click links in text for more info

Fourth wall

The fourth wall is a performance convention in which an invisible, imagined wall separates actors from the audience. While the audience can see through this "wall", the convention assumes, the actors act as if they cannot. From the 16th century onward, the rise of illusionism in staging practices, which culminated in the realism and naturalism of the theatre of the 19th century, led to the development of the fourth wall concept; the metaphor suggests a relationship to the mise-en-scène behind a proscenium arch. When a scene is set indoors and three of the walls of its room are presented onstage, in what is known as a box set, the "fourth" of them would run along the line dividing the room from the auditorium; the "fourth wall", though, is a theatrical convention, rather than of set design. The actors ignore the audience, focus their attention on the dramatic world, remain absorbed in its fiction, in a state that the theatre practitioner Konstantin Stanislavski called "public solitude". In this way, the fourth wall exists regardless of the presence of any actual walls in the set, or the physical arrangement of the theatre building or performance space, or the actors' distance from or proximity to the audience."Breaking the fourth wall" is any instance in which this performance convention, having been adopted more in the drama, is violated.

This can be done through either directly referring to the audience, the play as a play, or the characters' fictionality. The temporary suspension of the convention in this way draws attention to its use in the rest of the performance; this act of drawing attention to a play's performance conventions is metatheatrical. A similar effect of metareference is achieved when the performance convention of avoiding direct contact with the camera used by actors in a television drama or film, is temporarily suspended; the phrase "breaking the fourth wall" is used to describe such effects in those media. Breaking the fourth wall is possible in other media, such as video games and books; the concept is attributed to the philosopher and dramatist Denis Diderot. The term itself was used by Molière; the presence of the fourth wall is an established convention of modern realistic theatre, which has led some artists to draw direct attention to it for dramatic or comic effect when a boundary is "broken", when an actor or character addresses the audience directly.

Breaking the fourth wall is common in pantomime and children's theatre where, for example, a character might ask the children for help, as when Peter Pan appeals to the audience to applaud in an effort to revive the fading Tinker Bell. Many Shakespearian plays use this technique for comic effect; the acceptance of the transparency of the fourth wall is part of the suspension of disbelief between a work of fiction and an audience, allowing them to enjoy the fiction as though they were observing real events. Critic Vincent Canby described it in 1987 as "that invisible scrim that forever separates the audience from the stage". One of the earliest recorded breakings of the fourth wall in serious cinema was in Mary MacLane's revolutionary 1918 silent film Men Who Have Made Love to Me, in which the enigmatic authoress - who portrays herself - interrupts the vignettes onscreen to address the audience directly. Oliver Hardy broke the fourth wall in his films with Stan Laurel, when he would stare directly at the camera to seek sympathy from viewers.

Groucho Marx spoke directly to the audience in Animal Crackers, Horse Feathers, in the latter film advising them to "go out to the lobby" during Chico Marx's piano interlude. Comedy films by Mel Brooks, Monty Python, Zucker and Zucker broke the fourth wall, such that with these films "the fourth wall is so flimsy and so shattered that it might as well not exist", according to The A. V. Club. In Akira Kurosawa's 1957 adaptation of Gorky's The Lower Depths, the film abruptly ends with Kōji Mitsui breaking the fourth wall to utter a callous remark about a fellow slum dweller's suicide. By having Mitsui use the startling technique, Kurosawa not only stresses his character's victorious nihilism but suggests the film's theatrical origins. Woody Allen broke the fourth wall in his movie Annie Hall, as he explained, "because I felt many of the people in the audience had the same feelings and the same problems. I wanted to talk to them directly and confront them." His 1985 film The Purple Rose of Cairo features the breaking of the fourth wall as a central plot point.

Jerry Lewis wrote in his 1971 book The Total Filmmaker, "Some film-makers believe you should never have an actor look directly into the camera. They maintain it makes the audience uneasy, interrupts the screen story. I think, nonsense, I have my actors, in a single, look direct into the camera at least once in a film, if a point is to be served." Martin and Lewis look directly at the audience in You’re Never Too Young, Lewis and co-star Stella Stevens each look directly into the camera several times in The Nutty Professor, Lewis’ character holds a pantomime conversation with the audience in The Disorderly Orderly. The final scene of The Patsy is famous for revealing to the audience the movie as a movie, Lewis as actor/director. On television, breaking the fourth wall has been done throughout the history of the medium. George Burns did it numerous times on The George Burns and Gracie Allen Show, where he starred in with his real-life wife Gracie Allen from 1950 to 1958. Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis br

Colony (fraternity or sorority)

A colony is a probationary body of a national fraternity or sorority. It can be considered a new Greek organization, awaiting official recognition from their international headquarters to maintain a chapter on their college’s campus. A group wishing to become a member of a fraternity or sorority must first petition for status as a colony; the entire membership of the colony remains as uninitiated associates learning and operating under the guidance of an advisor from the national organization and/or from a sponsoring chapter. If the colony prospers and meets its goals as set out by the national organization, the colony may be chartered and the membership initiated. After this the sorority or fraternity will become a full chapter of the fraternity; this practice varies with different fraternities. Everything depends on the official nationals of each individual organization; the first Greek society was founded in 1776 as a literary and debating club. The oldest social fraternity is the Kappa Alpha Society, formed at Union College in New York in 1825.

