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Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the public good, focusing on quality of life". Philanthropy contrasts with business initiatives, which are private initiatives for private good, focusing on material gain, with government endeavors, which are public initiatives for public good, e.g. focusing on provision of public services. A person who practices philanthropy is a philanthropist. Philanthropy is different from charity. Charity aims to relieve the pain of a particular social problem, whereas philanthropy attempts to address the root cause of the problem. In the second century AD, Plutarch used the Greek concept of philanthrôpía to describe superior human beings. During the Roman Catholic Middle Ages, philanthrôpía was superseded by Caritas charity, selfless love, valued for salvation and escape from purgatory. Philanthropy was modernized by Sir Francis Bacon in the 1600s, credited with preventing the word from being owned by horticulture. Bacon considered philanthrôpía to be synonymous with "goodness", correlated with the Aristotelian conception of virtue, as consciously instilled habits of good behaviour.

Samuel Johnson defined philanthropy as "love of mankind. This definition still survives today and is cited more gender-neutrally as the "love of humanity." In London prior to the 18th century and civic charities were established by bequests and operated by local church parishes or guilds. During the 18th century, however, "a more activist and explicitly Protestant tradition of direct charitable engagement during life" took hold, exemplified by the creation of the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge and Societies for the Reformation of Manners. In 1739, Thomas Coram, appalled by the number of abandoned children living on the streets of London, received a royal charter to establish the Foundling Hospital to look after these unwanted orphans in Lamb's Conduit Fields, Bloomsbury; this was "the first children's charity in the country, one that'set the pattern for incorporated associational charities' in general." The hospital "marked the first great milestone in the creation of these new-style charities."Jonas Hanway, another notable philanthropist of the era, established The Marine Society in 1756 as the first seafarer's charity, in a bid to aid the recruitment of men to the navy.

By 1763, the society had recruited over 10,000 men and it was incorporated in 1772. Hanway was instrumental in establishing the Magdalen Hospital to rehabilitate prostitutes; these organizations were run as voluntary associations. They raised public awareness of their activities through the emerging popular press and were held in high social regard—some charities received state recognition in the form of the Royal Charter. Philanthropists, such as anti-slavery campaigner William Wilberforce, began to adopt active campaigning roles, where they would champion a cause and lobby the government for legislative change; this included organized campaigns against the ill treatment of animals and children and the campaign that succeeded in ending the slave trade throughout the Empire starting in 1807. Although there were no slaves allowed in Britain itself, many rich men owned sugar plantations in the West Indies, resisted the movement to buy them out until it succeeded in 1833. Financial donations to organized charities became fashionable among the middle-class in the 19th century.

By 1869 there were over 200 London charities with an annual income, all together, of about £2 million. By 1885, rapid growth had produced with an income of about £ 4.5 million. They included a wide range of religious and secular goals, with the American import, YMCA as one of the largest, many small ones such as the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain Association. In addition to making annual donations wealthy industrialists and financiers left generous sums in their wills. A sample of 466 wills in the 1890s revealed a total wealth of £76 million, of which £20 million was bequeathed to charities. By 1900 London charities enjoyed an annual income of about £8.5 million. Led by the energetic Lord Shaftesbury, philanthropists organized themselves. In 1869 they set up the Charity Organisation Society, it was a federation of one in each of the 42 Poor Law divisions. Its central office had experts in coordination and guidance, thereby maximizing the impact of charitable giving to the poor. Many of the charities were designed to alleviate the harsh living conditions in the slums.

Such as the Labourer's Friend Society founded in 1830. This included the promotion of allotment of land to labourers for "cottage husbandry" that became the allotment movement, in 1844 it became the first Model Dwellings Company—an organization that sought to improve the housing conditions of the working classes by building new homes for them, while at the same time receiving a competitive rate of return on any investment; this was one of the first housing associations, a philanthropic endeavor that flourished in the second half of the nineteenth century, brought about by the growth of the middle class. Associations included the Peabody Trust, the Guinness Trust; the principle of philanthropic intention with capitalist return was given the label "five per cent philanthropy." In 1863, the Swiss businessman Henry Dunant used his personal fortune to fund the Geneva Society for Public Welfare, which became the International Committee of the Red Cross. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, Dunant led Red Cross delegations that treated soldiers.

