Marie Joseph Louis Adolphe Thiers was a French statesman and historian. He was the second elected President of France, and the first President of the French Third Republic and he was ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra during his term as president. Thiers was a key figure in the July Revolution of 1830, which overthrew the Bourbon monarchy, and the French Revolution of 1848, which established the Second French Republic. He served as a minister in 1836,1840 and 1848, dedicated the Arc de Triomphe. He was first a supporter, an opponent of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte. When Napoleon III seized power, Thiers was arrested and briefly expelled from France and he returned and became an opponent of the government. Following the defeat of France in the Franco-German War, which Thiers opposed, he was elected executive of the new French government. When the Paris Commune seized power in March 1871, Thiers gave the orders to the army for its suppression, at the age of seventy-four, he was named President of the Republic by the French National Assembly in August 1871.
His chief accomplishment as president was to achieve the departure of German soldiers from most of French territory two years ahead of schedule. Opposed by the monarchists in the French assembly and the wing of the Republicans, he resigned on 24 May 1873. He was a literary figure, the author of a very successful ten-volume history of the French Revolution. In 1834 he was elected the second-youngest member ever of the Académie Française, Adolphe Thiers was born on 15 April 1797, during the rule of the Directorate. His father was a businessman and occasional government official under Napoleon and his father abandoned Adolphe and his mother shortly after he was born. His mother had little money, but Thiers was able to receive an education thanks to financial aid from an aunt. He won admission to a lycée of Marseille through a competitive examination, while studying at the faculty of law he began his lifelong friendship with François Mignet. They both were admitted to the bar in 1818, and Thiers made a living as a lawyer for three years.
He showed a strong interest in literature, and won a prize of five hundred francs for an essay on the marquis de Vauvenargues. Nonetheless, he was unhappy with his life in Aix and he wrote to his friend Teulon, I am without fortune, without status, and without any hope of having either here
The July Monarchy, was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848. It began with the overthrow of the government of Charles X. The king promised to follow the juste milieu, or the middle-of-the-road, avoiding the extremes of the supporters of Charles X. The July Monarchy was dominated by wealthy bourgeoisie and numerous former Napoleonic officials and it followed conservative policies, especially under the influence of François Guizot. The king promoted friendship with Great Britain and sponsored colonial expansion, by 1848, a year in which many European states had a revolution, the kings popularity had collapsed and he was overthrown. Louis Phillipe was pushed to the throne by an alliance between the people of Paris, the republicans, who had set up barricades in the capital, and the liberal bourgeoisie. However, at the end of his reign the so-called Citizen King was overthrown by similar barricades during the February Revolution of 1848, the Legitimists withdrew from the political stage to their castles, leaving the stage opened for the struggle between the Orleanists and the Republicans.
Louis-Philippe was crowned King of the French, instead of King of France, Louis-Philippe, who had flirted with liberalism in his youth, rejected much of the pomp and circumstance of the Bourbons and surrounded himself with merchants and bankers. The July Monarchy, remained a time of turmoil, a large group of Legitimists on the right demanded the restoration of the Bourbons to the throne. On the left, Republicanism and, remained a powerful force, late in his reign Louis-Philippe became increasingly rigid and dogmatic and his President of the Council, François Guizot, had become deeply unpopular, but Louis-Philippe refused to remove him. The situation gradually escalated until the Revolutions of 1848 saw the fall of the monarchy, during the first several years of his regime, Louis-Philippe appeared to move his government toward legitimate, broad-based reform. And indeed, Louis-Phillipe and his ministers adhered to policies that seemed to promote the central tenets of the constitution, though the July Monarchy seemed to move toward reform, this movement was largely illusory.
During the years of the July Monarchy, enfranchisement roughly doubled, this still represented only roughly one percent of population, and as the requirements for voting were tax-based, only the wealthiest gained the privilege. By implication, the enlarged enfranchisement tended to favor the wealthy merchant bourgeoisie more than any other group, beyond simply increasing their presence within the Chamber of Deputies, this electoral enlargement provided the bourgeoisie the means by which to challenge the nobility in legislative matters. Thus, while appearing to honor his pledge to increase suffrage, Louis-Philippe acted primarily to empower his supporters, the inclusion of only the wealthiest tended to undermine any possibility of the growth of a radical faction in Parliament, effectively serving socially conservative ends. The reformed Charter of 1830 limited the power of the King—stripping him of his ability to propose and decree legislation, one of the first acts of Louis-Philippe in constructing his cabinet was to appoint the rather conservative Casimir Perier as the premier of that body.
