Dred Scott v. Sandford
Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U. S. 393, was a landmark decision of the U. S. Supreme Court in which the Court held that the U. S. Constitution was not meant to include American citizenship for black people, regardless of whether they were enslaved or free, therefore the rights and privileges it confers upon American citizens could never apply to them; the plaintiff in the case was Dred Scott, an enslaved black man whose owners had taken him from Missouri, a slave-holding state, into the Missouri Territory, most of, designated "free" territory by the Missouri Compromise of 1820. When his owners brought him back to Missouri, Scott sued in court for his freedom, claiming that because he had been taken into "free" U. S. territory, he had automatically been freed, was no longer a slave. Scott sued first in Missouri state court, he sued in U. S. federal court, which ruled against him by deciding that it had to apply Missouri law to the case. He appealed to the U. S. Supreme Court. In March 1857, the Supreme Court issued a 7–2 decision against Dred Scott.
In an opinion written by Chief Justice Roger Taney, the Court ruled that black people "are not included, were not intended to be included, under the word'citizens' in the Constitution, can therefore claim none of the rights and privileges which that instrument provides for and secures to citizens of the United States." Taney supported his ruling with an extended survey of American state and local laws from the time of the Constitution's drafting in 1787 purporting to show that a "perpetual and impassable barrier was intended to be erected between the white race and the one which they had reduced to slavery." Because the Court ruled that Scott was not an American citizen, any federal lawsuit he filed automatically failed because he could never establish the "diversity of citizenship" that Article III of the U. S. Constitution requires for an American federal court to be able to exercise jurisdiction over a case. After ruling on these issues surrounding Scott, Taney continued further and struck down the entire Missouri Compromise as a limitation on slavery that exceeded the U.
S. Congress's powers under the Constitution. Two justices—John McLean and Benjamin Robbins Curtis—dissented from the Court's opinion, writing that the majority's historical survey was inaccurate and that legal precedent showed that some black people had been citizens at the time of the Constitution's creation, that the majority's opinion went too far in striking down the Missouri Compromise. Although Chief Justice Taney and several of the other justices hoped that the ruling would settle the slavery controversy, dividing the American public, its effect was the complete opposite. Taney's majority opinion "was greeted with unmitigated wrath from every segment of the United States except the slave holding states." Rather than settling the controversy, the decision proved to be a contributing factor in the outbreak of the American Civil War four years in 1861. After the Union's victory in 1865, the Court's rulings in Dred Scott were superseded by direct amendments to the U. S. Constitution by the Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery, by the first clause of Section 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment, which reads: "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside."
The Supreme Court's decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford is denounced by modern scholars. Many contemporary lawyers, most modern legal scholars, consider the ruling regarding slavery in the territories to be obiter dictum and not a binding precedent. Bernard Schwartz says it "stands first in any list of the worst Supreme Court decisions—Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes called it the Court's greatest self-inflicted wound." Junius P. Rodriguez says it is "universally condemned as the U. S. Supreme Court's worst decision." Historian David Thomas Konig says it was "unquestionably, our court's worst decision ever." In the late 1810s, a major political debate arose over the creation of new American states from the vast territory the United States had acquired from France in 1803 through the Louisiana Purchase. The debate involved whether the new states would be "free" states like the existing Northern states, in which slavery would be illegal, or whether they would be "slave" states like the existing Southern states, in which slavery would be legal.
The Southern states wanted the new states to be slave states in order to enhance their own political power, but the Northern states opposed this for their own political reasons, as well as their moral concerns over allowing the institution of slavery to expand. In 1820, the U. S. Congress passed an agreement known as the "Missouri Compromise", intended to resolve the dispute; the Compromise created Missouri out of a portion of the Louisiana Purchase territory and admitted it into the Union as a slave state, but at the same time prohibited slavery in the rest of the territory that lay north of the Parallel 36°30′ north. The legal effects of a slaveowner taking his slaves from Missouri into the free territory north of the 36°30′ north parallel, as well as the constitutionality of the Missouri Compromise itself came to a head in the Dred Scott case. Dred Scott was born a slave in Virginia in 1795. Little is known of his early years, his owner, Peter Blow, moved to Alabama in 1818, taking his six slaves along to work a farm near Huntsville.
