Foundation's Fear is a science fiction novel by American writer Gregory Benford, set in Isaac Asimov's Foundation universe. It is the first book of the Second Foundation trilogy, written after Asimov's death by three authors, authorized by the Asimov estate. Emperor Cleon I wants to appoint Hari Seldon as the First Minister of the Galactic Empire. Powerful Trantor High Council member Betan Lamurk opposes the independent Seldon's appointment. Seldon himself is reluctant to accept the position because of its time constraints pulling him away from the psychohistory project; the project is led by Seldon, Yugo Amaryl, Seldon's advanced humaniform robot-spouse Dors Venabili. Seldon needs to curry favor with the emperor and advises Cleon I informally. For example, Seldon suggests a decree that erases terrorists' names from records, denying them immortality, discouraging chaotic actions. Besides the psychohistorians, much of the novel's action revolves around advanced sentient simulations of Joan of Arc and Voltaire.
The sims have been recreated by Artifice Associates, a research company located in Trantor’s Dahl Sector. Artifice Associates programmers Marq and Sybil plan to use the Joan/ Voltaire sims for two money-making projects. First, Hari Seldon’s psychohistory project. Second, Trantor’s Junin-Sector “Preservers vs Skeptics Society” debate whether mechanical beings endowed with artificial intelligence should be built, and if so, whether they should receive full citizenship. The Preservers' champion will be the Skeptics' champion Voltaire. Hari Seldon and Dors Venabili flee Trantor, escaping High Council member Betan Lamurk's forces. During their galactic odyssey and Dors experience virtual reality as chimpanzees on planet Panucopia, they visit helter-skelter New Renaissance world Sark. Meanwhile, back on Trantor, sims Joan and Voltaire escape into Trantor's Mesh. Joan and Voltaire interact with ancient aliens on the Mesh; these aliens fled Trantor's physical space when terraforming robots arrived on Trantor more than 20,000 years ago.
Via Joan and Voltaire, Hari allies with the mesh aliens. The aliens aid Seldon's return to Trantor, his defeat of High Council member Lamurk through tik-toks; the novel ends with Seldon accepting his position as Emperor Cleon's First Minister
Second Foundation is the third novel published of the Foundation Series by American writer Isaac Asimov, the fifth in the in-universe chronology. It was first published in 1953 by Gnome Press. Second Foundation consists of two published novellas published in Astounding Magazine between 1948 and 1950, making this the third volume in Asimov's Foundation series. Decades Asimov wrote two further sequel novels and two prequels. Writers have added authorized tales to the series; the Foundation series is regarded as one of Isaac Asimov's best works, along with his Robot series. The term describes the organization by that name, the focus of the book; the organization's existence had been revealed in Foundation, searched for in Foundation and Empire, makes brief appearances in this novel. It would not be described in detail until Foundation's Edge. Part I is about The Mule's search for the elusive Second Foundation, with the intent of destroying it; the executive council of the Second Foundation is aware of The Mule's intent and, in the words of the First Speaker, allows him to find it—"in a sense".
The Mule sends two of his men on a search for the Second Foundation: Han Pritcher, who had once been a captain and a member of the underground opposition prior to being Converted to the Mule's service, Bail Channis, an "Unconverted" man who has risen through the ranks and impressed The Mule. Channis reveals his suspicions about the Second Foundation being located on the planet Tazenda, takes the ship there, they first land on Rossem, a barren planet controlled by Tazenda, meet with its governor, who appears ordinary. Once they return to the ship, Pritcher confronts Channis and believes him to have been too successful with the search; the Mule, who had placed a hyper-relay on their ship in order to trace them through hyper-space and reveals that Channis is a Second Foundationer. Pritcher's emotional bonds to the Mule are broken in the ensuing exchange between Channis and the Mule, is made to fall into deep sleep. With only the two of them left, the Mule reveals that he has brought his ships to Tazenda and has destroyed the planet, yet senses that Channis's dismay is only pretense.
