctively Cree values for vowels. Nonetheless, there is some Cree influence on French words in the stress system, but by the year 2000 there were Michif speakers who had collapsed the two systems into a single system. Michif has eleven four nasalized vowels; the following four vowels are nasalized in Michif: /ĩ/ /ɛ̃/ /ɔ̃/ /ɑ̃/ A schwa /ə/ appearing between two consonants in French-origin words is dropped in Michif. Examples of this process are listed in the table below. In French, a liaison is used to bridge the gap between word-initial vowel sounds. Whether liaison still exists in Michif is a much discussed theoretical issue. Scholars such as Bakker, Rhodes Rhodes, R. 1986. Métchif: A second look. In Actes du Dix-septième Congrès des Algonquinistes, ed. W. Cowan, Carleton University Press, p. 287-296.</ref>, Rosen have suggested that liaison no longer exists in Michif and that all words that etymologically began with a vowel in French now begin with a consonant, the latter resulting from a variety of sources, including a liaison consonant.
Their arguments are based on the fact that the expected liaison consonant will not show up and instead, the consonant will be /z/, as in'in zur"a bear' The above authors cite over a dozen words with an unexpected initial consonant. Papen has countered this argument by showing that, the vast majority of so-called initial consonants in Michif reflect the expected liaison consonant and that only about 13% of so-called initial consonants are unexpected. Moreover, Papen points out that one of the so-called initial consonant is /l/, which in nearly all cases, represents the elided definite artcle'l', in which case it cannot be a liaison consonant, since liaison consonants may not have grammatical or semantic meaning, thus in a sequence such as'larb' the meaning is not simply'tree' but'the tree', where initial'l' has the meaning of'the', /l/ is initial only in a phonetic sense, but not in a phonological one, since it represents a distinct morpheme from'arb', thus'arb' must be considered as phonologically vowel-initial.
T The voiced alveolar stop /d/ in French-origin words is palatalized to /dʒ/ in Michif, as it is in Acadian French. This may occur word-internally. A comparison of some common words in English, French and Cree: Nouns are always accompanied by a French-origin determiner or a possessive. Cree-origin demonstratives can be added to noun phrases, in which case the Cree gender is that of the corresponding Cree noun. Adjectives are French-origin, as in French they are either pre- or postnominal. Prenominal adjectives agree in gender, postnominal adjectives do not agree in gender; the verb phrase is that of Plains Cree-origin with little reduction (there are no dubitative or preterit ve
Medical evacuation shortened to medevac or medivac, is the timely and efficient movement and en route care provided by medical personnel to wounded being evacuated from a battlefield, to injured patients being evacuated from the scene of an accident to receiving medical facilities, or to patients at a rural hospital requiring urgent care at a better-equipped facility using medically equipped ground vehicles or aircraft. Examples include civilian EMS vehicles, civilian aeromedical helicopter services, Army air ambulances; this term covers the transfer of patients from the battlefield to a treatment facility or from one treatment facility to another by medical personnel, such as from a local hospital to a trauma center. The first medical transport by air was recorded in Serbia in the autumn of 1915 during First World War. One of the ill soldiers in that first medical transport was Milan Rastislav Štefánik, a Slovak pilot-volunteer, flown to safety by French aviator Louis Paulhan; the United States Army used this lifesaving technique in Burma toward the end of World War II with Sikorsky R-4B helicopters.
The first helicopter rescue was by 2nd Lt Carter Harman, in Japanese-held Burma, who had to make several hops to get his Sikorsky YR-4B to the 1st Air Commando Group's secret airfield in enemy territory and made four trips from there between April 25 and 26 to recover the American pilot and four injured British soldiers, one at a time. The first medivac under fire was done in Manila in 1945 when five pilots evacuated 75-80 soldiers one or two at a time. Aeromedical evacuation Air ambulance Casualty evacuationGlobal Rescue, provider of medical evacuation services."Medevac bill" Medivac Shock Trauma Air Rescue Society Association of Air Medical Services Landing in Hell: Army Medevac Today - slideshow by Life magazine
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal, denser than most common materials. Lead is soft and malleable, has a low melting point; when freshly cut, lead is silvery with a hint of blue. Lead has the highest atomic number of any stable element and three of its isotopes each include a major decay chain of heavier elements. Lead is a unreactive post-transition metal, its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature. Compounds of lead are found in the +2 oxidation state rather than the +4 state common with lighter members of the carbon group. Exceptions are limited to organolead compounds. Like the lighter members of the group, lead tends to bond with itself. Lead is extracted from its ores. Galena, a principal ore of lead bears silver, interest in which helped initiate widespread extraction and use of lead in ancient Rome. Lead production declined after the fall of Rome and did not reach comparable levels until the Industrial Revolution. In 2014, the annual global production of lead was about ten million tonnes, over half of, from recycling.