Perier, a banker, was instrumental in shutting down many of the Republican secret societies, in addition, he oversaw the dismemberment of the National Guard after it proved too supportive of radical ideologies. He performed all of actions, of course, with royal approval
Prime Minister of France
The French Prime Minister in the Fifth Republic is the head of government and of the Council of Ministers of France. During the Third and Fourth Republics, the head of government position was called President of the Council of Ministers, the Prime Minister proposes a list of ministers to the President of the Republic. Decrees and decisions of the Prime Minister, like almost all decisions, are subject to the oversight of the administrative court system. Few decrees are taken after advice from the Council of State, all prime ministers defend the programs of their ministry, and make budgetary choices. The extent to which those decisions lie with the Prime Minister or President depends upon whether they are of the same party, manuel Valls was appointed to lead the government in a cabinet reshuffle in March 2014, after the ruling Socialists suffered a bruising defeat in local elections. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of the Republic, the President can choose whomever they want.
On the other hand, because the National Assembly does have the power to force the resignation of the government, for example, right after the legislative election of 1986, President François Mitterrand appointed Jacques Chirac prime minister. Chirac was a member of the RPR and an opponent of Mitterrand. Despite the fact that Mitterrands own Socialist Party was the largest party in the Assembly, the RPR had an alliance with the UDF, which gave them a majority. Such a situation, where the President is forced to work with a minister who is an opponent, is called a cohabitation. So far, Édith Cresson is the woman to have ever held the position of prime minister. Aristide Briand holds the record for most nomination as Prime Minister with 11 between 1909 and 1929 with some terms as short as 26 days, other members of Government are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister can engage the responsibility of his or her Government before the National Assembly and this process consists of placing a bill before the Assembly, and either the Assembly overthrows the Government, or the bill is passed automatically.
In addition to ensuring that the Government still has support in the House, the Prime Minister may submit a bill that has not been yet signed into law to the Constitutional Council. Before he is allowed to dissolve the Assembly, the President has to consult the Prime Minister, the office of the prime minister, in its current form, dates from the formation of the French Third Republic. Under the French Constitutional Laws of 1875, he was imbued with the powers as his British counterpart. In practice, the minister was a fairly weak figure. Most notably, the legislature had the power to force the cabinet out of office by a vote of censure
Hugues-Bernard Maret, duc de Bassano
Hugues-Bernard Maret, 1st Duc de Bassano was a French statesman and journalist. Born at Dijon in Bourgogne, he received a solid education, the ideas of the French Revolution profoundly influenced him, wholly altering his career. The interest aroused by the debates of the first National Assembly suggested to him the idea of publishing them in the Bulletin de lAssemblée. After the execution of Bourbon King Louis XVI, the chief French diplomatic agent, Bernard-François de Chauvelin, was ordered to leave Britain and these events limited the impact of Marets second mission to London in January 1794. On Napoleon Bonapartes return from Egypt in 1799, Maret joined the party which came to power with the 18 Brumaire Coup. Maret now became one of Napoleons secretaries and shortly afterwards Secretary of State, an experienced politician, he rendered services of major value to the French Consulate and First French Empire. The Moniteur, which became the official State Journal in 1800, was placed under his control and he sometimes succeeded in toning down the hard, abrupt language of Napoleons communications, and in every way proved a useful intermediary.
It is known that he had a share in the drawing up of the new constitutions for the Batavian and Italian Republics. He was extremely devoted to Napoleon, as shown by his work to pass into law the artifices adopted by the latter in April–May 1808 in order to make himself master of the destinies of Spain. Maret assisted in drawing up the Spanish Constitution of 1808, in the spring of 1811, the Duc de Bassano replaced Jean-Baptiste de Champagny, as Minister of Foreign Affairs. In this capacity he showed his ability and devotion, concluding the treaties between France and Austria and France and Prussia, which preceded the French invasion of Russia in 1812. In November 1813 Napoleon replaced Maret with Armand, Marquis of Caulaincourt, however, as private secretary of Napoleon, remained with him through the campaign of 1814, as well as during that of 1815 and the Hundred Days. After the restoration of the Bourbons, Maret was exiled and he retired to Graz, where he occupied himself with literary work.
In 1820 he was allowed to return to France, after the July Revolution of 1830, the new king Louis-Philippe elevated him as a Peer of France. In November 1834 Maret served a time as Prime Minister of France. The Duc de Bassano died at Paris in 1839, list of Ambassadors of France to the United Kingdom Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Maret, Hugues-Bernard
French Third Republic
It came to an end on 10 July 1940. Harsh reparations exacted by the Prussians after the war resulted in the loss of the French regions of Alsace and Lorraine, social upheaval, and the establishment of the Paris Commune. The early governments of the Third Republic considered re-establishing the monarchy, but confusion as to the nature of that monarchy, the Third Republic, which was originally intended as a provisional government, instead became the permanent government of France. The French Constitutional Laws of 1875 defined the composition of the Third Republic and it consisted of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate to form the legislative branch of government and a president to serve as head of state. The period from the start of World War I to the late 1930s featured sharply polarized politics, Adolphe Thiers called republicanism in the 1870s the form of government that divides France least, politics under the Third Republic were sharply polarized. On the left stood Reformist France, heir to the French Revolution, on the right stood conservative France, rooted in the peasantry, the Roman Catholic Church and the army.
The Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871 resulted in the defeat of France, after Napoleons capture by the Prussians at the Battle of Sedan, Parisian deputies led by Léon Gambetta established the Government of National Defence as a provisional government on 4 September 1870. The deputies selected General Louis-Jules Trochu to serve as its president and this first government of the Third Republic ruled during the Siege of Paris. After the French surrender in January 1871, the provisional Government of National Defence disbanded, French territories occupied by Prussia at this time did not participate. The resulting conservative National Assembly elected Adolphe Thiers as head of a provisional government, due to the revolutionary and left-wing political climate that prevailed in the Parisian population, the right-wing government chose the royal palace of Versailles as its headquarters. The new government negotiated a settlement with the newly proclaimed German Empire. To prompt the Prussians to leave France, the government passed a variety of laws, such as the controversial Law of Maturities.
The following repression of the communards would have consequences for the labor movement. The Orléanists supported a descendant of King Louis Philippe I, the cousin of Charles X who replaced him as the French monarch in 1830, his grandson Louis-Philippe, Comte de Paris. The Bonapartists were marginalized due to the defeat of Napoléon III and were unable to advance the candidacy of any member of his family, the Bonaparte family. Legitimists and Orléanists came to a compromise, whereby the childless Comte de Chambord would be recognised as king, consequently, in 1871 the throne was offered to the Comte de Chambord. Chambord believed the monarchy had to eliminate all traces of the Revolution in order to restore the unity between the monarchy and the nation, which the revolution had sundered apart. Compromise on this was if the nation were to be made whole again
Jean-Joseph, Marquis Dessolles
Jean-Joseph Paul Augustin, Marquis Dessolles was a French soldier and statesman. He was the Prime Minister of France from 29 December 1818 to 18 November 1819, born in Auch, in 1767, he was educated under the direction of his uncle, Irénée-Yves de Solle, who was the Bishop of Digne and Chambéry. Having entered into service in 1792, he became an Adjutant-General under the command of Napoléon Bonaparte during the Italian campaign of the War of the First Coalition. He soon rose to the rank of Brigadier-General on May 31,1797, during the War of the Second Coalition, he served as Chief of Staff to Jean Moreau in the Italian theatre, where he distinguished himself at Noir in 1799. He defeated the Austrians in the Valtellina in 1800, where under his command, French forces killed 1,200, captured 4,000 men, and eighteen pieces of cannon. He assisted at the Battle of Novi, at the Battles of Sainte-Marie (where he was named Major-General on April 13,1799, and at Lodi and he contributed to the French victory of Hohenlinden in 1801, and remained in service up to the Peace of Lunéville.
He was named a State Councillor in ordinary service, attached to the War section, on 30 Frimaire of the year X, in the Year XII, he entered into extraordinary service, and remained a member of the Council of Administration of War until 1805. On 12 Pluviôse of the year XIII, he was named Governor of the Palace of Versailles and he received the provisional command of the Army of Hanover, until he was replaced by Bernadotte. He was on standby until 1808 and he was disgraced in 1806 for having held hostile intentions against the Emperor, and was taken off the Council List on February 2,1806. - Correspondence, XI, n°9088 He thereafter retired to a property that he owned near Auch, eventually winning back imperial favour, he did not return to the State Council, and from 1808 to 1810 he commanded a division in Spain. He distinguished himself at the Battle of Ocaña, at the Passage of Sierra Morena and he captured Cordoba, where he governed in a manner to reconcile hearts. He returned to France in February 1811, and remained until March 1812, in 1812, upon arrival in Smolensk, his health obligated him to return to Paris.
He was opposed to the return of Napoléon during the Hundred Days, under the Second Restoration, he pursued a political career. He was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs and President of the Council with the formation of a ministry in December 1818. In November 1819, he retired, disgusted by the demands of the reactionaries and he received public recognition as Ministre Honnête Homme, and was thereafter a supporter of civil liberties. He died in November 1828, at the Chateau de Monthuchet at Saulx-les-Chartreux and he was buried at the Père-Lachaise Cemetery. He is among the 660 people to have their names engraved under the Arc de Triomphe and it appears on the 15th column as DESSOLES. The principal pedestrian road of the centre of Auch is named in his honour