He forces Channis to reveal that Rossem is the Second Foundation, that Tazenda is only a figurehead. The First Speaker for the Second Foundation reveals to the Mule that his rule is over. Second Foundation agents are headed to Kalgan and the Foundation worlds to undo the Conversions of the Mule, his fleet is too far away to prevent it; when the Mule experiences a moment of despair, the First Speaker is able to seize control of and change his mind. Search by the Mule was published in the January 1948 issue of Astounding Science Fiction under the title "Now You See It—". Part II takes place 60 years after the first part, 55 years after the Mule's death by natural causes; those of the Foundation, which left the Mule's empire based on Kalgan after his death, are now aware of the Second Foundation's existence. Foundationists and many others believe that the Second Foundation's protection guarantees the success of the Seldon Plan despite crises, such as the Foundation's ongoing conflict with Kalgan.
The ensuing war is won by the Foundation, is listed in the Encyclopedia Galactica as the last major conflict before the rise of the Second Empire. Some Foundationists, distrust the Second Foundation and its members' Mule-like mental powers, hope to find and destroy it. After inventing a device that can jam telepathic abilities and cause telepaths great pain, the Foundation finds and detains indefinitely about 50 telepaths on Terminus; the planet, the capital of the Foundation, is on the edge of the Milky Way. Since, as Arkady Darell puts it, "a circle has no end" by tracing the disc of the galaxy around its edge, one would come back to Terminus; the Foundationists believe that, with the Second Foundation destroyed, the Seldon Plan will proceed without interference from telepaths. The telepaths however were nothing but martyrs taking part in a plot set by the Second Foundation to mislead the people of Terminus into thinking that the threat of the Second Foundation no longer exists, thus having the original Seldon Plan restored while its location remains secret.
The Second Foundation is located on Trantor—the former capital of the Galactic Empire—in the center of the galaxy. It was called "Star's End" due to the ancient saying that "All roads lead to Trantor, and, where all stars end"; the location was said to fit the "other end of the galaxy" location since the galaxy is not in fact a disc, but a spiral—and from the edge, the other end of a spiral lies at the center. The book noted that Hari Seldon was a social scientist, not a physical one; when the two Foundations were founded, they could be described as being at opposite social ends of the Galaxy, with Trantor at the center of galactic power and prestige, Terminus at the other extreme, something the First Foundation failed to realize because its members were inclined to analyze Seldon's statement in physical terms. Search by the Foundation was published in the November and December 1949 and January 1950 issues of Astounding Science Fiction under the title "—And Now You Don't"; the Second Foundation would again be
The Mule is a fictional character from Isaac Asimov's Foundation series. One of the greatest conquerors the galaxy has seen, he is a mentalic who has the ability to reach into the minds of others and "adjust" their emotions, individually or en masse, using this capability to conscript individuals to his cause. Not direct mind-control per se, it is a subtle influence of the subconscious; this gives the Mule the capacity to disrupt Seldon's plan by invalidating Seldon's assumption that no single individual could have a measurable effect on galactic socio-historical trends on their own, due to the plan relying on the predictability of the actions of large numbers of people. From the book "Foundation's Edge" we learn; the Mule establishes his empire incrementally, using past conquests to aid new ones: first by mentally converting a pirate band to his allegiance a whole planet the militarily powerful kingdom of Kalgan, which he obtains by mentally converting the warlord of the planet Kalgan, the Foundation.
The Mule sets up his own short-lived Galactic Empire, the "Union of Worlds", styling himself "First Citizen of the Union" and making Kalgan its capital planet. Leading up to, for a good time after the Mule's conquest of the Foundation and its trade confederacy no one actually sees the Mule or knows what he looks like; the Foundation, after the death of the Empire, is the sole supplier of nuclear weaponry in the galaxy, using this asset the Mule begins conquering surrounding territories, all of which lack nuclear power, sweeping aside the remnants of the Galactic Empire centered on Neotrantor. The Mule's conquest is amazingly fast: he defeats the Foundation and establishes the Union of Worlds after only five years. Just as and randomly, he stops his advance and settles into a five-year period of consolidation; this is because the Mule fears the mysterious Second Foundation, rumoured to be capable of defeating a mentalic individual like himself. According to a hint given by Hari Seldon, the Second Foundation was founded at "the opposite end of the galaxy" from the First Foundation, itself founded on the distant galactic rim planet Terminus.
