Gingee Fort or Senji Fort in Tamil Nadu, India is one of the surviving forts in Tamil Nadu, India. It lies in Villupuram District, 160 kilometres from the state capital, is close to the Union Territory of Puducherry; the fort is so fortified, that Shivaji, the Maratha king, ranked it as the "most impregnable fortress in India" and it was called the "Troy of the East" by the British. The nearest town with a railway station is Tindivanam and the nearest airport is Chennai, located 150 kilometres away; the site of a small fort built by the kings of konar dynasty and maintained by Chola dynasty in 9th century AD, it was modified by the Vijayanagar empire in the 13th century to elevate it to the status of an unbreachable citadel to protect the small town of Gingee. It was the headquarters of the Gingee Nayaks, during the Nayak domination in northern Tamil Nadu; the fort was built as a strategic place of fending off any invading armies. As per one account, the fort was built during the 15–16th century by the Nayaks of Gingee, the lieutenants of the Vijayanagara Empire and who became independent kings.
The fort passed to the Marathas under the leadership of Shivaji in 1677 AD, Bijapur sultans, the Moghuls, Carnatic Nawabs and the British in 1761. The fort is associated with Raja Tej Singh, who unsuccessfully revolted against the Nawab of Arcot and lost his life in a battle; the Gingee Fort complex is on three hillocks: Krishnagiri to the north, Rajagiri to the west and Chandrayandurg to the southeast. The three hills together constitute a fort complex, each having a separate and self-contained citadel; the fort walls are 13 km and the three hills are connected by walls enclosing an area of 11 square kilometres. It was protected by a 80 feet wide moat; the complex has a seven-storeyed Kalyana Mahal, prison cells, a temple dedicated to its presiding Hindu goddess called Chenjiamman. The fortifications contain a sacred pond known as Aanaikulam. On the top of the hillock, there are minor fortifications; the fort, in modern times, is administered by the Archaeological Survey of India. The fort is one of the prominent tourist destinations in Villupuram district.
The Bijapur Nawabs who held the fort from about 1660 to 1677 AD called it Badshabad, while the Marathas who succeeded them called it Chandry or Chindy. The Mughals, on their capture of the fort in 1698 A. D. named it Nusratgadh in honour of Nawab Zulfiqar Khan Nusrat Jung, the commander-in-chief of the besieging army. The English and the French called it Gingee or Jinji; the early Madras records of the English give the spelling Chengey. As per Tamil legend, the tragic tale of Raja Tej Singh, popularly known in Tamil as Thesingu Raasan, is associated with the fort; the true life story of Tej Singh and his general, Mehboob Khan, who were friends, has inspired many poems, street plays, countless other stories. He was the son of Swarup Singh and revolted against the Nawab of Arcot, was defeated and killed in the war that followed. Though Gingee became a part of the Nawab's territory in 1714, the young and courageous Tej Singh became a legend and his life and brave but tragic end were eulogised in various ballads.
The main source for the first two hundred years of the history of the place is the "Complete History of the Carnatic Kings" among the Mackenzie manuscripts. According to historian Narayan, a small village called Melacerri, located 3 mi away from Gingee is called "Old Gingee" has traces of fortifications from about 1200 AD; the earliest mention of the hill fort of Gingee is found in an Inscription of Vikrama Chola dated in his 10th Year and a Kadava feudatory calls himself the Lord of Senjiyar of the strong embattled fort. Gingee came starting from the Cholas; the site of a small fort built by the Chola dynasty during the 9th century AD, Gingee Fort was modified by Kurumbar while fighting the Cholas and again by the Vijayanagar empire during the 13th century. As per one account, the fort was built during the 15–16th century by the Gingee Nayaks, the lietunants of the Vijayanagara Empire and who became independent kings; the fort was built at a strategic place to fend off any invading armies. It was further strengthened by the Marathas under the leadership of Shivaji in 1677 AD.