Lead's high density, low melting point and relative inertness to oxidation make it useful. These properties, combined with its relative abundance and low cost, resulted in its extensive use in construction, batteries and shot, solders, fusible alloys, white paints, leaded gasoline, radiation shielding. In the late 19th century, lead's toxicity was recognized, its use has since been phased out of many applications. However, many countries still allow the sale of products that expose humans to lead, including some types of paints and bullets. Lead is a toxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones, it acts as a neurotoxin damaging the nervous system and interfering with the function of biological enzymes, causing neurological disorders, such as brain damage and behavioral problems. A lead atom has 82 electrons, arranged in an electron configuration of 4f145d106s26p2; the sum of lead's first and second ionization energies—the total energy required to remove the two 6p electrons—is close to that of tin, lead's upper neighbor in the carbon group.
This is unusual. The similarity of ionization energies is caused by the lanthanide contraction—the decrease in element radii from lanthanum to lutetium, the small radii of the elements from hafnium onwards; this is due to poor shielding of the nucleus by the lanthanide 4f electrons. The sum of the first four ionization energies of lead exceeds that of tin, contrary to what periodic trends would predict. Relativistic effects, which become significant in heavier atoms, contribute to this behavior. One such effect is the inert pair effect: the 6s electrons of lead become reluctant to participate in bonding, making the distance between nearest atoms in crystalline lead unusually long. Lead's lighter carbon group congeners form stable or metastable allotropes with the tetrahedrally coordinated and covalently bonded diamond cubic structure; the energy levels of their outer s- and p-orbitals are close enough to allow mixing into four hybrid sp3 orbitals. In lead, the inert pair effect increases the separation between its s- and p-orbitals, the gap cannot be overcome by the energy that would be released by extra bonds following hybridization.
Rather than having a diamond cubic structure, lead forms metallic bonds in which only the p-electrons are delocalized and shared between the Pb2+ ions. Lead has a face-centered cubic structure like the sized divalent metals calcium and strontium. Pure lead has a silvery appearance with a hint of blue, it tarnishes on contact with moist air and takes on a dull appearance, the hue of which depends on the prevailing conditions. Characteristic properties of lead include high density, malleability and high resistance to corrosion due to passivation. Lead's close-packed face-centered cubic structure and high atomic weight result in a density of 11.34 g/cm3, greater than that of common metals such as iron and zinc. This density is the origin of the idiom to go over like a lead balloon; some rarer metals are denser: tungsten and gold are both at 19.3 g/cm3, osmium—the densest metal known—has a density of 22.59 g/cm3 twice that of lead. Lead is a soft metal with a Mohs hardness of 1.5. It is somewhat ductile.
The bulk modulus of lead—a measure of its ease of compressibility—is 45.8 GPa. In comparison, that of aluminium is 75.2 GPa. Lead's tensile strength, at 12–17 MPa, is low; the melting point of lead—at 327.5 °C —is low compared to most metals. Its boiling point of 1749 °C is the lowest among the carbon group elements; the electrical resistivity of lead at 20 °C is 192 nanoohm-meters an order of magnitude higher than those of other industrial metals. Lead is a superconductor at temperatures lower than 7.19 K.
Hay River, Northwest Territories
Hay River, known as "the Hub of the North," is a town in the Northwest Territories, located on the south shore of Great Slave Lake, at the mouth of the Hay River. The town is separated into two sections, a new town 60°48′45″N 115°47′20″W and an old town 60°51′13″N 115°44′19″W with the Hay River/Merlyn Carter Airport between them; the town is in the South Slave Region, along with Fort Smith is one of the two regional centres. The area has been in use by First Nations, known as the Long Spear people, as far back as 7000 BC. According to the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories the first buildings were those of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1868 followed by a Roman Catholic Mission in 1869 and an Anglican Mission in 1894. However, according to the history of the area provided by the town, the first permanent settlement in the area of Hay River was established in what is now the Katl'odeeche First Nation or Hay River Reserve; this was sometime between 1892-93. This first settlement was established by Chief Chiatlo and a group of people by the building of log cabins and bringing dairy cows.
This was followed in 1893 by the Anglican Mission, at the request of Chief Chiatlo in 1893 with the Roman Catholic Mission and the Hudson's Bay Company arriving later. A school, health centre and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police followed, as part of the Canol Road project the United States Army Corps of Engineers built a runway on Vale Island. In 1948 the Government of Canada built a gravel road, now the Mackenzie Highway, from Grimshaw, Alberta to Hay River making it the first community in the NWT to be linked with southern Canada; the settlements role as terminus of all-season trucking, the establishment of a commercial fishing industry, started an economic boom. In 1949, the community organized its first community government, forming an Administrative District under the direction of the Government of Canada, run by a trustee board with two elected members, two appointed members, a chairman. In 1959, the Northern Transportation Company Limited located their main base in Hay River and over the years developed the facilities.