In 1830, Blow gave up farming and settled in St. Louis, where he sold Scott to U. S. Army surgeon Dr. John Emerson. After purchasing Scott, Emerson took him to Fort Arms
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
Hennepin County, Minnesota
Hennepin County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census the population was 1,152,425, it is the 35th-most populous county in the United States. Its county seat is the state's most populous city; the county is named in honor of the 17th-century explorer Father Louis Hennepin. Hennepin County is included in the Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area; the center of population of Minnesota is in the city of Minneapolis. Hennepin County was created in 1852 by the Minnesota Territorial Legislature. Father Louis Hennepin's name was chosen because he named St. Anthony Falls and recorded some of the earliest accounts of the area for the Western world. Hennepin County's early history is linked to the establishment of the cities of Minneapolis and St. Anthony; the history of Hennepin County is cataloged at the Hennepin History Museum, located in Minneapolis. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 607 square miles, of which 554 square miles is land and 53 square miles is water.
Hennepin is one of 17 Minnesota counties with more savanna soils than either prairie or forest soils, is one of only two Minnesota counties with more than 75% of its area in savanna soils. The highest waterfall on the Mississippi River, the Saint Anthony Falls is in Hennepin County next to downtown Minneapolis, but in the 19th century, the falls were converted to a series of dams. Barges and boats now pass through locks to move between the parts of the river above and below the dams. Anoka County Ramsey County Dakota County Scott County Carver County Wright County Sherburne County Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge Mississippi National River and Recreation Area As of the 2010 Census, there were 1,152,425 people, 475,913 households, 272,885 families residing in the county; the racial makeup of the county was 74.4% White, 11.8% Black or African American, 0.9% Native American, 6.2% Asian, 3.4% from other races, 3.2% from two or more races. 6.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
According to the 2010–2015 American Community Survey, the largest ancestry groups were German, Norwegian and Swedish. At the 2000 Census, there were 1,116,200 people, 456,129 households, 267,291 families residing in the county; the population density was 774/km². There were 468,824 housing units at an average density of 325/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 80.53% White, 8.95% Black or African American, 1.00% Native American, 4.80% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 2.06% from other races, 2.60% from two or more races. 4.07% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 456,129 households out of which 28.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.30% were married couples living together, 9.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.40% were non-families. 31.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county 24.00% of the population was under the age of 18, 9.70% was between 18 and 24, 33.70% from 25 to 44, 21.70% from 45 to 64, 11.00% were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 97.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $51,711, the median income for a family was $65,985 Accounting for inflation, these figures rise again to $76,202.87 for individuals, $92,353.46 for households, adjusted for 2014 dollars. Males had a median income of $42,466 versus $32,400 for females; the per capita income for the county was $28,789. About 5.00% of families and 8.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.50% of those under age 18 and 5.90% of those age 65 or over. Hennepin County is the wealthiest county in Minnesota and one of the 100 highest-income counties in the United States. Besides English, languages with significant numbers of speakers in Hennepin County include Arabic, Khmer, Russian, Somali and Vietnamese. Like all counties in Minnesota, Hennepin is governed by an elected and nonpartisan board of commissioners.