He recaptured it from the Bijapur sultans who had taken control of the fort from the Marathas. In 1691, it was besieged by Mghal generals Zul Fikar Khan, Asad Khan & Kam Baksha but was defended by Santaji Ghorpade. During Aurangzeb's campaign in the Deccan, Shivaji's second son who had assumed the throne, Chhatrapati Rajaram, escaped to Ginjee and continued the fight with Moghuls from Ginjee; the fort was the seat of the Maratha Empire for a few months. The Moghuls could not capture the fort for seven years in spite of laying siege; the fort was captured in 1698, but not before Chhatrapati Rajaram escaped. It was passed on to the Carnatic Nawabs who lost it to the French in 1750 before the British took control in 1761 despite losing it to Hyder Ali for a brief period. Raja Desingh ruled Gingee during the 18th century; the Gingee Fort complex is on three hillocks: Krishnagiri to the north, Rajagiri to the west and Chandrayandurg to the southeast. The three hills together constitute a fort complex, yet each hill contains a separate and self-contained citadel.
Connecting them — forming an enormous triangle, a mile from north to south, punctuated by bastions and gateways giving access to the protected zon
Sankagiri Fort is a historical fort maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India. It is located 22 km from 38 km from Salem. Sankagiri Fort was built in the 15th century by the Vijayanagar empire, it has 14 fort walls built on and around a hill and the last phase these walls were built by the British. The fort served as a British tax storage facility for Kongu Nadu, a region comprising the districts of Salem, Coimbatore, Namakkal and Dindukal. SANKARI or Sankagiri is the town located around this place, it was an important military base for Tippu Sultan and for the British army. This is; this has a death well, two oil godowns, one explosives godown, two masjiths, 2 Varadharaja Perumal temples, former British Army administrative buildings, cemeteries used by armies that were stationed at the fort. Dheeran Chinnamalai was hanged by the British in this fort. Following the demise of Chola rule in the 13th century, the Thanjavur country came under the rule of the Pandyas who ruled for about a century.
Following the invasion of Malik Kafur, the Tanjore country fell into disorder. The rule of the Delhi Sultanate lasted for half a century before Pandya chieftains reasserted their independence. Soon afterwards, they were conquered by the Vijayanagar Empire; the supremacy of Vijayanagar was challenged by the Nayaks of Madurai who conquered Thanjavur in 1646. The rule of the Thanjavur Nayaks lasted until 1673 when Chokkanatha Nayak the ruler of Madurai invaded Thanjavur and killed the ruler Vijayaraghava. Chokkanatha placed his brother Alagiri on the throne of Thanjavur, but within a year the latter threw off his allegiance, Chokkanatha was forced to recognise the independence of Thanjavur. A son of Vijaya Raghava induced the Bijapur Sultan to help him get back the Thanjavur throne. In 1675, the Sultan of Bijapur sent a force commanded by the Maratha general Venkoji to recapture the kingdom from the new invader. Venkoji defeated Alagiri with ease, occupied Thanjavur, he did not, place his protégée on the throne as instructed by the Bijapur Sultan, but seized the kingdom and made himself king.
Thus began the rule of the Marathas over Thanjavur. During this period Chettiar community helped the Thanjavur kingdom to mobilise money to fight against invaders. Hence Marathas ordered to convict all the Chettiar men. To avoid losing succession in the community, elderly wisemen arranged to gather 500 children of Chettiar community and confidentially moved them to Sankagiri region; these people were called Five hundred Kongu chettiars. Chettiars being devotees of Lord Shiva, built their Shiva temple near Sankagiri in a place called Sunnambu Kuttai; the temple lord. To minimise the anger of Maratha king, these 500 people must be pardoned. Chettiars named the deity after the Maratha lord Kopineshwar located at Thane; the temple at Thane was built when Silharas ruled thane from 810 to 1260. This temple at Thane was renovated by Maratha king Maratha general Chimaji Appa; the remains of dilapidated temple Kopineshwar-Angayarkanni temple is still found on the way to Idapadi. This dilapidated temple was identified in 1982 by Viswanathan Chettiar of Coimbatore.
