A military is a heavily-armed, highly-organised force intended for warfare known collectively as armed forces. It is officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct military uniform, it may consist of one or more military branches such as an Army, Air Force and in certain countries and Coast Guard. The main task of the military is defined as defence of the state and its interests against external armed threats. Beyond warfare, the military may be employed in additional sanctioned and non-sanctioned functions within the state, including internal security threats, population control, the promotion of a political agenda, emergency services and reconstruction, protecting corporate economic interests, social ceremonies and national honor guards. A nation's military may function as a discrete social subculture, with dedicated infrastructure such as military housing, utilities, hospitals, legal services, food production and banking services.
In broad usage, the terms "armed forces" and "military" are treated as synonymous, although in technical usage a distinction is sometimes made in which a country's armed forces may include both its military and other paramilitary forces. There are various forms of irregular military forces; the profession of soldiering as part of a military is older than recorded history itself. Some of the most enduring images of classical antiquity portray the power and feats of its military leaders; the Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC was one of the defining points of Pharaoh Ramses II's reign, his monuments commemorate it in bas-relief. A thousand years the first emperor of unified China, Qin Shi Huang, was so determined to impress the gods with his military might that he had himself buried with an army of terracotta soldiers; the Romans paid considerable attention to military matters, leaving to posterity many treatises and writings on the subject, as well as a large number of lavishly carved triumphal arches and victory columns.
Issue: Possibly cognate with Thousand, cf. Latin and Romance language root word "mil-")The first recorded use of the word military in English, spelled militarie, was in 1582, it comes from the Latin militaris through French, but is of uncertain etymology, one suggestion being derived from *mil-it- – going in a body or mass. The word is now identified as denoting someone, skilled in use of weapons, or engaged in military service, or in warfare; as a noun, the military refers to a country's armed forces, or sometimes, more to the senior officers who command them. In general, it refers to the physicality of armed forces, their personnel and the physical area which they occupy; as an adjective, military referred only to soldiers and soldiering, but it soon broadened to apply to land forces in general, anything to do with their profession. The names of both the Royal Military Academy and United States Military Academy reflect this. However, at about the time of the Napoleonic Wars,'military' began to be used in reference to armed forces as a whole, in the 21st century expressions like'military service','military intelligence', and'military history' encompass naval and air force aspects.
As such, it now connotes any activity performed by armed force personnel. Military history is considered to be the history of all conflicts, not just the history of the state militaries, it differs somewhat from the history of war, with military history focusing on the people and institutions of war-making, while the history of war focuses on the evolution of war itself in the face of changing technology and geography. Military history has a number of facets. One main facet is to learn from past accomplishments and mistakes, so as to more wage war in the future. Another is to create a sense of military tradition, used to create cohesive military forces. Still, another may be to learn to prevent wars more effectively. Human knowledge about the military is based on both recorded and oral history of military conflicts, their participating armies and navies and, more air forces. There are two types of military history, although all texts have elements of both: descriptive history, that serves to chronicle conflicts without offering any statements about the causes, nature of conduct, the ending, effects of a conflict.
Despite the growing importance of military technology, military activity depends above all on people. For example, in 2000 the British Army declared: "Man is still the first weapon of war." The military organization is characterized by a strict hierarchy divided by military rank, with ranks grouped as officers, non-commissioned officers, personnel at the lowest rank. While senior officers make strategic decisions, subordinated military personnel fulfil them. Although rank titles vary by military branch and country, the rank hierarchy is common to all state armed forces worldwide. In addition to their rank, personnel occupy one of many trade roles, which are grouped according to
Race (human categorization)
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories viewed as distinct by society. First used to refer to speakers of a common language and to denote national affiliations, by the 17th century the term race began to refer to physical traits. Modern scholarship regards race as a social construct, an identity, assigned based on rules made by society. While based on physical similarities within groups, race is not an inherent physical or biological quality. Social conceptions and groupings of races vary over time, involving folk taxonomies that define essential types of individuals based on perceived traits. Scientists consider biological essentialism obsolete, discourage racial explanations for collective differentiation in both physical and behavioral traits. Though there is a broad scientific agreement that essentialist and typological conceptualizations of race are untenable, scientists around the world continue to conceptualize race in differing ways, some of which have essentialist implications.