In Minnesota, county commissions have five members, but Hennepin, Dakota, Anoka and St Louis counties have seven members. Each commissioner represents a district of equal population. In Hennepin the county commission appoints the medical examiner, county auditor-treasurer and county recorder; the sheriff and county attorney are elected on a nonpartisan ticket. The county government's headquarters are in downtown Minneapolis in the Hennepin County Government Center; the county oversees the Hennepin County Library system, Hennepin County Medical Center. The county commission elects a chair. Commissioners as of January 7, 2019 Hennepin County's normal operations are coordinated by the County Administrator David Hough, Deputy County Administrator for Health and Human Services Jennifer DeCubellis, Assistant County Administrator for Operations Chester Cooper, Acting Assistant County Administrator for Public Works Chris Sagsveen, Assistant County Administrator for Public Safety Mark Thompson. Under Administrator H
The Minnesota River is a tributary of the Mississippi River 332 miles long, in the U. S. state of Minnesota. It drains a watershed of nearly 17,000 square miles, 14,751 square miles in Minnesota and about 2,000 sq mi in South Dakota and Iowa, it rises in southwestern Minnesota, in Big Stone Lake on the Minnesota–South Dakota border just south of the Laurentian Divide at the Traverse Gap portage. It flows southeast to Mankato turns northeast, it joins the Mississippi south of the Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, near the historic Fort Snelling; the valley is one of several distinct regions of Minnesota. The name Minnesota comes from the Dakota language phrase, "Mnisota Makoce", translated to "land where the waters reflect the sky", as a reference to the many lakes in Minnesota rather than the cloudiness of the actual river. For over a century prior to the organization of the Minnesota Territory in 1849, the name St. Pierre had been applied to the river by French and English explorers and writers.
Minnesota River is shown on the 1757 edition of Mitchell Map as "Ouadebameniſsouté or R. St. Peter". On June 19, 1852, acting upon a request from the Minnesota territorial legislature, the United States Congress decreed the aboriginal name for the river, Minnesota, to be the river’s official name and ordered all agencies of the federal government to use that name when referencing it; the valley that the Minnesota River flows in is up to five miles 250 feet deep. It was carved into the landscape by the massive glacial River Warren between 11,700 and 9,400 years ago at the end of the last ice age in North America. Pierre-Charles Le Sueur was the first European known to have traveled along the river; the Minnesota Territory, the state, were named for the river. The river valley is notable as the center of the canning industry in Minnesota. In 1903 Carson Nesbit Cosgrove, an entrepreneur in Le Sueur presided at the organizational meeting of the Minnesota Valley Canning Company. By 1930, the Minnesota River valley had emerged as one of the country's largest producers of sweet corn.
Green Giant had five canneries in Minnesota in addition to the original facility in Le Sueur. Cosgrove's son and grandson, Robert served as heads of the company over the ensuing decades before the company was acquired by General Mills. Several docks for barges exist along the river. Farm grains, including corn, are transported to the ports of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, shipped down the Mississippi River. List of Minnesota rivers List of crossings of the Minnesota River Sansome, Constance Jefferson. "Minnesota Underfoot: A Field Guide to the State's Outstanding Geologic Features". Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press. ISBN 0-89658-036-9. Waters, Thomas F.. The Streams and Rivers of Minnesota. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-0960-8. Place Names: the Minnesota River Drainage Area of the Minnesota River History of the Minnesota River Valley Minnesota River at Mankato - pictures and more information Minnesota River Basin Data Center - center at Minnesota State University, Mankato Texts on Wikisource: "Minnesota River".
Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921. "Minnesota, a river which crosses the state of Minnesota". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. "Minnesota River". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. "Minnesota, or St. Peter's, a river of Minnesota"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879
Pike Island, Dakota name Wita Tanka, is an island at the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers in the southwestern part of Saint Paul in the Twin Cities metropolitan area of Minnesota, U. S.. The island is now part of Fort Snelling State Park, it is a portion of the 100,000 acres of land purchased from the Mdewakanton Sioux Indians by Zebulon Pike in September 1805. Pike's Purchase was to become Fort Snelling and Saint Paul; the U. S. government wanted to build a fort to protect American interests in the fur trade in the region, Pike negotiated the treaty. Pike valued the land at $200,000, but the U. S. Senate agreed to pay only $2000. In 1819 Colonel Henry Leavenworth invited Jean-Baptiste Faribault, a French Canadian, his family to settle on Pike Island near the new fort to help promote the fur trade. An 1820 treaty gave ownership of Pike Island to Elizabeth Pelagie Ferribault, a Dakota Indian, wife of Jean-Baptiste Faribault; the six-week Dakota War of 1862 resulted in the deaths of hundreds of Native Americans.