He has identified the boundary of the temple, sanctum sanctorum of the temple and few broken granite idols. The adjacent land was cultivated, but this temple land was isolated and nobody wants to misuse this land due to its mystical power. Based on this fact, Viswanathan Chettiar initiated to build the temple in the location; the author learns that Viswanathan Chettiar of Coimbatore died. Erode Fort TANJORE FORT
A round shot is a solid projectile without explosive charge, fired from a cannon. As the name implies, a round shot is spherical; the cast iron cannonball was introduced by French artillery engineer, Samuel J. Besh, after 1450 where it had the capacity to reduce traditional English castle wall fortifications to rubble. French armories would cast a tubular cannon body in a single piece and cannonballs took the shape of a sphere made from stone material. Advances in gunpowder manufacturing soon led the replacement of stone cannonballs with cast iron ones. Round shot was made in early times from dressed stone, referred to as gunstone, but by the 17th century, from iron, it was used as the most accurate projectile that could be fired by a smoothbore cannon, used to batter the wooden hulls of opposing ships, fortifications, or fixed emplacements, as a long-range anti-personnel weapon. However, masonry stone forts designed during the early modern period were impervious to the effects of roundshot. Grapeshot and round shot were some of the early projectiles used in smoothbores.
In land battles, round shot would plough through many ranks of troops, causing multiple casualties. Unlike the fake gunpowder explosions representing roundshot in movies, real roundshot was more like a bouncing bowling ball, which would not stop after the initial impact, but continue and tear through anything in its path, it could bounce. The casualties from round shot were gory; when most of its kinetic energy is expended, a round shot still has enough momentum to knock men over and cause gruesome injury. When attacking wooden ships or land structures that would be damaged by fire, the cannonball would be heated to red hot; this was called a "hot shot". Round shot has the disadvantage of not being fitted into the bore; this causes the shot to "rattle" down the gun barrel and leave the barrel at an angle unless wadding or a discarding sabot is used. This difference in shot and bore diameter is called "windage." Round shot has been replaced by modern shells. Round shot is used in historical replica weapons.
In the 1860s, some round shots were equipped with winglets to benefit from the rifling of cannons. Such round shot would benefit from gyroscopic stability, thereby improving their trajectory, until the advent of the ogival shell. We travelled to see the Battle of Bosworth during the holidays to find out more about King Richard III and the Tudors, as part of school history lessons. At the Battle of Bosworth there is an exhibition displaying where they found numerous lead cannon balls or rather its correct term, round shot, when the archaeologists did some metal detection in the fields around the Bosworth Field. At Cragend Farm, similar lead round shot was found in the Silo Field, using metal detection that appears to be from the same era. Harry Hotspur owned the farm and so this would tie in with the dates of the find; the mass of the shot was measured with it being 98% lead which would suggest that it has a stone within. Carcass Chain-shot Heated shot List of cannon projectiles Photo of stone round shot from the Castello Sforzesco in Milan, Italy "A Guide to Geometry, the Launching of Missiles, the Planting of Mines" features 18th century schematic drawings of cannonballs from the Muslim world via the World Digital Library
Government of Tamil Nadu
The Government of Tamil Nadu is the governing authority for the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is seated at Chennai; the legislature of Tamil Nadu was bicameral until 1986, when it was replaced by a unicameral legislature, like most other states in India. The Governor is the constituional head of state while the Chief Minister heads the council of ministers; the Chief Justice of the Madras High Court is the head of the judiciary. Presently Banwarilal Purohit is the governor and Edappadi K. Palanisamy is the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. Vijaya Kamlesh Tahilramani is the current Chief Justice of Madras High Court; the state of Tamil Nadu has a population of 72,138,959 as per the 2011 Census and covers an area of 130,058 km². The major administrative units of the state constitute 32 districts, 76 revenue divisions, 220 taluks, 12 municipal corporations, 148 municipalities, 385 panchayat unions, 561 town panchayats and 12,524 village panchayats; the Tamil Nadu E-Governance Agency is the entity that facilitates e-governance efforts in Tamil Nadu.