However, the true location of the Second Foundation is a total mystery and popular sentiment is that it does not exist. The Mule launches repeated expeditions in search of the Second Foundation during this period of consolidation; these expeditions the last, led by Han Pritcher and Bail Channis, are nearly successful. However, the Second Foundation succeeds in defeating the Mule, transforming him into a harmless individual lacking ambition, ending his threat to the Seldon Plan; the Mule's name is a reference to the sterility of mules. Without a child available as a successor, the Mule's empire ends soon after his death. No reference is given about any other name for him besides "The Mule", a name he gave himself, and'Magnifico Giganticus', an alias he takes up to travel among Foundationers. In Second Foundation, it is revealed, his childhood is one of alienation. The Mule becomes aware of his great mental powers in his twenties, develops a desire to compensate for his earlier life by taking revenge on humanity.
The Mule is a central character in Second Foundation. Foundation's Edge reveals that he came from the planet Gaia, but was regarded as an aberration on a world where mental powers were being developed for benevolent ends. According to his autobiography In Memory Yet Green, Asimov modeled the Mule's physical appearance on Leonard Meisel, a friend at the World War II-era Navy Yard in Philadelphia. In keeping with the Foundation series being based on the Roman Empire, the Mule has historical parallels with Attila the Hun and Charlemagne.
Library of Congress Classification
The Library of Congress Classification is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. It is used by most research and academic libraries in the U. S. and several other countries. LCC should not be confused with LCCN, the system of Library of Congress Control Numbers assigned to all books, which defines URLs of their online catalog entries, such as "82006074" and "http://lccn.loc.gov/82006074". The Classification is distinct from Library of Congress Subject Headings, the system of labels such as "Boarding schools" and "Boarding schools—Fiction" that describe contents systematically; the classifications may be distinguished from the call numbers assigned to particular copies of books in the collection, such as "PZ7. J684 Wj 1982 FT MEADE Copy 1" where the classification is "PZ7. J684 Wj 1982"; the classification was invented by Herbert Putnam in 1897, just before he assumed the librarianship of Congress. With advice from Charles Ammi Cutter, it was influenced by his Cutter Expansive Classification, the Dewey Decimal System, the Putnam Classification System.
It was designed for the purposes and collection of the Library of Congress to replace the fixed location system developed by Thomas Jefferson. By the time Putnam departed from his post in 1939, all the classes except K and parts of B were well developed. LCC has been criticized for lacking a sound theoretical basis. Although it divides subjects into broad categories, it is enumerative in nature; that is, it provides a guide to the books in one library's collections, not a classification of the world. In 2007 The Wall Street Journal reported that in the countries it surveyed most public libraries and small academic libraries used the older Dewey Decimal Classification system; the National Library of Medicine classification system uses the initial letters W and QS–QZ, which are not used by LCC. Some libraries use NLM in conjunction with LCC. Others include Medicine R. Subclass AC -- Collections. Series. Collected works Subclass AE – Encyclopedias Subclass AG – Dictionaries and other general reference works Subclass AI – Indexes Subclass AM – Museums.