He shared the first Nobel Peace Prize for this work in 1901. The French Red Cr

Jason Fabini

Jason Tamer Fabini is a former American football offensive lineman. He was drafted by the New York Jets of the National Football League in the fourth round of the 1998 NFL Draft, he played college football at Cincinnati. Fabini played high school football at Bishop Dwenger High School in Indiana. Fabini attended the University of Cincinnati, where he was a three-time starter at left tackle and an All-Conference USA selection. In his junior season, he contributed to the school's first bowl-game invitation in 47 years. In 2009, he was inducted into the University of Cincinnati Athletics Hall of Fame, he was selected in the fourth round of the 1998 NFL Draft by the New York Jets, head coach Bill Parcells. He became a starter at right tackle as a rookie; the next year, he was lost for the season after suffering a torn anterior cruciate ligament, in the ninth game. In 2000, he remained in that role for 5 seasons. In 2005, he started 9 games at right tackle, before he was placed on the injured reserve list with a torn chest muscle.

He was waived on February 22. On March 18, 2006, he signed with the Dallas Cowboys as a free agent, reuniting him with his former Jets head coach Parcells. Although he had the inside track for the starting right tackle job, he was passed on the depth chart by Marc Colombo and relegated to special teams duties, he was released on March 10, 2007. On March 26, 2007, Fabini signed a one-year deal with the Washington Redskins, he replaced an injured Randy Thomas at right guard in the second week and went on to start in 13 games. He re-signed to another one-year deal with the team one year later. Following the end of the 2008 season, he was not re-signed. Fabini was in the movie Made, which starred Jon Favreau, he played the role of Doorman #3. Cincinnati Bearcats bio Jason Fabini's acting debut

William C. Bradford

William C. Bradford is an American lawyer and scholar of political science, he served in United States Department of Energy as the Director, Office of Indian Energy until resigning on August 31, 2017 after derogatory and controversial comments he had posted on the Internet were publicized. He attained significant media attention in 2015 for a scholarly article which argued that a small cadre of legal academics in U. S. universities was sapping the United States' "will to fight" in the Global War on Terrorism and called for treason charges against and the imprisonment of such academics. Bradford was an associate professor of law at the Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law, before resigning in 2005 after a dispute over tenure and under suspicions of exaggerating his military service, he was briefly an assistant professor at the United States Military Academy before resigning in 2015 following the controversy stemming from the aforementioned article. Bradford is married with three children.

He is a member of the Chiricahua band of the Apache nation. Bradford earned a PhD in Political Science from Northwestern University with major fields in International Relations, U. S. Foreign Policy, Comparative Politics, his 1995 doctoral dissertation is entitled "United States foreign policy decision-making in Arab-Israeli crises: The association of United States presidential personality constructs with political and military crisis outcomes". Bradford earned an LL. M. from Harvard University in International Law, Human Rights Law, the Law of Armed Conflict. He graduated from the University of Miami School of Law. Following his resignation from Indiana University in 2005, Bradford was a visiting faculty member at the William & Mary Law School, he was a lecturer at the United States Coast Guard Academy. He subsequently claimed to be an associate professor at the Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies in the National Defense University. Bradford has authored several scholarly articles.

Bradford joined the faculty of Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law in the fall of 2002 after serving in the Army Reserve. In 2005 Bradford accused Professor Florence Roisman of opposing his tenure because of some of his conservative views; the official reason given was that Prof. Bradford was "uncollegial." The feud became a national one when Fox News and FrontPage, among others, continually reported on the controversy. Bradford claimed that his support of the Iraq War and his refusal to sign a letter in defense of Ward Churchill were contributing factors. "The presumption was that I've got to sign this thing because I'm an Indian, but I can't do that," he said. Roisman has denied most of Bradford's claims and school administrators pointed out that Bradford never applied for tenure and as such no vote to approve or deny tenure to Bradford was held. Instead there was a non-binding straw poll to determine his colleagues' opinions as to whether he would receive tenure were he to apply.