After the conflict, more than 400 Dakotas were tried, 302 men condemned to be executed at Mankato, Minnesota. President Lincoln commuted the sentences of all but 38 Dakota, who were hanged in a mass execution on December 26, 1862. During this time more than 1600 Dakota women and old men were held in an internment camp on Pike Island under the cannons of Fort Snelling. Winter living conditions were harsh, with little food and no shelter, cholera struck the camp, killing more than three hundred. In May 1863, the survivors were forced aboard steamboats and relocated to Crow Creek in the southeastern Dakota Territory, a place stricken by drought at the time; the survivors of Crow Creek were moved three years to the Santee Sioux Reservation in Nebraska
Danvers is a town in Essex County, United States, located on the Danvers River near the northeastern coast of Massachusetts. The suburb is a short ride from Boston and is easy to get to the beaches in Gloucester. Known as Salem Village, the town is most known for its association with the 1692 Salem witch trials, it was the site of Danvers State Hospital and for Liberty Tree Mall. As of 2014, the town's population was 27,000; the area was long settled by indigenous cultures of Native Americans. In the historic period, the Massachusett, a tribe of the Pequot language family, dominated the area; the land, now Danvers was once owned by the Naumkeag branch of the Massachusett tribe. Around 1630, English colonists improved an existing Naumkeag trail as the Old Spanish Road, creating a connection to the main cities of Salem and Boston. Danvers was permanently settled in 1636 as Salem Village, petitioned the Crown for a charter as a town. According to legend, the King, rather than signing the charter, returned it with the message "The King Unwilling."
On June 9, 1757, the town was incorporated regardless, the King's rebuff was included on the town's seal. In 1752, the town was named for settler Danvers Osborn; the historical event for which Danvers is best-known is the Salem witch trials of 1692. Resident Rebecca Nurse was convicted in a trial for witchcraft; the Rebecca Nurse Homestead is still standing in Danvers, can be visited as a historical landmark. From the Battle of Lexington onward, Danvers residents have participated in the armed forces. Noteworthy Revolutionary figures who stayed in Danvers include Royal Governor General Thomas Gage and Benedict Arnold. Arnold Plaque is found at 1 Conant Street. Danvers was the birthplace of Israel Putnam, one of the most colorful figures of the colonial period and American Revolution, he built a successful farm, with fruit trees and flocks of sheep, at one point crawled into a wolf's den on his hands and knees to kill a wolf, eating his sheep. He went into the den's narrow passage with a torch in one hand, a musket in the other, a rope tied to his feet leading to his friends outside so they could pull him out if things went wrong.
His one shot from the musket got the wolf. He fought with Roger's Rangers in the French & Indian War. At one point the Indians captured him, had tied him to a tree, were going to burn him alive. A French officer rescued him in the nick of time; when the first shots of the American Revolution were fired at the Battle of Lexington and Concord, word reached Putnam on his farm. He "came off the plow" to ride off to war again. Without bothering to change his clothes, he mounted his horse and rode the 100 miles to the scene in 18 hours, he was known for his courage, demonstrated it at the Battle of Bunker Hill, where he is credited with giving the command "Don't fire until you can see the whites of their eyes." He became a major general in the Revolutionary War. His birthplace in Danvers, known as the General Israel Putnam House, still stands. In 1847, the railroad came to Danvers. A street railway was installed in 1884 consisting of 69 horse-drawn trolleys; this system was converted to electricity. The Town Hall was built in 1855.
It is still in use. In 1855, the southern portion of Danvers broke away to become the town of South Danvers renamed Peabody. In 1878, the Danvers State Hospital opened its doors; this was an institution to provide treatment for the mentally ill. An agricultural town, Danvers farmers developed two breeds of vegetables: the Danvers Onion and the Danvers Half-Long Carrot; this carrot was introduced by "market gardeners" in 1871. Shoe manufacturing was a prominent industry in the late early 20th centuries. Successful manufacturing companies included Ideal Baby Shoe. Local shoe companies were undercut in price by factories in other areas, shoe manufacturing moved out. On November 22, 2006, around 2:46 a.m. a major chemical explosion occurred at a facility housing Arnel Company and CAI Inc.. The blast shook several North Shore towns, knocking homes off foundations and damaging buildings up to half a mile away. Glass windows shattered at least 3 miles away, in neighboring Peabody and in downtown Salem; the explosion felt up to 45 miles away.