While some researchers use the concept of race to make distinctions among fuzzy sets of traits or observable differences in behaviour, others in the scientific community suggest that the idea of race is used in a naive or simplistic way, argue that, among humans, race has no taxonomic significance by pointing out that all living humans belong to the same species, Homo sapiens, subspecies, Homo sapiens sapiens. Since the second half of the 20th century, the association of race with the ideologies and theories of scientific racism has led to the use of the word race itself becoming problematic. Although still used in general contexts, race has been replaced by less ambiguous and loaded terms: populations, ethnic groups, or communities, depending on context. Modern scholarship views racial categories as constructed, that is, race is not intrinsic to human beings but rather an identity created by dominant groups, to establish meaning in a social context; this involves the subjugation of groups defined as racially inferior, as in the one-drop rule used in the 19th-century United States to exclude those with any amount of African ancestry from the dominant racial grouping, defined as "white".
Such racial identities reflect the cultural attitudes of imperial powers dominant during the age of European colonial expansion. This view rejects the notion. Although commonalities in physical traits such as facial features, skin color, hair texture comprise part of the race concept, the latter is a social distinction rather than an inherently biological one. Other dimensions of racial groupings include shared history and language. For instance, African-American English is a language spoken by many African Americans in areas of the United States where racial segregation exists. Furthermore, people self-identify as members of a race for political reasons; when people define and talk about a particular conception of race, they create a social reality through which social categorization is achieved. In this sense, races are said to be social constructs; these constructs develop within various legal and sociopolitical contexts, may be the effect, rather than the cause, of major social situations.
While race is understood to be a social construct by many, most scholars agree that race has real material effects in the lives of people through institutionalized practices of preference and discrimination. Socioeconomic factors, in combination with early but enduring views of race, have led to considerable suffering within disadvantaged racial groups. Racial discrimination coincides with racist mindsets, whereby the individuals and ideologies of one group come to perceive the members of an outgroup as both racially defined and morally inferior; as a result, racial groups possessing little power find themselves excluded or oppressed, while hegemonic individuals and institutions are charged with holding racist attitudes. Racism has led to many instances including slavery and genocide. In some countries, law enforcement uses race to profile suspects; this use of racial categories is criticized for perpetuating an outmoded understanding of human biological variation, promoting stereotypes. Because in some societies racial groupings correspond with patterns of social stratification, for social scientists studying social inequality, race can be a significant variable.
As sociological factors, racial categories may in part reflect subjective attributions, self-identities, social institutions. Scholars continue to debate the degrees to which racial categories are biologically warranted and constructed. For example, in 2008, John Hartigan, Jr. argued for a view of race that focused on culture, but which does not ignore the potential relevance of biology or genetics. Accordingly, the racial paradigms employed in different disciplines vary in their emphasis on biological reduction as contrasted with societal construction. In the social sciences, theoretical frameworks such as racial formation theory and critical race theory investigate implications of race as social construction by exploring how the images and assumptions of race are expressed in everyday life. A large body of scholarship has traced the relationships between the historical, social production of race in legal and criminal language, their effects on the policing and disproportionate incarceration of certain groups.
Groups of humans have always identified themselves as distinct from neighboring groups, but such differences have not always been understood to be natural and global. These features a
Declaration of war
A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state goes to war against another. The declaration is a performative speech act by an authorized party of a national government, in order to create a state of war between two or more states; the legality of, competent to declare war varies between nations and forms of government. In many nations, that power is given to the head of sovereign. In other cases, something short of a full declaration of war, such as a letter of marque or a covert operation, may authorise war-like acts by privateers or mercenaries; the official international protocol for declaring war was defined in the Hague Convention of 1907 on the Opening of Hostilities. Since 1945, developments in international law such as the United Nations Charter, which prohibits both the threat and the use of force in international conflicts, have made declarations of war obsolete in international relations; the UN Security Council, under powers granted in articles 24 and 25, Chapter VII of the Charter, may authorize collective action to maintain or enforce international peace and security.
Article 51 of the United Nations Charter states that: "Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right to individual or collective self-defence if an armed attack occurs against a state."Few nations have formally declared war upon another since then. In addition to this, non-state or terrorist organizations may claim to or be described as "declaring war" when engaging in violent acts; these declarations may have no legal standing in themselves, but they may still act as a call to arms for supporters of these organizations. A definition of the three ways of thinking about a declaration of war was developed by Saikrishna Prakash, he argues that a declaration of war can be seen from three perspectives: Categorical theory, under which the power to declare war includes "the power to control all decisions to enter war". This means. Pragmatic theory, which states that the power to declare war can be made unnecessary by an act of war in itself. Formalist theory, under which the power to declare war constitutes only a formal documentation of executive war-making decisions.
