Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest, Great Lakes, northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has many lakes, is known as the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area has the largest concentration of transportation, industry and government in the state. Urban centers in "Greater Minnesota" include Duluth, Moorhead, Rochester and St. Cloud; the geography of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Thousands of years before Europeans arrived, Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is now Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.

Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, many European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. Immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened Minnesota's demographics and culture, its economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River, which got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language: "Mnísóta", which means "clear blue water", or "Mnißota", which means "cloudy water".

Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a hybrid word combining mni and polis. Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. The isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.

The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Since a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.

Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low point of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname "Land of 10,000 Lakes" is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of water in the stat

Cergy-Pontoise University

Cergy-Pontoise University is a French university, in the Academy of Versailles. Cergy-Pontoise University is a public university and a leading centre of teaching and research, which welcomes 18,000 students and 1,500 international students interested in studying abroad; the university is located in the Val-d'Oise department. The university managed the Institut d'études politiques de Saint-Germain-en-Laye; the university offers all levels of post-graduate studies. 144 bachelors and doctorate degrees are available in a wide range of fields: law and management, languages and social sciences, science and technology. A specialty is a German-French course of law studies organized together with the University of Düsseldorf which annually gives 15 German and 15 French law students the possibility to study both legal systems since 2005. Graduates of this three year law course are awarded the German legal "Zwischenprüfung" as well as the French "licence mention droit". Since 2008, the universities offer a subsequent two-year course whose participants specialize in business, labor as well as employment law and graduate with the French "Master 2 mention droit de l'entreprise".

Subsequently, they are eligible for the German state examination in law and for an admission exam with a French attorney's law school. The Cergy-Pontoise University as well as all upper education institutions of Cergy-Pontoise are organized in a PRES including: groupe ESSEC, ENSEA, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l'Electronique et de ses Applications ITIN, Ecole supérieure d’Informatique, Réseaux et Systèmes d’Information ENSAPC, École nationale supérieure d'arts de Cergy-Pontoise EISTI, EBI EPMI EPSS ESCOM ILEPS ISTOM ESCIA, école supérieure de comptabilité, gestion et finance Education in France List of public universities in France by academy Web site of the Cergy-Pontoise University Web site of the Cergy-Pontoise University Web site of Professional Bachelor's degree in International Trade and International Tourism

2011 Sultan Qaboos Cup

The 2011 Sultan Qaboos Cup was the 39th edition of the Sultan Qaboos Cup, the premier knockout tournament for football teams in Oman. The competition began on 16 September 2011 with the Qualification Round and concluded on 26 December 2011. Al-Oruba SC were the defending champions, having won their third title in 2010. On Monday 26 December 2011, Dhofar S. C. S. C. Were crowned the champions of the 2011 Sultan Qaboos Cup when they defeated Al-Ittihad Club 1–0, hence winning the title for the record eighth time; this year the tournament had 36 teams. The winners qualified for the 2013 AFC Cup. Ahli Sidab Club Al-Bashaer Club Al-Hamra SC Al-Ittihad Club Al-Khaboora SC Al-Musannah SC Al-Mudhaibi SC Al-Nahda Club Al-Nasr S. C. S. C. Al-Oruba SC Al-Rustaq SC Al-Salam SC Al-Seeb Club Al-Shabab Club Al-Suwaiq Club (Suwaiq Al-Tali'aa SC Al-Wahda SC Bahla Club Bidia SC Bowsher Club Dhofar S. C. S. C. Fanja SC Ibri Club Ja'lan SC Madha SC Majees SC Mirbat SC Muscat Club Nizwa Club Oman Club Saham SC Salalah SC Sohar SC Sur SC Yanqul SC 8 teams played a knockout tie.

4 ties were played over one leg. The first match was played between Al-Hamra SC and Madha SC on 16 September 2011. Al-Hamra SC, Al-Rustaq SC, Nizwa Club, Bahla Club advanced to the Round of 32 after winning their respective ties. 32 teams played a knockout tie. 16 ties were played over one leg. The first match played was between Al-Mudhaibi SC and Majees SC on 29 September 2011. 16 teams advanced to the Round of 16. 16 teams played a knockout tie. 8 ties were played over one leg. The first match was played between Ahli Sidab Club and Al-Mudhaibi SC on 22 October 2011. 8 teams advanced to the Quarterfinals. 8 teams played a knockout tie. 4 ties were played over two legs. The first match was played between Sur SC and Al-Oruba SC on 1 November 2011. Sur SC, Al-Ittihad Club, Salalah SC and Dhofar S. C. S. C. Qualified for the Semifinals. 4 teams played a knockout tie. 2 ties were played over two legs. The first match was played between Sur SC and Al-Ittihad Club on 1 December 2011. Dhofar S. C. S. C. and Al-Ittihad Club qualified for the finals.

Oman Sultan Cup 2011–2012 at Oman Sultan Cup 2011–2012 at