This fraternity was soon followed by several others in the following years. Several other Greek organizations were formed through the twentieth century. With each separate sorority and fraternity, others began to charter existing organizations at different schools; this became popular in the 1900s after World War II and the Great Depression. Different Greek organizations have different practices and procedures when establishing colonies and maturing them into chapters. Not only does this process depend on the specific Greek organization, but it depends on the standards and rules that are set by each individual university. However, many organizations have a process, similar to this: A group of men or women must contact the organization’s nationals to request the colonization of the organization. After the request is evaluated and approved, these men and women will be considered the Founding Fathers or Founding Sisters of that Greek organization, it takes anywhere from eighteen months to thirty-six months for the entire process to take place.

Within these two years the colony must be able to prove to the national organization that they will be able to operate efficiently in all areas of chapter operations. These areas include philanthropy and recruiting and maintaining members consistently. After the colony has proven to the nationals that they can maintain their chapter, the men or women of the organization are initiated into the desired Fraternity or Sorority by the national organization. Alumni volunteers will work with the colony to establish effective chapter operations, develop scholarship programs, teach recruitment skills and devise a long-term plan of action. For most Greek organizations, there is a good chance that there are at least several alumni near the given school. Most sororities or fraternities get into contact with these alumni through their nationals. Nationals sends what can be referred to as "Education Consultants," who are paid by the organization, to spend time with the colony to teach them all of the traditions and ways of the fraternity or sorority.

Staff members from nationals are always on duty to assist the colony in any way needed so that they become successful. As a colony, most universities allow the members to participate in all Greek activities on campus; these activities include the Interfraternity Council, or IFC. These activities can give colony members an opportunity to get established in their university’s Greek community and meet potential new members that could join their colony or chapter

Amjad Ali Khan

Amjad Ali Khan Bangash is an Indian classical sarod player, best known for his clear and fast ekhara taans. Khan has performed internationally since the 1960s, he was awarded India's second highest civilian honour Padma Vibhushan in 2001. Khan first continued into the 2000s, with his sons, he has experimented with modifications to his instrument throughout his career. Khan played with the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra and worked as a visiting professor at the University of New Mexico. In 2011, he performed on Carrie Newcomer's album Everything. In 2014, along with his two sons, Ayaan Ali Khan and Amaan Ali Khan, he performed'Raga For Peace' in 2014 Nobel Peace Prize Concert. Khan was awarded 21st Rajiv Gandhi National Sadbhavna Award. Khan received Padma Shri in 1975, Padma Bhushan in 1991, Padma Vibhushan in 2001, was awarded the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award for 1989 and the Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship for 2011, he was awarded the Fukuoka Asian Culture Prize in 2004. The U. S. state Massachusetts proclaimed 20 April as Amjad Ali Khan Day in 1984.

Khan was made an honorary citizen of Houston and Nashville, Tennessee, in 1997, of Tulsa, Oklahoma, in 2007. He received the Banga-Vibhushan in 2011. A Gulzar directed documentary on Amjad Ali Khan won the Filmfare award in 1990. Born on 9 October 1945 as Masoom Ali Khan, the youngest of seven children, to Gwalior court musician Hafiz Ali Khan and Rahat Jahan, his family is part of the Bangash lineage and Khan is in the sixth generation of musicians. His personal name was changed by a sadhu to Amjad. Khan studied music under his father. In 1957, a cultural organization in Delhi appointed Hafiz Ali Khan as its guest and the family moved to Delhi.. Hafiz Ali Khan received training from the descendants of Tansen, the magical musician, was one of the'Nav-ratna' at the court of the Mughal Emperor Akbar. Thus, Amjad belongs to the lineage of Tansen. Friends of Hafiz Ali Khan convinced him of the importance of formal schooling for his son, he attended Modern School from 1958 to 1963. As a young bachelor, Amjad had an affair with an older woman, a divorcee and a mother.