This sits closest to traditional legal conceptions of. An alternative typology based upon the form of the declaration is formulated by Brien Hallett according to 1) the degree to which the state and condition of war exists, 2) the degree of justification, 3) the degree of ceremony of the speech act, 4) the degree of perfection of the speech act: Degree of existence of the war A conditional declaration of war declares war conditionally, threatening war if the grievances listed are not acknowledged and the preferred remedies demanded are not accepted. An absolute declaration of war declares war due to the failure of negotiations over the grievances and remedies found in the conditional declaration, it ends the state and condition of peace, replacing it with the state and condition of war until such time as peace is restored. Degree of justification of the war A reasoned declaration of war justifies the resort to war by stating the grievances that have made peace intolerable and the remedies that will restore peace.
An unreasoned declaration of war does so only minimally. Degree of ceremony with which the speech act was made A formal or solemn declaration of war is a declaration made by the constitutionally recognized nation following the appropriate laws and rituals. An informal or unsolemn declaration of war is a declaration made in an irregular manner either by a constitutionally unrecognized nation or by the constitutionally recognized nation using unlawful, inappropriate procedures. Degree of perfection with which the speech act was made A perfect declaration of war is a formal, solemn speech act made in accordance with the proper laws and rituals. An imperfect declaration of war is an informal, unsolemn speech act not made in accordance with the proper laws and rituals; the practice of declaring war has a long history. The ancient Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh gives an account of it. However, the practice of declaring war was not always followed. In his study Hostilities without Declaration of War, the British scholar John Frederick Maurice showed that between 1700 and 1870 war was declared in only 10 cases, while in another 107 cases war was waged without such declaration.
In modern public international law, a declaration of war entails the recognition between countries of a state of hostilities between these countries, such declaration has acted to regulate the conduct between the military engagements between the forces of the respective countries. The primary multilateral treaties governing such declarations are the Hague Conventions; the League of Nations, formed in 1919 in the wake of the First World War, the General Treaty for the Renunciation of War of 1928 signed in Paris, demonstrated that world powers were seeking a means to prevent the carnage of another world war. These powers were unable to stop the outbreak of the Second World War, so the United Nations was established following that war in a renewed attempt to prevent international aggression through declarations of war. In classical times, Thucydides condemned the Thebans, allies of Sparta, for launching a surprise attack without a declaration of war against Plataea, Athens' ally – an event that began the Peloponnesian War.
The utility of formal declarations of wa
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
International Committee of the Red Cross
The International Committee of the Red Cross is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate. State parties to the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977 and 2005 have given the ICRC a mandate to protect victims of international and internal armed conflicts; such victims include war wounded, refugees and other non-combatants. The ICRC is part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement along with the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and 190 National Societies, it is the oldest and most honoured organization within the movement and one of the most recognized organizations in the world, having won three Nobel Peace Prizes in 1917, 1944, 1963. Up until the middle of the 19th century, there were no organized and well-established army nursing systems for casualties and no safe and protected institutions to accommodate and treat those who were wounded on the battlefield. In June 1859, the Swiss businessman Henry Dunant travelled to Italy to meet French emperor Napoléon III with the intention of discussing difficulties in conducting business in Algeria, at that time occupied by France.
When he arrived in the small Italian town of Solferino on the evening of 24 June, he witnessed the Battle of Solferino, an engagement in the Second Italian War of Independence. In a single day, about 40,000 soldiers on both sides were left wounded on the field. Henry Dunant was shocked by the terrible aftermath of the battle, the suffering of the wounded soldiers, the near-total lack of medical attendance and basic care, he abandoned the original intent of his trip and for several days he devoted himself to helping with the treatment and care for the wounded. He succeeded in organizing an overwhelming level of relief assistance by motivating the local population to aid without discrimination. Back in his home in Geneva, he decided to write a book entitled A Memory of Solferino which he published with his own money in 1862, he sent copies of the book to leading military figures throughout Europe. In addition to penning a vivid description of his experiences in Solferino in 1859, he explicitly advocated the formation of national voluntary relief organizations to help nurse wounded soldiers in the case of war.
In addition, he called for the development of international treaties to guarantee the neutrality and protection of those wounded on the battlefield as well as medics and field hospitals. On 9 February 1863 in Geneva, Henry Dunant founded the "Committee of the Five" as an investigatory commission of the Geneva Society for Public Welfare, their aim was to examine the feasibility of Dunant's ideas and to organize an international conference about their possible implementation. The members of this committee, aside from Dunant himself, were Gustave Moynier and chairman of the Geneva Society for Public Welfare. Eight days the five men decided to rename the committee to the "International Committee for Relief to the Wounded". In October 1863, the international conference organized by the committee was held in Geneva to develop possible measures to improve medical services on the battle field; the conference was attended by 36 individuals: eighteen official delegates from national governments, six delegates from other non-governmental organizations, seven non-official foreign delegates, the five members of the International Committee.
