The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments. Arguably one of the most consequential amendments to this day, the amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection under the law and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the American Civil War; the amendment was bitterly contested by the states of the defeated Confederacy, which were forced to ratify it in order to regain representation in Congress. The amendment its first section, is one of the most litigated parts of the Constitution, forming the basis for landmark decisions such as Brown v. Board of Education regarding racial segregation, Roe v. Wade regarding abortion, Bush v. Gore regarding the 2000 presidential election, Obergefell v. Hodges regarding same-sex marriage; the amendment limits the actions of all state and local officials, those acting on behalf of such officials. The amendment's first section includes several clauses: the Citizenship Clause, Privileges or Immunities Clause, Due Process Clause, Equal Protection Clause.
The Citizenship Clause provides a broad definition of citizenship, nullifying the Supreme Court's decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which had held that Americans descended from African slaves could not be citizens of the United States. Since the Slaughter-House Cases, the Privileges or Immunities Clause has been interpreted to do little; the Due Process Clause prohibits state and local governments from depriving persons of life, liberty, or property without a fair procedure. The Supreme Court has ruled this clause makes most of the Bill of Rights as applicable to the states as it is to the federal government, as well as to recognize substantive and procedural requirements that state laws must satisfy; the Equal Protection Clause requires each state to provide equal protection under the law to all people, including all non-citizens, within its jurisdiction. This clause has been the basis for many decisions rejecting irrational or unnecessary discrimination against people belonging to various groups.
The second and fourth sections of the amendment are litigated. However, the second section's reference to "rebellion, or other crime" has been invoked as a constitutional ground for felony disenfranchisement; the fourth section was held, in Perry v. United States, to prohibit a current Congress from abrogating a contract of debt incurred by a prior Congress; the fifth section gives Congress the power to enforce the amendment's provisions by "appropriate legislation". Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States. Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed, but when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, having taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof, but Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. Section 4; the validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave.
Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. In the final years of the American Civil War and the Reconstruction Era that followed, Congress debated the rights of black former slaves freed by the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation and the 1865 Thirteenth Amendment, the latter of which had formally abolished slavery. Following the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment by Congress, Republicans grew concerned over the increase it would create in the congressional representation of the Democratic-dominated Southern States; because the full population of free
Kiyama Station is a railway station in the town of Wakasa, Mikatakaminaka District, Fukui Prefecture, operated by West Japan Railway Company. Kiyama Station is served by the Obama Line, is located 21.4 kilometers from the terminus of the line at Tsuruga. The station consists of one side platform serving a single bi-directional track. There is no station building, but only a shelter on the platform; the station is unattended. Kiyama Station opened on 1 August 1961. With the privatization of Japanese National Railways on 1 April 1987, the station came under the control of JR West. In fiscal 2016, the station was used by an average of 304 passengers daily. National Route 27 Uwase Jinja List of railway stations in Japan Official website
The Settlement Support Center for North Korean Refugees known as Hanawon, is a South Korean facility for re-education of North Korean defectors. Three months' stay in this facility is mandatory for all North Koreans arriving in the south, with residents unable to leave of their own free will. Hanawon opened on 8 July 1999, is located about an hour south of Seoul in the countryside of Anseong, Gyeonggi Province. In her book Nothing To Envy: Ordinary Lives in North Korea, journalist Barbara Demick describes Hanawon as a cross between a trade school and a halfway house, describes its purpose as teaching North Koreans how to live on their own in South Korea. Built to accommodate around 200 people for a three-month resettlement program, in 2002 the facility's capacity was doubled to 400. In 2004, to mark the fifth anniversary of the program, a second facility opened south of Seoul. At Hanawon, the three-month training curriculum is focused on three main goals: easing the socioeconomic and psychological anxiety of North Korean defectors.
Refugees relearn the peninsula's history, i.e. that the North started the Korean War, take classes on human rights and the mechanics of democracy. They are taught sex education, learn how to use an ATM, pay an electric bill, drive a car, read the Latin alphabet and speak the South Korean dialect, they are taken on field trips to buy clothes, get haircuts, eat at a food court. Many refugees have poor teeth due to malnourishment. Many suffer from depression and other psychological problems when they arrive at Hanawon. Thirty percent of female defectors in particular show signs of depression, which analysts attribute to, among other things, having experienced sexual abuse in North Korea, or as refugees in China. Hanawon imposes heavy restrictions on the travel of North Korean defectors because of security concerns. In addition, security is tight with barbed wire, security guards, cameras; the threat of kidnap or physical attacks against individual defectors by North Korean agents is present. Upon completion of the Hanawon program, defectors find their own homes with a government subsidy.
When Hanawon first opened, North Koreans were offered ₩36 million per person to resettle with ₩540,000 monthly afterward. Now they receive ₩7–32 million to resettle and ₩13–20 million for housing, the amounts for both depending on the conditions and size of household. Following their completion of the Hanawon program, many defectors find additional assistance through civil society organizations such as Liberty in North Korea or Saejowi