Collectors and collecting Subclass AN – Newspapers Subclass AP – Periodicals Subclass AS – Academies and learned societies Subclass AY – Yearbooks. Almanacs. Directories Subclass AZ – History of scholarship and learning; the humanities Subclass B – Philosophy Subclass BC – Logic Subclass BD – Speculative philosophy Subclass BF – Psychology Subclass BH – Aesthetics Subclass BJ – Ethics Subclass BL – Religions. Mythology. Rationalism Subclass BM – Judaism Subclass BP – Islam. Bahaism. Theosophy, etc. Subclass BQ – Buddhism Subclass BR – Christianity Subclass BS – The Bible Subclass BT – Doctrinal theology Subclass BV – Practical Theology Subclass BX – Christian Denominations Subclass C – Auxiliary Sciences of History Subclass CB – History of Civilization Subclass CC – Archaeology Subclass CD – Diplomatics. Archives. Seals Subclass CE – Technical Chronology. Calendar Subclass CJ – Numismatics Subclass CN – Inscriptions. Epigraphy Subclass CR – Heraldry Subclass CS – Genealogy Subclass CT – Biography Subclass D – History Subclass DA – Great Britain Subclass DAW – Central Europe Subclass DB – Austria – Liechtenstein – Hungary – Czechoslovakia Subclass DC – France – Andorra – Monaco Subclass DD – Germany Subclass DE – Greco-Roman World Subclass DF – Greece Subclass DG – Italy – Malta Subclass DH – Low Countries – Benelux Countries Subclass DJ – Netherlands Subclass DJK – Eastern Europe Subclass DK – Russia.
Soviet Union. Former Soviet Republics – Poland Subclass DL – Northern Europe. Scandinavia Subclass DP – Spain – Portugal Subclass DQ – Switzerland Subclass DR – Balkan Peninsula Subclass DS – Asia Subclass DT – Africa Subclass DU – Oceania Subclass DX – Romanies Class E does not have any subclasses. Class F does not have any subclasses, however Canadian Universities and the Canadian National Library use FC for Canadian History, a subclass that the LC has not adopted, but which it has agreed not to use for anything else Subclass G – Geography. Atlases. Maps Subclass GA – Mathematical geography. Cartography Subclass GB – Physical geography Subclass GC – Oceanography Subclass GE – Environmental Sciences Subclass GF – Human ecology. Anthropogeography Subclass GN – Anthropology Subclass GR – Folklore Subclass GT – Manners and customs Subclass GV – Recreation. Leisure Subclass H – Social sciences Subclass HA – Statistics Subclass HB – Economic theory. Demography Subclass HC – Economic history and conditions Subclass HD – Industries.
Land use. Labor Subclass HE – Transportation and communications Subclass HF – Commerce Subclass HG – Finance Subclass HJ – Public finance Subclass HM – Sociology Subclass HN – Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform Subclass HQ – The family. Marriage and Sexuality Subclass HS – Societies: secret, etc. Subclass HT – Communities. Classes. Races Subclass HV – Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology Subclass HX – Socialism. Communism. Anarchism Subclass J – General legislative and executive papers Subclass JA – Political science Subclass JC – Political theory Subclass JF – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JJ – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JK – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JL – Political instit
Prelude to Foundation
Prelude to Foundation is a novel by American writer Isaac Asimov, published in 1988. It is one of two prequels to the Foundation series. For the first time, Asimov chronicles the fictional life of Hari Seldon, the man who invented psychohistory and the intellectual hero of the series; the novel was nominated for the Locus Award. Prelude to Foundation is set in the year 12,020 G. E. during the rocky reign of the Emperor Cleon I. It starts with Seldon's presentation of a paper at a mathematics convention detailing how practical use of psychohistory might theoretically make it possible to predict the future; the Emperor of the Galactic Empire wants to use Seldon for political gain. In a face-to-face interview, Seldon emphasizes that psychohistory is something that he has not begun developing or has a clear idea how to do so, but Cleon is not wholly convinced that Hari is of no use to the Empire. Seldon meets reporter Chetter Hummin, who convinces him that Cleon's first minister, Eto Demerzel, is attempting to capture him, that it is therefore imperative for Seldon to escape and try to make psychohistory practical.
