The Foundling Hospital in London, was founded in 1739 by the philanthropic sea captain Thomas Coram. It was a children's home established for the "education and maintenance of exposed and deserted young children." The word "hospital" was used in a more general sense than it is today indicating the institution's "hospitality" to those less fortunate. One of the top priorities of the committee at the Foundling Hospital was children's health, as they combated smallpox, consumption and infections from everyday activities like teething that drove up mortality rates and risked epidemics. With their energies focused on maintaining a disinfected environment, providing simple clothing and fare, the committee paid less attention to and spent less on developing children's education; as a result, financial problems would hound the institution for years to come, despite the growing "fashionableness" of charities like the hospital. Thomas Coram presented his first petition for the establishment of a Foundling Hospital to King George II in 1735.
The petition was signed by twenty-one prominent women from aristocratic families, whose names not only lent respectability to his project, but made Coram's cause'one of the most fashionable charities of the day.' Two further petitions, with male signatories from the nobility, professional classes and judiciary, were presented in 1737. The Royal Founding Charter, signed by King George II, was presented by Coram at a distinguished gathering at'Old' Somerset House to the Duke of Bedford in 1739, it contains the aims and rules of the Hospital and the long list of founding Governors and Guardians: this includes 17 dukes, 29 earls, 6 viscounts, 20 barons, 20 baronets, 7 Privy Councillors, the Lord Mayor and 8 aldermen of the City of London. The first children were admitted to the Foundling Hospital on 25 March 1741, into a temporary house located in Hatton Garden. At first, no questions were asked about child or parent, but a note was made of any'particular writing, or other distinguishing mark or token' which might be used to identify a child if reclaimed.
These were marked coins, pieces of fabric or ribbon, playing cards, as well as verses and notes written on scraps of paper. On 16 December 1758, the Hospital Governors decided to provide receipts to anyone leaving a child making the identifying tokens unnecessary. Despite this, the admission records show. Clothes were recorded as another means to identify a claimed child. One entry in the record reads, "Paper on the breast, clout on the head." The applications became too numerous, a system of balloting with red and black balls was adopted. Records show that between 1 January 1750 and December 1755, 2523 children were brought for admission, but only 783 taken in. Private funding was insufficient to meet public demand. Between 1 June 1756 and 25 March 1760, with financial support from parliament, the Hospital adopted a period of unrestricted entry. Admission rates soared to highs of 4000 per year. By 1763 admission was by petition. Children were taken after they were twelve months old, except for war orphans.
On reception, children were sent to wet nurses in the countryside, where they stayed until they were about four or five years old. Due to the fact that many of these nurses lived outside of London it was necessary to involve a network of voluntary inspectors, who were the Hospital's representives. Although the Hospital Governors had no specific plan for who these inspectors were, in practice it was local clergy or gentry who performed this role. At sixteen girls were apprenticed as servants for four years. There was a small benevolent fund for adults; the London hospital was preceded by the Foundling Hospital, founded 1704, the Foundling Hospital, founded 1737, both funded by government. In September 1742, the stone of the new Hospital was laid on land acquired from the Earl of Salisbury on Lamb's Conduit Field in Bloomsbury, an undeveloped area lying north of Great Ormond Street and west of Gray's Inn Lane; the Hospital was designed by Theodore Jacobsen as a plain brick building with two wings and a chapel, built around an open courtyard.
The western wing was finished in October 1745. An eastern wing was added in 1752 "in order that the girls might be kept separate from the boys"; the new Hospital was described as "the most imposing single monument erected by eighteenth century benevolence". In 1756, the House of Commons resolved that all children offered should be received, that local receiving places should be appointed all over the country, that the funds should be publicly guaranteed. A basket was accordingly hung outside the hospital. In less than four years 14,934 children were presented, a vile trade grew up among vagrants, who sometimes became known as "Coram Men", of promising to carry children from the country to the hospital, an undertaking which they did not perform or performed with great cruelty. Of these 15,000, only 4,400 survived to be apprenticed out; the total expense was about £ 500,000. After throwing out a bill which proposed to raise the necessary funds by fees from a general system of parochial registration, they came to the conclusion that the indiscriminate admission should be discontinued.