The affair lasted eight years. Amjad's family disapproved of the relationship from the beginning, in the early 1970s, as his father's health deteriorated, they convinced him to let go of this relationship and marry a girl chosen by them. Amjad agreed to their wishes around the time of his father's death in 1972. However, although his wife came from similar background and was the same age as he, Amjad did not bond with her. On the other hand, he kept in touch with his previous lover and maintained a platonic friendship with her, not acceptable to his wife. Hardly a year after their wedding and his wife had a daughter. However, the marriage broke down around the time of the birth of the child; the process of separation and divorce was painful to their families. An unexpected outcome was that the process of divorce was that, Amjad overcame his attachment to the divorced woman, due to differences in their thinking and mindset and gave him a clearer understanding of his cultural moorings and priorities.

He came out of the relationships with the divorced woman in 1975, divorced his wife the same year. The daughter born of this first marriage was raised by Amjad's brother, Rehmat Ali Khan, childless; the following year, on 25 September 1976, Khan got married a second time. His bride was Bharatanatyam dancer Subhalakshmi Barooah, they have two sons and Ayaan, both of whom are performing artists trained in music by their father. Khan cared for his diabetic father until he died in 1972, their family home in Gwalior was made into a musical center and they live in New Delhi. North India: Instrumental Music of Medieval India Ragas Bilaskhani Todi & Brindabani Sarang The Rough Guide to the Music of India and Pakistan Sarod Maestro Amjad Ali Khan with sons Amaan Ali Bangash & Ayaan Ali Bangash Music from the 13th Century Moksha Confluence My Inspirations Romancing The Rains Samaagam Masterworks From The NCPA Archives "". Official website. Amjad Ali Khan at AllMusic


Al-Layth ibn Ali ibn al-Layth was amir of the Saffarid amirate from 909 until 910. He was the son of Ali ibn al-Layth and nephew of the first two Saffarid rulers, Ya'qub ibn al-Layth and Amr ibn al-Layth. In 890 al-Layth and his brother al-Mu'addal helped their father'Ali escape from imprisonment at the hands of the latter's uncle, the Saffarid amir Amr ibn al-Layth; the three of them fled to Khurasan, where they entered the services of the leading anti-Saffarid in that region, Rafi' b. Harthama.'Ali died in 893, the brothers continued to serve Rafi'. After Rafi' was defeated and killed in 896 they were captured by'Amr. Following'Amr's capture by the Samanids in 900, the slave commander Sebük-eri began establishing ties with al-Layth, who had gone into hiding in Sistan; as the son of'Ali, designated as the successor to Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar, he was a possible contender for the amirate, gained supporters in the army. Despite this, he at first remained loyal to'Amr's successor, Tahir b. Muhammad.

He participated in the abortive 900-901 campaign to recover Fars from the Abbasid Caliphate and another more successful campaign that took place in around 904. For the next few years following reoccupation of Fars, al-Layth accompanied Sebük-eri. In 907 or 908 Sebük-eri sent him on a military expedition against Makran, whose ruler, the Ma'danid'Isa b. Ma'dan, had not paid tribute due to the Saffarids for the last several years. Al-Layth was able to gain the tribute owed, but when he returned Sebük-eri ordered him back to Makran and took his son hostage in an effort to compel him to obey. Instead, al-Layth launched a rebellion in Kerman, administered by Sebük-eri, gained aid from Tahir, but his army abandoned him when Sebük-eri's force approached. Al-Layth was forced to flee to Sistan with few supporters but a large amount of wealth he had gained from plundering the towns of Kerman. Al-Layth reached the capital Zarang in late 908 and occupied part of the city, despite Tahir's attempts to dislodge him.

Tahir was forced to withdraw from the area, al-Layth was hailed as amir in March 909. He began his reign by sending an army under the command of his brother to enforce his authority in Afghanistan, which resulted in the capture of Sebük-eri's brother Ghalib. Al-Mu'addal campaigned in Ghazna and, together with support sent by his brother, imposed al-Layth's authority in parts of Afghanistan by the end of the year. In February 910 al-Layth left Zarang at the head of an expedition against Sebük-eri. By May he had defeated Sebük-eri on the field and released his son from captivity, the conquest of Fars proceeded in earnest. Sebük-eri, was a caliphal vassal and received support from the Abbasids. Al-Layth's representative in Fars was defeated by Abbasid forces under Mu'nis al-Khadim in August, forcing al-Layth to come to terms, he left Fars for Kerman. Sebük-eri, refused to make peace with the Saffarid, with Abbasid help he defeated and captured both him and his son; the captives were sent to Baghdad.