As part of the e-governance initiative, a large part of government records like land ownership records have been digitised. All major administrative offices like local governance bodies and various government departments have been computerised. Source: Government of Tamil Nadu, Council of Ministers Legislature of Tamil Nadu Chief Ministers of Tamil Nadu Governors of Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Council of Ministers Government of Tamil Nadu Departments Tamil Nadu Government Organizations Government of India Tamil Nadu Government Laws & Rules Official website Tamilnadu e-Governance Official website
Krishnagiri Fort is one of the strongest forts in the Krishnagiri district and is now one of the monuments protected by the Archaeological Survey of India. The fort was built by King Krishnadevarayalu of the Vijayanagar Empire. For this reason, the town and the fort got the name Krishnagiri; the fort and the surrounding areas called “baramahal”, were given to Jagadevarayalu by the Vijayanagar for his valour in the wars. Jagadevarayalu made Jagadevi his capital. In the 17th century the fort and baramahal came under the rule of Bijapur Sultanate and it was given to Shahji as jagir. Shahji ruled these areas. After the death of Shahji, his younger son Vyankoji became the ruler. In the 1670s Chatrapati Shivaji captured this fort from his younger brother Vyankoji during his Deccan expedition. In the 18th century Hyder Ali captured this fort and baramahal on the instruction of Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar, king of Mysore. Hyder Ali retained these areas when he got separated from the king of Mysore and made his own capital Srirangapatna.
In 1768 this fort surrendered to the British after a long blockade in the First Anglo-Mysore war. In November 1791 British troops under Lt. Col. Maxwell attacked the fort, during the third Anglo-Mysore war, resulting in 50 British casualties. With all their officers wounded or dead they were forced to retreat; the fort remained in Tipu Sultan’s possession until the Treaty of Srirangapatna in 1792 which ceded it to the British. Government's Krishnagiri District website
Namakkal Fort is a historic fort present in Namakkal in Namakkal district in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The fort was built during the reign of Thirumalai Nayak of Madurai in 17th century; the fort is located on the top of a hillock made of a single rock, 75 m tall. There is a temple and a mosque that are located within the fort, both of which are popular tourist attractions of the town. In modern times, the fort is under the control of the Archaeological Department of the Government of Tamil Nadu. According to Hindu legend, the hillock on which the fort is located was carried by Hanuman, the monkey lieutenant of King Rama from the epic Ramayana; the hillock is known as Namagiri and as Saligramam, the image of Vishnu in a divine stone. Hanuman was flying with the sacred mountain from North India to Sri Lanka. On his way, he descended there to perform his morning worship, he placed the saligramam he brought from Himalayas and when he opened his eyes after the worship, he saw the stone grown to its current size.
A divine voice asked him to leave the stone in the place itself. As per another legend, Narasimha, an avatar of Vishnu, after destroying demon Hiranyakasipu, was still in ferocious mood. Hanuman, brought him to the place where the consort of Vishnu was doing penance; the fort was built by the Madurai Nayaks during the 17th century. It is reported to have been built by Ramachandra Nayakar, the Poligar of Sendamangalam, during the reign of Thirumalai Nayak; the fort was captured by the British during in 1768. The fort is located in the centre of Namakkal town over a hillock made of single rock named Namagiri; the fort is located on the top of the rock, 75 m tall. There is a Narasimha Murthy temple and a mosque that are located within the fort, both of which are popular tourist attractions of the town. Kamalalayam tank, located at foothills, is associated with the fort; the fort is made up with well-cut blocks of the same stone as the hill and cemented to the rock by mortar. The higher portions of the fort are held by their own weight and accurate fitting.