It was soon discovered many of the postings in support of Bradford on Indy Law Net were in fact written by Bradford himself under alternate accounts. Bradford admitted to using fake names to post "cheap shots, schoolyard bickering." In October 2005, Bradford stated that Judge David J. Dreyer of Marion Superior Court had issued a temporary restraining order barring professors from speaking ill of or taking any actions against Bradford. However, Court records and sources both indicate that Bradford never filed for any sort of injunction and that no restraining order was issued. Bradford's claims that he had served in the Army infantry from 1994 to 2001, that he had been a major in the Special Forces, that he had been awarded a Silver Star came under scrutiny. Ret. Army Lieut. Col. Keith R. Donnelly and Indianapolis Star columnist Ruth Holladay both expressed concern about Bradford's claims and independently requested Bradford's military records. In a subsequent column, Holladay reported that while Bradford did serve in Army Reserve from 1995 to 2001, he had seen no active duty, was never in the infantry, had won no awards, was discharged as a second lieutenant.

He resigned from the university shortly thereafter. In an article in the Spring/Summer 2015 issue of the National Security Law Journal, Bradford argued that "lawful targets" for the U. S. military in the fight against Islamic radicalism could include "Islamic holy sites", "law school facilities, scholars' home offices and media outlets where they give interviews." In a statement to The Guardian, a spokesman for the United States Military Academy said that the article was written and accepted for publication before Bradford was employed at West Point, that "The views in the article are those of Bradford and do not reflect those of the Department of Defense, the United States Army, the United States Military Academy." On August 24, 2015, the National Security Law Journal's editor-in-chief called the article's publication "a mistake". The journal has posted a rebuttal by George Mason University law professor Jeremy A. Rabkin. Robert M. Chesney, a law professor at the University of Texas at Austin, the author of one of the papers discussed in Bradford's article told The Guardian: "It's hard to take this seriously... except insofar as he may be teaching nonsense like this to cadets at West Point."As a result of this article, the scrutiny it generated concerning his credentials, Bradford re

Coblos Cinta

Coblos Cinta is a 2008 Indonesian comedy film directed by Findo Purwono HW. The film produced by IFI, starring Nadia Saphira and Tommy Kurniawan, tells the story about two students who compete to become Head of the Student Council. There is a lot of rivalry between them when the two candidates try to gain influence on their campus by carrying out unique and ridiculous campaigns, with unexpected events as the election day approaches. Bella is a student who running for the Head of the Student Council on her campus. Together with her success team, Icha and Heidy, Bella competes with Aldi, handsome and good at winning the hearts of campus students. Aldi us supported by his success team and Dimas. Bella continues to run her campaign though she’s not supported by her boyfriend, Rhino; the strategy for selling brownies for Bella's campaign funds was unsuccessful because the price was too expensive, Aldi defeated it by using girl’s car wash as a strategy. Bella, who had not had time to prepare a counterattack, was more aggravated by Aldi who opened a free massage booth for the campus student.

After the pre-poll announcement that Aldi will win by a landslide victory, Bella is determined to defeat Aldi. Thanks to Sasha's advice, they began asking for money from office executives while wearing sexy clothes. Many executives are willing to give them large checks. After Bella began competing with Aldi with a photo calendar and body painting strategy, she is unconsciously approached by Aldi when Aldi drove Bella home after Bella broke up with Rhino. Outside Bella’s place, Aldi kissed Bella and it was photographed by a campus tabloid reporter who likes to create a sensation named Anto; the next day, the news and photos were published. This caused a chaos in Bella's group, Icha who secretly likes Aldi blames Bella and leaves, while the candidate debate will take place in two days. After the debate, Bella gave up when the election day announcement persuaded Heidy, they both gathered on campus with Sasha and Putri Icha came there and they reconcile. Announcement was reported with the results of Bella winning as the Head of the Student Council.