Today the base is the major staging point for the annual sealift along the Mackenzie River, via Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk and the communities of the Arctic Ocean, as far east as Taloyoak and west to Utqiagvik, Alaska. By 1964, as part of the Pine Point Mine development, the Mackenzie Northern Railway was constructed; the railway, through Canadian National Railway in Edmonton, makes Hay River the northernmost point in Canada, all of North America, connected to the continental railway system. The Alaska Railroad is orphaned from the network. In 1978, Hay River, along with the now-abandoned Pine Point, hosted the fifth Arctic Winter Games; the community has a full hospital, the H. H. Williams Memorial Hospital, a woman's shelter/transition house, a dental clinic and an ambulance service; the RCMP detachment has eight members and the South Mackenzie Correctional Centre is located here. There are two grocery stores in Hay River, including the Northern Store, branches of both the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce and the Royal Bank of Canada and both TRU Hardware and Home Hardware.
There is a museum detailing the history of Hay River and the Hudson's Bay Company in Old Town. Airlines servicing Hay River include the locally based Buffalo Airways, who provide scheduled flights to Yellowknife as well as charter services and a courier service throughout the north. First Air provides scheduled services to Yellowknife with connections elsewhere. Northwestern Air offers scheduled service to Edmonton and Fort Smith. Other companies offering charter services in Hay River include Landa Air, Carter Air Services, Denendeh Helicopters and Remote Helicopters. Religious services include a Catholic church, an Anglican/Grace United church, a Baptist church, a Pentecostal church, a Community Fellowship within New Town. There is a Jehovah's Witness Kingdom Hall along the highway coming into town. On the Katl'odeeche First Nations Reserve there are a small Catholic church, a larger Pentecostal church. There is an Anglican church, destroyed in the 2008 Hay River ice breakup; the religious diversity in Hay River exceeds the outward appearance given by these services.
The town hosts four schools, three of which are administered by South Slave Divisional Education Council. The SSDEC is responsible for Harry Camsell K-3 School, Princess Alexandra Middle School, Diamond Jenness Secondary School, while École Boréale Francophone school is administered separately by the Commission scolaire francophone des Territoires du Nord-Ouest. Harry Camsell is a primary school and serves students from kindergarten to Grade 3. Princess Alexandra, named for and opened by Princess Alexandra in 1967, is a middle school and serves the Grade 4 to the Grade 7. École Boréale is a francophone school, opened in 2005 and works with students from PK4 to grade 12. Diamond Jenness, named for scientist and anthropologist Diamond Jenness and opened in 1973, is the high school and serves Grade 8 to Grade 12; the town supports a Community Learning Centre and a Career Centre. CKHR-FM 107.3 is a community radio station in Hay River, the only station in Hay River to maintain local studios. Other radio stations in Hay River are repeaters of stations based in Yellowknife.
The Hay River Community Service Society controls television broadcasting and it is paid for through property taxes, at a rate of $36 per household per year. Channels 2-5, 7, 8-13 rebroadcast Canadian and US channels in analog format from towers atop the Mackenzie Place highrise. Transmitter powers range from 9W to 2
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t
Canoeing is an activity which involves paddling a canoe with a single-bladed paddle. Common meanings of the term are limited to. Broader meanings include when it is combined with other activities such as canoe camping, or where canoeing is a transportation method used to accomplish other activities. Most present-day canoeing is done as a part of a sport or recreational activity. In some parts of Europe canoeing refers to both canoeing and kayaking, with a canoe being called an Open canoe. A few of the recreational forms of canoeing are canoe canoe racing. Other forms include a wide range of canoeing on lakes, oceans and streams. Canoeing is an ancient mode of transportation. Modern recreational canoeing was established in the late 19th century. In 1924, canoeing associations from Austria, Germany and Sweden founded the Internationalen Representation for Kanusport, forerunner of the International Canoe Federation. Canoeing became part of the Olympic Games in the summer of 1936; the main form of competitive sport was canoe sprint using a sprint canoe.
Others include canoe polo, whitewater canoeing, canoe marathon, ICF canoe marathon, playboating. National canoe associations include the American, British and Welsh. Most present-day canoeing is done as a part of a sport or recreational activity. In some parts of Europe canoeing refers to both canoeing and kayaking, with a canoe being called an Open canoe. A few of the recreational forms of canoeing are canoe camping and canoe racing such as canoe sprint and canoe marathons. Other forms include a wide range of canoeing on lakes, oceans and streams; the summer Olympics include canoeing competitions. Canoe slalom is a competitive sport with the aim to navigate a decked canoe or kayak through a course of hanging downstream or upstream gates on river rapids in the fastest time possible, it is one of the two kayak and canoeing disciplines at the Summer Olympics, is referred to by the International Olympic Committee as Canoe/Kayak Slalom. The other Olympic canoeing discipline is canoe sprint. Outline of canoeing and kayaking Whitewater canoeing Canoe paddle strokes International Canoe Federation