The hospital, being thus thrown on its own resources, adopted a system of receiving children only with considerable sums, which sometimes led
Workfare is an alternative, controversial, way of providing money to otherwise unemployed or underemployed people, who are applying for social benefits. The term was first introduced by civil rights leader James Charles Evers in 1968. An early model of workfare had been pioneered in 1961 by Joseph Mitchell in New York. Traditional welfare benefits systems are awarded based on certain conditions, such as searching for work, or based on meeting criteria that would position the recipient as unavailable to seek employment or be employed. Under workfare, recipients have to meet certain participation requirements to continue to receive their welfare benefits; these requirements are a combination of activities that are intended to improve the recipient's job prospects and those designated as contributing to society. These programs, now common in Australia and the United Kingdom, have generated considerable debate and controversy. In the Netherlands workfare is known as Work First, based on the Wisconsin Works program from the United States.
There are two main types of workfare scheme: those that encourage direct employment to get individuals off the welfare roll and directly into the workforce, those that are intended to increase human capital by providing training and education to those in the welfare system. In less developed countries, similar schemes are designed to alleviate rural poverty among day-labourers by providing state-subsidised temporary work during those periods of the year when little agricultural work is available. For example, the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act in India offers 100 days' paid employment per year for those eligible, rather than unemployment benefits on the Western model. However, a workfare model not only focuses on provision of social protection through a wage-income transfer, but supports workers to get into work; the purported main goal of workfare is to generate a "net contribution" to society from welfare recipients. Most it means getting unemployed people into paid work, reducing or eliminating welfare payments to them and creating an income that generates taxes.
Workfare participants may retain certain employee rights throughout the process, however workfare programs are determined to be "outside employment relationships" and therefore the rights of beneficiaries can be different. Some workfare systems aim to derive a contribution from welfare recipients by more direct means; such systems obligate unemployed people to undertake work, considered beneficial to their community. Workfare schemes in the UK are controversial. In the US, critics point out that the type of work offered by workfare providers is unskilled and is comparable to community work carried out by criminal offenders being punished on community service schemes. Many charities and workers' unions have criticized workfare schemes for undermining the work done by actual charity volunteers, acting as a threat to low paid unskilled workers. In Australia, the Work for the Dole schemes have been linked to the concepts of “mutual obligation” and "compliance", their effectiveness has been questioned by researchers.
AFDC Hartz Reforms in Germany Involuntary unemployment Job Guarantee JobBridge Make-work job National Workshops, the first short-lived attempt to create a modern workfare system in 1848 France. New Deal New Deal Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 Retraining TANF Unfree labour Welfare trap Welfare-to-work in the US. Work for the Dole, an Australian government program. "Workfare Tendencies in Scandinavian Welfare Policies" http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/ses/info/publ/workfare.htm
The Animal Shelf is an animated children's television series produced by Cosgrove Hall Films and based on the books written and illustrated by British writer Ivy Wallace. Aimed at a pre-school audience, the show first aired on ITV running for four seasons and fifty-two episodes and ran from 1997 to 2000. Timothy the Human Being is the owner of the animals, never seen on-screen, just his shadow; this is the same with all of the other human being characters, including Timothy's parents and Mr Tompkins, the jumble sale's truck driver, apart from the pet-shop owner, Mr Trigg. Gumpa the Bear is the leader of the group. Gumpa is quite lazy and he enjoys sleeping. Woeful the Monkey wears coat, he tells jokes, which are found rude by the other animals. He enjoys getting his own way, is quite bossy, which sometimes annoys the other four animals. Stripey the Zebra is Getup's best friend, he seems to be quite wise, it is revealed in the first episode, Stripey To The Rescue, that he and Getup are Timothy's two oldest animals.