When Anto triggered riots, Aldi calmed the situation while supporting Bella's victory. The film ends with Aldi and Bella together and Anto is locked overnight in the campus bathroom. Nadia Saphira as Bella Tommy Kurniawan as Aldi Jessica Iskandar as Sasha Gracia Indri as Icha Siti Anizah as Putri Alessia Cestaro as Heidy Mario Merdhitia as Ferry Tarra Budiman as Dimas Melvin Giovanie as Anto Boy Hamzah as Rhino Framly Daniel as Head of Student Council Intan Savila as Head of Faculty Ivan Gunawan as Himself Aldy Fairuz as Himself Mama Dahlia as Herself Kiki Farrel as Himself Bella is a smart and friendly woman, she has a high leader spirit. She is strong-willed when she has a certain desire, she will try hard to gets it. Aldi is Bella's rival in the election of the Head of the Student Council, he is an influential campus activist on his campus. Aldi is not a handsome guy, but his cool and charming style makes him pretty much adored by girls on his campus. Sasha is one of Bella's sexiest friends among other gang members.

Aside from being an ordinary college girl, Sasha has a side "income" from a man with 2 children. He always has a way out for each gang problem though the idea is a little naughty. Icha is Bella's best friend. Icha who wears glasses is a woman, gadget freak, she likes electronic devices. In addition, Icha likes to write and do things related to technology, his personality likes to dream. Putri is Bella's friend who has a tomboyish character, ignorant, "crazy" ball, a football bookie on her campus, he is a loyal and typical person ‘follower’. Heidy is a girl who, she likes to issue stupid questions / remarks. Being too honest, what on her mind come out uncensored. Ferry is one of Aldi's best friends, he can always complete his tasks though they fall apart. Ferry is the person responsible for Aldi's naughty campaigns, his pretends to cover his femininity. Dimas is a member of Aldi success campaign. Though it is pretentious in imitating hip-hopers, when he speaks, a thick Javanese accent comes out. Dimas has a hobby of providing super-crisp puzzles.

Anto is a campus reporter. He is always looking for happy with chaos. Rhino is Bella's possessive boyfriend and likes to belittle other people women, he disagreed when Bella was elected as the candidate for the Head of Student Council and always tries to get his girlfriend to quit the election. Official Website Vote for Love on IMDb Vote for Love on Letterboxd Coblos Cinta on Film Indonesia

Frederick Moss

Frederick Joseph Moss was a 19th-century Member of Parliament from Auckland, New Zealand. He was born in Longwood, Saint Helena in 1827 or 1828, moved to South Africa, he returned to Saint Helena in 1847. There, he married Emily Ann Carew in 1853 or 1854. In 1857, he went back to South Africa, intending to settle in Natal, but locusts had destroyed agricultural prospects, he decided to emigrate to New Zealand instead and the couple and their three children arrived in Lyttelton on the Zealandia on 12 November 1859. In Lyttelton, Moss established himself as a trader, he became captain. With the discovery of gold in Otago, he moved to Dunedin in 1862, he entered various business partnerships, including with Thomas Dick. He became captain of the local rifle volunteers and founded a newspaper, the Otago Daily Mail, which he sold after only a few months. In Dunedin, he was elected to the Otago Provincial Council in 1863, he was served as provincial treasurer. He and Dick, elected onto the Provincial Council in 1859, were opponents of Julius Vogel, who entered the Provincial Council in 1863.

When Vogel became leader of the provincial executive in 1866 and treasurer, Moss resigned the following year. He represented the Parnell electorate from 1878 to 1890, he was a liberal and a supporter of provincialism. In 1890, he was appointed British Resident of the Cook Islands, his son Edward George Britton Moss was the Member of Parliament for Ohinemuri from 1902 to 1905. Moss died in Auckland on 8 July 1904, he was survived by his wife and six of his eight children

Saviour Machine

Saviour Machine is an American gothic Christian metal band that formed in 1989. They have released five studio albums and two live albums on Frontline and subsequently on MCM Music, distributed through Massacre Records. Saviour Machine's music and lyrics deal with war and personal introspection as it relates to prophecy and divine revelation; the band was formed by brothers Jeff and Eric Clayton in mid-1989. By the time of its first tour in 1993, the band was Eric Clayton - vocals, Jeff Clayton - guitars, Dean Forsyth - bass, Jayson Heart - drums, Nathan Van Hala - keyboards; the band took its name from a song on the David Bowie album The Man. Saviour Machine recorded and released their first demos in 1990. A theatrical stage show featuring pyrotechnics, images projected onto a background screen and other props attracted a growing fan base in Southern California. In 1993, with the help of Deliverance frontman Jimmy P. Brown II, Saviour Machine signed with and released their first full-length album on Intense Records, an imprint of the Frontline subsidiary of Roadrunner Records.