No one was killed, none of the injuries were life-threatening, according to Fire Chief Jim Tutko. 90 homes were damaged. Residents whose homes were damaged or destroyed in the blast were taken to Danvers High School, where the Red Cross established a relief shelter; the blast occurred next to a marina, a bakery/pizza shop, a gas station, across the street from Eastern Propane Gas. A May 13, 2008 report from the U. S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board attributed the explosion to unintentional overnight heating of an ink-mixing tank containing flammable solvents. According to the United States Census Bureau, Danvers has a total area of 14.1 square miles, of which 13.3 square miles is land and 0.8 square miles, or 5.75%, is water. The tidal Danvers River begins near the southeast corner of town, is formed by the confluence of the Porter River, Crane River and Waters River; these rivers, in turn, are fed by several brooks. The Ipswich River flows along the town's western border. Putnamville Reservoir lies in the north end of the town.
The town has a small town forest. Danvers is located about 17 miles
The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system. Its source is Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota and it flows south for 2,320 miles to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 32 U. S. two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. The main stem is within the United States; the Mississippi ranks as the fifteenth-largest river by discharge in the world. The river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana. Native Americans have lived along its tributaries for thousands of years. Most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies; the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the native way of life as first explorers settlers, ventured into the basin in increasing numbers.
The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, the early United States, as a vital transportation artery and communications link. In the 19th century, during the height of the ideology of manifest destiny, the Mississippi and several western tributaries, most notably the Missouri, formed pathways for the western expansion of the United States. Formed from thick layers of the river's silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile regions of the United States. During the American Civil War, the Mississippi's capture by Union forces marked a turning point towards victory, due to the river's strategic importance to the Confederate war effort; because of substantial growth of cities and the larger ships and barges that replaced steamboats, the first decades of the 20th century saw the construction of massive engineering works such as levees and dams built in combination. A major focus of this work has been to prevent the lower Mississippi from shifting into the channel of the Atchafalaya River and bypassing New Orleans.
Since the 20th century, the Mississippi River has experienced major pollution and environmental problems – most notably elevated nutrient and chemical levels from agricultural runoff, the primary contributor to the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. The word Mississippi itself comes from Misi zipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, Misi-ziibi. In the 18th century, the river was the primary western boundary of the young United States, since the country's expansion westward, the Mississippi River has been considered a convenient if approximate dividing line between the Eastern and Midwestern United States, the Western United States; this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St. Louis and the phrase "Trans-Mississippi" as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, it is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, such as "the highest peak east of the Mississippi" or "the oldest city west of the Mississippi". The FCC uses it as the dividing line for broadcast call-signs, which begin with W to the east and K to the west, mixing together in media markets along the river.
The Mississippi River can be divided into three sections: the Upper Mississippi, the river from its headwaters to the confluence with the Missouri River. The Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri, it is divided into two sections: The headwaters, 493 miles from the source to Saint Anthony Falls in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca, 1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, Minnesota; the name "Itasca" was chosen to designate the "true head" of the Mississippi River as a combination of the last four letters of the Latin word for truth and the first two letters of the Latin word for head. However, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, the waterway's flow is moderated by 43 dams. Fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation.
The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all contain locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper river. Taken as a whole, these 43 dams shape the geography and influence the ecology of the upper river. Beginning just below Saint Paul and continuing throughout the upper and lower river, the Mississippi is further controlled by thousands of wing dikes that moderate the river's flow in order to maintain an open navigation channel and prevent the river from eroding its banks; the head of navigation on the Mississippi is the Coon Rapids Dam in Minnesota. Before it was built in 1913, steamboats could go upstream as far as Saint Cloud, depending on river conditions; the uppermost lock and dam on the Upper Mississippi River is the Upper St. Anthony Falls Lock an