He is taken by Hummin to Streeling University, one of the top ranked of the Empire and introduced to Dors Venabili by Hummin. Seldon theorizes that the first development of psychohistory requires a smaller, yet still significant sample than the entire Empire just the original world where humans originated...which is now lost, along with much of the older historical records. Hari and Dors narrowly evade capture at Streeling University, Hummin arranges for them to be sheltered in the reclusive Mycogen sector, which values its ancient history. Seldon and Venabili are welcomed by the leader of Mycogen. Seldon obtains the Mycogenians' treasured religious/historical book, but finds it disappointing except for the revelation of what the Mycogenians call their home planet and references to "robots". Seldon and Venabili face execution when Seldon insists on entering the Mycogenian "temple", the Sacratorium, in disguise in hopes of interviewing a robot housed there, they are detected, but Hummin arrives in the nick of time to save them.
The action shifts to the Dahl sector, where Seldon and Venabili rent rooms from a middle-class family. While in Dahl, they meet a guttersnipe named Raych, whom Seldon adopts. In Dahl, they are told by an old wise woman that the Aurora of the Mycogenians is not the original world, but the "enemy" of the original human planet, called Earth. Towards the end of the novel, Seldon and Raych are kidnapped and taken to Rashelle, the Mayor of Wye, a powerful and vital sector situated at Trantor's south pole. Rashelle and her father have long been plotting to take his place. Seldon has the revelation that he could try to develop psychohistory using Trantor itself as a test case because of the great cultural diversity of its sectors. Rashelle launches her coup attempt, but it collapses due to Demerzel's skillful subversion of Wye's forces; the finale reveals that "Hummin" is Eto Demerzel. Seldon gets Demerzel to admit he is a robot, he wants the development of psychohistory to help him better protect humanity, as per "The Zeroth Law Of Robotics."
Seldon suspects that Venabili is a robot, too. This theme would be picked up in Forward the Foundation. Below is a list of all the major and minor characters in the book, in order of appearance, with brief descriptions. Hari Seldon is the protagonist of the story, he develops the theory of psychohistory. Cleon I is the Emperor of the Galactic Empire. Eto Demerzel, First Minister to the Emperor, is sly, has connections everywhere, attempts to capture Seldon for his knowledge of psychohistory. Chetter Hummin is a reporter who helps Seldon numerous times, setting him up at various sectors to avoid Imperial detection. Dors Venabili is a history professor at the University recruited by Hummin to protect Seldon, she follows him throughout the book. Jenarr Leggen is a meteorologist at Streeling University, who helps Venabili track Seldon using specialized equipment when the latter becomes lost. Rogen Benastra is the Chief Seismologist at Streeling University, who helps Dors find Hari after he becomes lost in the cold Upperside.
Endor Levanian is the pilot who flies Venabili to the Mycogen sector. Sunmaster Fourteen is a High Elder of the Mycogen sector. Graycloud Five is a novitiate resident of the Mycogen sector. Raindrop Forty-three and Raindrop Forty-five are two Sisters who help Seldon and Venabili with various aspects of life in Mycogen, they are agents reporting to Sunmaster Fourteen. Mycelium Seventy-Two is a Mycogenian scholar whom Hari and Dors meet on the gravibus to the Sacratorium. Skystrip Two is an Elder of the Sacratorium in Mycogen. Jirad Tisalver is a resident working as a holovision programmer of the Dahl sector who takes Seldon and Venabili into his home. Hano Linder is a heatsink manager of the Dahl sector. Yugo Amaryl is a heatsink worker. Raych is a kid from Billibotton who helps Seldon and Venabili find their way around in exchange for rewards. Mother Rittah is a local prophet of Billibotton in the Dahl sector who gives Seldon information regarding Earth, as well as "Da-Nee" and "Ba-Lee", R. Daneel Olivaw and the Baley family, respectively.
Davan is a subversive of Billibotton who aims to unite the downtrodden against the oppressive Empire. Sergeant Emmer Thalus is a soldier instructed to bring Seldon to the Wye sector. R
The Foundation series is a science fiction book series written by American author Isaac Asimov. For nearly thirty years, the series was a trilogy: Foundation and Empire, Second Foundation, it won the one-time Hugo Award for "Best All-Time Series" in 1966. Asimov began adding to the series in 1981, with two sequels: Foundation's Edge and Earth, two prequels: Prelude to Foundation, Forward the Foundation; the additions made reference to events in Asimov's Robot and Empire series, indicating that they were set in the same fictional universe. The premise of the series is that the mathematician Hari Seldon spent his life developing a branch of mathematics known as psychohistory, a concept of mathematical sociology. Using the laws of mass action, it can predict the future, but only on a large scale. Seldon foresees the imminent fall of the Galactic Empire, which encompasses the entire Milky Way, a dark age lasting 30,000 years before a second great empire arises. Seldon's calculations show there is a way to limit this interregnum to just one thousand years.