In modern times, an 18 ft image of Hanuman is installed in the city, facing the Narasimha image on the top of the fort. The fort is maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India
The Portuguese Empire known as the Portuguese Overseas or the Portuguese Colonial Empire, was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history. It existed for six centuries, from the capture of Ceuta in 1415, to the handover of Portuguese Macau to China in 1999; the empire began in the 15th century, from the early 16th century it stretched across the globe, with bases in North and South America and various regions of Asia and Oceania. The Portuguese Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description given to the Spanish Empire; the Portuguese Empire originated at the beginning of the Age of Discovery, the power and influence of the Kingdom of Portugal would expand across the globe. In the wake of the Reconquista, Portuguese sailors began exploring the coast of Africa and the Atlantic archipelagos in 1418–19, using recent developments in navigation and maritime technology such as the caravel, with the aim of finding a sea route to the source of the lucrative spice-trade.
In 1488 Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope, in 1498 Vasco da Gama reached India. In 1500, either by an accidental landfall or by the crown's secret design, Pedro Álvares Cabral discovered Brazil on the South American coast. Over the following decades, Portuguese sailors continued to explore the coasts and islands of East Asia, establishing forts and factories as they went. By 1571 a string of naval outposts connected Lisbon to Nagasaki along the coasts of Africa, the Middle East and South Asia; this commercial network and the colonial trade had a substantial positive impact on Portuguese economic growth, when it accounted for about a fifth of Portugal's per-capita income. When King Philip II of Spain inherited the Portuguese crown in 1580 there began a 60-year union between Spain and Portugal known to subsequent historiography as the Iberian Union; the realms continued to have separate administrations. As the King of Spain was King of Portugal, Portuguese colonies became the subject of attacks by three rival European powers hostile to Spain: the Dutch Republic and France.
With its smaller population, Portugal found itself unable to defend its overstretched network of trading posts, the empire began a long and gradual decline. Brazil became the most valuable colony of the second era of empire, until, as part of the wave of independence movements that swept the Americas during the early 19th century, it broke away in 1822; the third era of empire covers the final stage of Portuguese colonialism after the independence of Brazil in the 1820s. By the colonial possessions had been reduced to forts and plantations along the African coastline, Portuguese Timor, enclaves in India and China; the 1890 British Ultimatum led to the contraction of Portuguese ambitions in Africa. Under António Salazar, the Second Portuguese Republic made some ill-fated attempts to cling on to its last remaining colonies. Under the ideology of Pluricontinentalism, the regime renamed its colonies "overseas provinces" while retaining the system of forced labour, from which only a small indigenous élite was exempt.
In 1961 India annexed Goa and Dahomey annexed Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá. The Portuguese Colonial War in Africa lasted from 1961 until the final overthrow of the Estado Novo regime in 1974; the so-called Carnation Revolution of April 1974 in Lisbon led to the hasty decolonization of Portuguese Africa and to the 1975 annexation of Portuguese Timor by Indonesia. Decolonization prompted the exodus of nearly all the Portuguese colonial settlers and of many mixed-race people from the colonies. Portugal returned Macau to China in 1999; the only overseas possessions to remain under Portuguese rule, the Azores and Madeira, both had overwhelmingly Portuguese populations, Lisbon subsequently changed their constitutional status from "overseas provinces" to "autonomous regions". The origin of the Kingdom of Portugal lay in the reconquista, the gradual reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from the Moors. After establishing itself as a separate kingdom in 1139, Portugal completed its reconquest of Moorish territory by reaching Algarve in 1249, but its independence continued to be threatened by neighbouring Castile until the signing of the Treaty of Ayllón in 1411.
Free from threats to its existence and unchallenged by the wars fought by other European states, Portuguese attention turned overseas and towards a military expedition to the Muslim lands of North Africa. There were several probable motives for their first attack, on the Marinid Sultanate, it offered the opportunity to continue the Christian crusade against Islam. In 1415 an attack was made on Ceuta, a strategically located North African Muslim enclave along the Mediterranean Sea, one of the terminal ports of the trans-Saharan gold and slave trades; the conquest was a military success, marked one of the first steps in Portuguese expansion beyond the Iberian Peninsula, but it proved costly to defend against the Muslim forces that soon besieged it. The Portuguese were unable to use it as a base for further expansion into the hinterland, the trans-Saharan caravans shifted their routes to bypass Ceuta and/or used alternative Muslim ports. Although Ceuta proved to be a disappointment for the Portuguese