Musically, the band developed a guitar-driven rock music sound, featuring melodic riffs and extensive solos by Jeff Clayton. Despite critical acclaim from the mainstream press and a growing number of fans nationwide, people in some conservative circles felt threatened by Saviour Machine's lyrical direction and stage presentation, most prominently the white make-up and jewel worn by vocalist Eric Clayton. During their 1993 tour with metal band Deliverance, the controversy spilled over at a concert at the New Union, a club in Minneapolis. Several songs into their set, the power was cut and the performers were ushered from the stage; this was followed by an announcement from New Union management stating they were uncomfortable with the content of the show. However, many in the crowd gathered with the band shortly after at a local White Castle restaurant to show their continued support. Confusion and political upheaval at Intense/Frontline led to less-than-ideal conditions for the recording of the band's next album in 1994, Saviour Machine II.

Musically, the addition of pianist Nathan Van Hala resulted in a classical music-based sound. Many songs featured keyboard orchestration. Charles Cooper joined the band at this time after Dean Forsyth left. With the release of Saviour Machine II the band began to pursue new representation. A growing following had developed in Europe in Germany; this led to the formation of MCM Music, an independent label for all Saviour Machine projects, by vocalist Eric Clayton and his European management team. The band secured a deal with Massacre Records, a German label that specializes in death metal and other heavy/extreme music. Saviour Machine was given full creative control on all future projects. Multiple tours of Europe followed in 1995 and 1996. During a 1995 performance at Owen Teck Rocknight, a music festival in Owen, Saviour Machine recorded their first live album. Live in Deutschland, released in 1995, featured selections from Saviour Machine I and Saviour Machine II, it was after this tour that the membership of Saviour Machine changed with the replacement of Jeff Clayton by Joshua.

They performed at Wacken Open Air festival in 1997. Saviour Machine next turned to the Legend trilogy. Legend was advertised as "the unofficial soundtrack to the end of the world" in promotional materials owing to its study of end-time Biblical prophecy; the Legend trilogy comprises four full-length CDs totaling more than five hours of music. Legend I and Legend II were released in 1998, respectively; the studio composition of the band stayed the same through "Legend II" after which Jeff Clayton and Jayson Heart left the band. Legend III:I was released in 2001; the long-awaited final disc, Legend III:II, was scheduled to be released July 7, 2007. Legend parts I through III:I were released by MCM Music and Massacre Records. On May 27, 2007, Eric Clayton released a statement on the Saviour Machine MySpace blog saying that, due to health problems, he would not be able to finish Legend III:II in time to make the July 7 release date, he released samples of rough mixes of each song on Legend III:II on throughout July.

Most of the lyrical content of the Legend series is based on the Book of Revelation and other Biblical prophecy. The first album draws from the Old Testament and New Testament, except the Book of Revelation, include biblical references and a concordance. Legend II continues. Musically, the Legend albums showcase a further refinement of Saviour Machine's rock and classical music style. Saviour Machine has performed a limited number of concerts in the US, Germany and Mexico City since undertaking the Legend trilogy. A second live album was released in 2002, again featuring a performance from Owen Teck Rocknight in Owen, Germany. Live in Deutschland 2002 featured selections from Legend I, Legend II and Legend III:I. Eric Clayton has stated that Saviour Machine's work will end upon the completion of the Legend trilogy. In a video message created on September 3, 2009, Eric stated that despite his frail health he is doing quite well and plans to release segments from a journal he has been keeping since 1997.

He said that the excerpts will serve as his final interview. Despite these statements, Saviour Machine's homepage went offline in 2013. Saviour Machine's Facebook page, which had received regular updates through 2012 went inactive during 2013, subsequently was taken down in 2014. Eric Clayton retired Saviour Machine as a band and the whole unfinished Legend project in the same year. According to an interview with Eric Clayton d