The states and kingdoms represented by official delegates were Grand Duchy of Baden, Kingdom of Bavaria, Second French Empire, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Kingdom of Hanover, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of the Netherlands, Austrian Empire, Kingdom of Prussia, Russian Empire, Kingdom of Saxony, United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, Spanish Empire. Among the proposals written in the final resolutions of the conference, adopted on 29 October 1863, were: The foundation of national relief societies for wounded soldiers. Only one year the Swiss government invited the governments of all European countries, as well as the United States and Mexico, to attend an official diplomatic conference. Sixteen countries sent a total of twenty-six delegates to Geneva. On 22 August 1864, the conference adopted the first Geneva Convention "for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field". Representatives of 12 states and kingdoms signed the convention: The convention contained ten articles, establishing for the first time binding rules guaranteeing neutrality and protection for wounded soldiers, field medical personnel, specific humanitarian institutions in an armed conflict.
Furthermore, the convention defined two specific requirements for recognition of a national relief society by the International Committee: The national society must be recognized by its own national government as a relief society according to the convention, The nati
Military or belligerent occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory, not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign. The territory is known as the occupied territory and the ruling power the occupant. Occupation is distinguished from annexation by its intended temporary nature, by its military nature, by citizenship rights of the controlling power not being conferred upon the subjugated population. While an occupant may setup a formal military government in the occupied territory to facilitate its administration, it is not a necessary precondition for occupation; the rules of occupation are delineated in various international agreements the Hague Convention of 1907, the Geneva Conventions of 1949, as well as established state practice. The relevant international conventions, the International Committee of the Red Cross Commentaries, other treaties by military scholars provide guidelines on such topics as rights and duties of the occupying power, protection of civilians, treatment of prisoners of war, coordination of relief efforts, issuance of travel documents, property rights of the populace, handling of cultural and art objects, management of refugees, other concerns which are important both before and after the cessation of hostilities.
A country that establishes an occupation and violates internationally agreed upon norms runs the risk of censure, criticism, or condemnation. In the current era, the practices of occupations have become a part of customary international law, form a part of the laws of war. From the second half of the 18th century onwards, international law has come to distinguish between the occupation of a country and territorial acquisition by invasion and annexation, the difference between the two being expounded upon by Emerich de Vattel in The Law of Nations; the clear distinction has been recognized among the principles of international law since the end of the Napoleonic wars in the 19th century. These customary laws of occupation which evolved as part of the laws of war gave some protection to the population under the occupation of a belligerent power; the Hague Convention of 1907 codified these customary laws within "Laws and Customs of War on Land". The first two articles of that section state: Art.
42. Territory is considered occupied when it is placed under the authority of the hostile army; the occupation extends only to the territory where such authority has been established and can be exercised. Art. 43. The authority of the legitimate power having in fact passed into the hands of the occupant, the latter shall take all the measures in his power to restore, ensure, as far as possible, public order and safety, while respecting, unless prevented, the laws in force in the country. In 1949 these laws governing occupation of an enemy state's territory were further extended by the adoption of the Fourth Geneva Convention. Much of GCIV is relevant to protected persons in occupied territories and Section III: Occupied territories is a specific section covering the issue. Article 6 restricts the length of time that most of GCIV applies: The present Convention shall apply from the outset of any conflict or occupation mentioned in Article 2. In the territory of Parties to the conflict, the application of the present Convention shall cease on the general close of military operations.
In the case of occupied territory, the application of the present Convention shall cease one year after the general close of military operations. GCIV emphasised an important change in international law; the United Nations Charter had prohibited war of aggression and GCIV Article 47, the first paragraph in Section III: Occupied territories, restricted the territorial gains which could be made through war by stating: Protected persons who are in occupied territory shall not be deprived, in any case or in any manner whatsoever, of the benefits of the present Convention by any change introduced, as the result of the occupation of a territory, into the institutions or government of the said territory, nor by any agreement concluded between the authorities of the occupied territories and the Occupying Power, nor by any annexation by the latter of the whole or part of the occupied territory. Article 49 prohibits the forced mass movement of people out of or into occupied state's territory: Individual or mass forcible transfers, as well as deportations of protected persons from occupied territory to the territory of the Occupying Power or to that of any other country, occupied or not, are prohibited, regardless of their motive....