To ensure the more favorable outcome and reduce human misery during the intervening period, Seldon creates the Foundation – a group of talented artisans and engineers positioned at the twinned extreme ends of the galaxy – to preserve and expand on humanity's collective knowledge, thus become the foundation for the accelerated resurgence of this new galactic empire. The original trilogy of novels were a series of eight short stories published in Astounding Magazine between May 1942 and January 1950. According to Asimov, the premise was based on ideas set forth in Edward Gibbon's History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, was invented spontaneously on his way to meet with editor John W. Campbell, with whom he developed the concepts of the collapse of the Galactic Empire, the civilization-preserving Foundations, psychohistory. Asimov wrote these early stories in his West Philadelphia apartment when he worked at the Philadelphia Naval Yard; the first four stories were collected, along with a new story taking place before the others, as a fixup published by Gnome Press in 1951 as Foundation.
The remainder of the stories were published in pairs by Gnome as Foundation and Empire and Second Foundation, resulting in the "Foundation Trilogy", as the series is still known. In 1981, Asimov was persuaded by his publishers to write a fourth book, which became Foundation's Edge. Four years Asimov followed up with yet another sequel and Earth, followed by the prequels Prelude to Foundation and Forward the Foundation, published after his death in 1992. During the two-year lapse between writing the sequels and prequels, Asimov had tied in his Foundation series with his various other series, creating a single unified universe; the basic link is mentioned in Foundation's Edge: an obscure tradition about a first wave of space settlements with robots and a second without. The idea is the one developed in Robots of Dawn, which, in addition to showing the way that the second wave of settlements were to be allowed, illustrates the benefits and shortcomings of the first wave of settlements and their so-called C/Fe culture.
In this same book, the word psychohistory is used to describe the nascent idea of Seldon's work. Some of the drawbacks to this style of colonization called Spacer culture, are exemplified by the events described in The Naked Sun. Note: This plot is listed in the fictional chronological order of the stories in the series, not the order of publication; the series itself was left as a trilogy for many years, comprising "Foundation", "Foundation and Empire" and "Second Foundation". The two novels set chronologically earlier than the original trilogy, the two which follow it, were added to the series. Prelude to Foundation opens on the planet Trantor, the empire's capital planet, the day after Hari Seldon has given a speech at a mathematics conference. Several parties become aware of the content of his speech. Seldon is hounded by the Emperor and various employed thugs who are working surreptitiously, which forces him into exile. Over the course of the book and Dors Venabili, a female companion and professor of history, are taken from location to location by Chetter Hummin who, under the guise of a reporter, introduces them to various Trantorian walks of life in his attempts to keep Seldon hidden from the Emperor.
Throughout their adventures all over Trantor, Seldon continuously denies that psychohistory is a realistic science. If feasible, it may take several decades to develop. Hummin, however, is convinced that Seldon knows something, so he continuously presses him to work out a starting point to develop psychohistory. After much traveling and introductions to various, diverse cultures on Trantor, Seldon realizes that using the entire known galaxy as a starting point is too overwhelming. Eight years after the events of Prelude, Seldon has worked out the science of psychohistory and has applied it on a galactic scale, his notability and fame increase and he is promoted to First Minister to the Emperor. As the book progresses, Seldon loses those closest to him, including his wife, Dors Venabili, as his own health deteriorates into old age. Having worked his entire adult life to understand psychohistory, Seldon instructs his granddaughter, Wanda, to set up the Second Foundation. Called forth to stand trial on Trantor for allegations of treason (