Bosworth, C. E.. "The Ṭāhirids and Ṣaffārids". In Frye, R. N.. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 90–135. ISBN 0-521-20093-8. Bosworth, C. E; the History of the Saffarids of Sistan and the Maliks of Nimruz. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers, 1994

Tooty's Wedding

Tooty's Wedding is a 2010 short comedy film, written by Perrier Award Winners Ben Willbond and Laura Solon and directed by Frederic Casella. It was screened as part of the 2012 Sundance Film Festival, having been selected from a record 7,675 submissions. A feature-length version of the short film, in which "a young couple's marriage hilariously hits the rocks during a weekend wedding in the country" won awards at the Rhode Island International Film Festival, LA ShortsFest 2011, Aesthetica Short Film Festival and New York Friar’s Club is now in development. Winner – Grand Prize for Best Comedy at the Rhode Island International Film Festival Winner – Jury prize for Best Short at the Friars Club Film Festival Winner – Best Comedy at Aesthetica Short Film Festival 2011 Winner – Award of Merit – Accolade Competition 2011 Official selection for the Los Angeles International Short Film Festival Tooty's Wedding on IMDb

Y Kant Tori Read (album)

Y Kant Tori Read is an album by the 1980s American synthpop band of the same name, fronted by then-unknown singer and songwriter Tori Amos. The band consisted of Amos, singer-pianist Kim Bullard, future Guns N' Roses drummer Matt Sorum, as well as long-time Amos collaborator guitarist Steve Caton and various studio musicians. Due to the title, some critics believed the album was a solo project by a woman named "Tori Read"; this was compounded by the fact that Amos is billed as "Tori" in the liner notes. The choice of producer in Joe Chiccarelli was that of Amos, who had liked some of the albums that he made previously. According to Chiccarelli in an interview with HitQuarters: " had a strong vision of what she wanted to do on her first album, and despite the lack of success of that album, it was an interesting process because she was vocal and passionate about how she wanted it to sound and what her influences were and the emotions she was trying to convey." Although Amos had disowned the album for many years, Chiccarelli has said that she was happy with it at the time.

The eponymous album was released in 1988 to dismal sales and the band split shortly after. Its lack of success and subsequent deletion has made it one of the most sought-after Tori Amos collectibles, fetching upwards of $1,000 in compact disc format in original longbox. At the height of Amos' career vinyl copies would sell for between $300–500 but, due to the decline of music collectibles and the heavy bootlegging of the album, they now sell for between $50–80; because of the scarcity of legitimate copies of the album it has been bootlegged, so much so that an extensive FAQ on the topic was created. Bootleg versions stem from one of the first editions to surface, on a foreign label called Pacific Records; these have six "bonus tracks" from in Amos' career. Other editions one that surfaced in Germany, were issued to intentionally resemble the original and fool legitimate collectors; the number on the spine of the original CD reads 81845-2. The majority of bootlegs list this number incorrectly because the stolen artwork is taken from the easier to find LP version of the release, which had a different release number.

Non-promotional copies of the record are more desirable than promotionally issued copies. Because the record sold so poorly, the majority of commercially released copies were recalled, stamped with a gold promo stamp, given a cut-out mark, thus there are more promotional copies of the record than not. Several singles were released to promote the album, though not commercially. "The Big Picture" was released as a 12" vinyl promotional single with unique artwork. One music video was produced, for the song "The Big Picture", featuring Amos performing on a "ghetto city" sound stage set. Amos has continued to play a select few songs from this album live in concert. During the 2014 Unrepentant Geraldines tour, Amos played a full version of "Fire on the Side", as well as "Floating City" and "Pirates". "The Big Picture" and "Fayth" were performed as mashups with George Michael's "Faith" and the Cure's "Pictures of You" respectively. She has yet to perform "Heart Attack at 23" and "You Go to My Head" in any capacity.

In 2017, Amos said she had made peace with the album, was considering reissuing it in the future. She made several press appearances in late August stating a re-issue would be out in November. Subsequently, an remastered edition of the album was discreetly released on all digital and streaming services for the first time on September 1, 2017, with no official announcement or promotion of any sort; this was followed by a limited physical re-release of the remastered album on CD and transparent orange vinyl by Rhino Records as part of International Record Store Day's Black Friday exclusive releases on November 24, 2017, only available at exclusive partaking independent record stores. All tracks are written by Tori Amos except. Tori Amos – lead singer, acoustic piano Paulinho Da Costapercussion Richard Bernardbouzouki Gene Blackguitar Kim Bullard – acoustic piano, keyboards Steve Caton – guitar Vinnie Colaiutadrums Devon Dickson – bagpipes Steve Farris – guitars Tim Landersfretless bass guitar Fernando Saunders – bass guitar Matt Sorum – drums Peter White – acoustic guitars Eric Williamsmandolin CeCe Bullard Merry Clayton James House Rick Nielsen Robin Zander Nancy Shanks The Valentine Brothers Y Kant Tori Read FAQ