The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies. Protocol I: "Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts" has additional articles which cover occupation but many countries including the U. S. are not signatory to this additional protocol. In the situation of a territorial cession as the result of war, the specification of a "receiving country" in the peace treaty means that the country in question is authorized by the international community to establish civil
Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country. The term expulsion is used as a synonym for deportation, though expulsion is more used in the context of international law, while deportation is more used in national law. Definitions of deportation apply to nationals and foreigners. Nonetheless, in the common usage the expulsion of foreign nationals is called deportation, whereas the expulsion of nationals is called extradition, exile, or penal transportation. For example, in the United States: "Strictly speaking, transportation and deportation, although each has the effect of removing a person from the country, are different things, have different purposes. Transportation is by way of punishment of one convicted of an offense against the laws of the country. Extradition is the surrender to another country of one accused of an offense against its laws, there to be tried, and, if found guilty, punished. Deportation is the removal of an alien out of the country because his presence is deemed inconsistent with the public welfare and without any punishment being imposed or contemplated either under the laws of the country out of which he is sent or of those of the country to which he is taken."
Expulsion is an act by a public authority to remove a person or persons against his or her will from the territory of that state. A successful expulsion of a person by a country is called a deportation. According to the European Court of Human Rights, collective expulsion is any measure compelling non-nationals, as a group, to leave a country, except where such a measure is taken on the basis of a reasonable and objective examination of the particular case of each individual non-national of the group. Mass expulsion may occur when members of an ethnic group are sent out of a state regardless of nationality. Collective expulsion, or expulsion en masse, is prohibited by several instruments of international law. Deportations occurred in ancient history, is well-recorded in ancient Mesopotamia. Deportation was practiced as a policy toward rebellious people in Achaemenid Empire; the precise legal status of the deportees is unclear. Instances include: Unlike in the Achaemenid and Sassanian periods, records of deportation are rare during the Arsacid Parthian period.
One notable example was the deportation of the Mards in Charax, near Rhages by Phraates I. The 10,000 Roman prisoners of war after the Battle of Carrhae appear to have been deported to Alexandria Margiana near the eastern border in 53 BC, who are said to married to local people, it is hypothesized that some of them founded the Chinese city of Li-Jien after becoming soldiers for the Hsiung-nu, but this is doubted. Hyrcanus II, the Jewish king of Judea, was settled among the Jews of Babylon in Parthia after being taken as captive by the Parthian-Jewish forces in 40 BC. Roman POWs in the Antony's Parthian War may have suffered deportation. Deportation was used by the Sasanians during the wars with the Romans. During Shapur I's reign, the Romans who were defeated at the Battle of Edessa were deported to Persis. Other destinations were Parthia and Asorestan. There were cities which were founded and were populated by Romans prisoners of war, including Shadh-Shapur in Meshan, Bishapur in Persis, Wuzurg-Shapur, Gundeshapur.
Agricultural land were given to the deportees. These deportations initiated the spread Christianity in the Sassanian empire. In Rēw-Ardashīr, there was a church for the Romans and another one for Carmanians. In the mid-3rd century, Greek-speaking deportees from north-western Syria were settled in Kashkar, Mesopotamia. After the Arab incursion into Persia during Shapur II's reign, he scattered the defeated Arab tribes by deporting them to other regions; some where deported to Bahrain and Kirman to both populate these unattractive regions and bringing the tribes under control. In 395 AD, 18,000 Roman populations of Sophene, Mesopotamia and Cappadocia were captured and deported by the "Huns"; the prisoners were freed by the Persians as they reached Persia, were settled in Slōk and Kōkbā. The author of the text Liber Calipharum has praised the king Yazdegerd I for his treatment of the deportees, who allowed some to return. Major deportations occurred during the Anastasian War, including Kavad I's deportation of the populations of Theodosiopolis and Amida to Arrajan.
Major deportations occurred during the campaigns of Khosrau I from the Roman cities of Sura, Antioch, Apamea and Batnai in Osrhoene, to Wēh-Antiyōk-Khosrow. The city was founded near Ctesiphon for them, Khosrow "did everything in his power to make the residents want to stay"; the number of the deportees is recorded to be 292,000 in another source. Article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention prohibits the deportation of people into or out of occupied territory under belligerent military occupation: Individual or mass forcible transfers, as well as deportations of protected persons from occupied territory to the territory of the Occupying Power or to that of any other country, occupied or not, are prohibited, regardless of their motive.... The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies. All countries reserve the right to deport persons without right of abode those who are longtime residents or possess permanent residency. In general, foreigners who have committed serious crimes, entered the country