Getup the Giraffe is Stripey's best friend. Although Getup falls over and speaks with a broad English accent, she is close friends with the other four animals; the material on her hooves is badly worn, which means that she loses stuffing through them. Little Mutt the west highland, he wears a pink bow on his back, ends up getting into difficult situations. Mrs Mole and her Baby Moles are a family of moles; the moles themselves only squeak instead of talk. Kinker the Mouse is the animals' friend. Like Mrs Mole and her baby moles, he always squeaks instead of talking. In the first episode, Stripey To The Rescue, Getup meets him at a travelling fairground, where he lives. Jick the Jackdaw - is the animals' villain who takes residence in Timothy's garden. Jick does keep making things go haywire at times, but can sometimes be useful as well when the animals have to get high up to reach things like acorns and nuts. Squirrel - is the animals' second friend, never allowed in Timothy's house, hence why he lives in a tree in Bluebell Wood just outside Timothy's garden.
Every episode in The Animal Shelf series is 10 minutes long. 1. Stripey To The Rescue 2. Gumpa and the Paint Box 3. Getup Crusoe 4. Kinker Visits The Animal Shelf 5; the Treasure Hunt 6. Music In The Woods 7; the Animals' Garden 8. Woeful and the Waspberries 9. Gumpa Solves A Jigsaw Puzzle 10. Tidying Timothy's Bedroom 11; the Trail 12. The Model Monster 13. Little Mutt Goes Flying 1. Babysitting For Mrs Mole 2. Timothy's Pet Balloon 3; the Great Explorers 4. The Alarm Clock 5; the Wolf In The Wood 6. Woeful Flies To The Moon 7. Captain Gumpa 8; the Hottest Day Of The Year 9. The Mystery of the Pictures 10. Timothy's Guest 11. Little Mutt Finds An Egg 12. Kinker's Camping Holiday 13. Timothy's Homework 1; the First Snowflakes 2. Getup The Skater 3. Waiting For Santa Claus 4. A Very Special Day 5. Living In The Jungle 6. Little Mutt's Long Rest 7. Woeful And The Tooth Fairy 8; the Art Gallery 9. A Lazy Afternoon 10. Woeful's Magic Wand 11. Buckets and Spades 12. Gumpa Reads A Story 13; the Jam Factory 1. Animal Watch 2. Timothy's Valentine's Cards 3.
Gumpa's Halloween Lanterns 4. The Easter Egg Hunt 5. Gumpa's Ark 6; the Garden Sale 7. Looking For Big Mutt 8. A Night In a Tent 9; the King of the Castle 10. Timothy's Racing Car 11; the Shooting Star 12. Get Down, Getup 13. Gumpa's Head The series has aired around the world including the ABC in Australia, KTV2 in Kuwait, RTÉ2 in Ireland as part of their children's block The Den, Dubai 33 in the United Arab Emirates, the children's television network K-T. V. World and M-Net in South Africa, Premiere 12 and Kids Central in Singapore, PBS and Television Malta in Malta, TVB Pearl in Hong Kong, SVT and SVT Barnkanalen in Sweden and TVNZ 2 and TVNZ 6 in New Zealand as part of their children's block Kidzone; the series was seen on an American children's wrapper programme called It's Itsy Bitsy Time along with several TV series from overseas and aired on the Fox Family Channel in America and Treehouse TV in Canada in 1999 with the British voices being redubbed with American and Canadian voices. The voices were directed by Canadian voice actress Susan Roman, best known for voicing Sailor Jupiter in the DIC and Cloverway Inc. versions of the English dubbed anime Sailor Moon.
Roman directed the American and Canadian voices for another British children's animated television series seen on It's Itsy Bitsy Time Tom and Vicky. The series had tie in story books from Ladybird Books and was released on VHS and DVD; the Animal Shelf on IMDb