The bodhrán is an Irish frame drum ranging from 25 to 65 cm in diameter, with most drums measuring 35–45 cm. The sides of the drum are 9–20 cm deep. A goatskin head is tacked to one side; the other side is open-ended for one hand to be placed against the inside of the drum head to control the pitch and timbre. One or two crossbars, sometimes removable, may be inside the frame, but this is rare on modern instruments; some professional modern bodhráns integrate mechanical tuning systems similar to those used on drums found in drum kits. It is with a hex key that the bodhrán skins are tightened or loosened depending on the atmospheric conditions. According to musician Ronan Nolan, former editor of Irish Music magazine, the bodhrán evolved in the mid-19th century from the tambourine, which can be heard on some Irish music recordings dating back to the 1920s and viewed in a pre-Famine painting. However, in remote parts of the south-west, the "poor man's tambourine" – made from farm implements and without the cymbals – was in popular use among mummers, or wren boys.
A large oil painting on canvas by Daniel Maclise depicts a large Halloween house party in which a bodhrán features clearly. That painting, produced c. 1842, shows a flautist accompanied by a tambourine player who, in an Arabic style in contrast to standard bodhrán technique, used his fingers rather than a tipper. It is known that by the early 20th century, home-made frame drums were constructed using willow branches as frames, leather as drumheads, pennies as jingles. In photographs from the 1940s and videos from the 1950s, jingles remained part of the bodhrán construction like a tambourine, yet were played with cipín known in English as "tipper". Seán Ó Riada declared the bodhrán to be the native drum of the Celts as did Paraic McNeela used for winnowing or the dying of wool, with a musical history that predated Christianity, native to southwest Ireland; the Irish word bodhrán, indicating a drum, is first mentioned in a translated English document in the 17th century. It appears in Jacob Pool's list of words from the Baronies of Forth and Bargy in county Wexford, meaning "A drum, tambourine...also a sieve used in winnowing corn".
Third-generation bodhrán maker Caramel Tobin suggests that the name bodhrán means "skin tray". He suggests a link with the Irish word bodhar, among other things, a drum or a dull sound. A new introduction to Irish music, the bodhrán has replaced the role of the tambourine; the bodhrán is one of the most basic of drums and as such it is similar to the frame drums distributed across northern Africa from the Middle East, has cognates in instruments used for Arabic music and the musical traditions of the Mediterranean region. A larger form is found in the Iranian daf, played with the fingers in an upright position, without a stick. Traditional skin drums made by some Native Americans are close in design to the bodhrán as well, it has been suggested that the origin of the instrument may be the skin trays used in Ireland for carrying peat. The Cornish frame drum crowdy-crawn, used for harvesting grain, was known as early as 1880. Peter Kennedy observed a similar instrument in Dorset and Wiltshire in the 1950s, where it was known as a "riddle drum", a riddle being a large sieve for separating soil particles from stones etc.
Dorothea Hast has stated that until the mid-twentieth century the bodhrán was used as a tray for separating chaff, in baking, as a food server, for storing food or tools. She argues, she claims that while the earliest evidence of its use beyond ritual occurs in 1842, its use as a general instrument did not become widespread until the 1960s, when Seán Ó Riada used it. There are no known references to this particular name for a drum prior to the 17th century. Although various drums have been used in Ireland since ancient times, the bodhrán itself did not gain wide recognition as a legitimate musical instrument until the Irish traditional music resurgence in the 1960s in which it became known through the music of Seán Ó Riada and others; the second wave roots revival of Irish Traditional music in the 1960s and 1970s brought virtuoso bodhrán playing to the forefront, when it was further popularized by bands such as Ceoltóirí Chualann and The Chieftains. Growing interest led to internationally available LP recordings, at which time the bodhrán became a globally recognized instrument.
In the 1970s, virtuoso players such as The Boys of the Lough's Robin Morton, The Chieftains' Peadar Mercier, Planxty's Christy Moore, De Dannan's Johnny "Ringo" McDonagh further developed playing techniques. Although most common in Ireland, the bodhrán has gained popularity throughout the Celtic music world in Scotland, Cape Breton, North mainland Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. In Southern England tambourines were a popular accompaniment to traditional dance music. In the South West of England a similar instrument made from the frame of a garden sieve was once popular and known as a Riddle Drum. In Cornish traditional music they are called a crowdy-crawn; the bodhran has a
The pandero is a musical instrument of the membranophone family consisting of a circular frame made of wood or plastic, with a single head of skin stretched over it. It is played in folk music of Latin-America and Portugal. In many of these countries, when the frame has pairs of small metal jingles, it is called pandereta. In some countries, terms pandero and pandereta are interchangeable, it is played by tapping the head with fingers or palm. The Concise Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume 1.. ISBN 978-0415994033
A membranophone is any musical instrument which produces sound by way of a vibrating stretched membrane. It is one of the four main divisions of instruments in the original Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification; the Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification divides membranophones in a numeric taxonomy based on how the sound is produced: 21: by hitting the drumskin with a hand or object 22: by pulling a knotted string attached to the drumskin 23: by rubbing the drumskin with a hand or object 24: by modifying sounds through a vibrating membrane Membranophones can be divided into large divisions based on shape and manner of sound production: Tubular drums include a wide range of drum shapes, like waisted, footed, cylindrical and barrel Mirlitons and Swazzles vibrate in sympathy with sounds travelling across a membrane. These are the only membranophones that are not drums. SIL International maintains a classification system based on shape: Cylindrical drums are straight-sided, two-headed.
A buzzing, percussive string is sometimes used. Examples include the Iranian dohol. Conical drums are sloped on the sides, are one-headed. Examples include the Venezuelan chimbangueles. Barrel drums are one-headed, may be open at the bottom, they bulge in the middle. Examples include the Dhak from eastern parts of India, made by the Mossi of Burkina Faso out of a large calabash, the trong chau of Vietnam. Hourglass drums are hourglass-shaped and two-headed; the drumheads are laced onto the body, the laces may be squeezed during performance to alter the drum's pitch. Examples include folk drums in India and much of Africa, as well as some talking drums. Goblet drums are one-headed and goblet shaped, are open at the bottom. Examples include the Arab darabukka, a range of similar instruments from Armenia, Africa, Southeastern Europe and the Middle East. Footed drums are held above the ground by feet; the space between the drum and the ground provides extra resonance. Examples include a range of Polynesian drums.
Long drums are a diverse category, characterized by extreme length. Examples include the single-headed hollow tree trunk drums of Africa and the ornately carved and dyed gufalo of the Nuna in Burkina Faso. Kettle drums are played in pairs, have a vessel or pot body, are one-headed and tuned to a specific note. Examples include tabla. Frame drums are composed of one or more membranes stretched across a frame. Examples include the bodhran. Friction drums produce sound through friction, such as by rubbing a hand or object against the drumskin. Examples include the Spanish zambomba. Mirlitons and Swazzles produce sound by blowing air across a membrane; the traditional Chinese method of classifying instruments by composite material renders the following categories of drums: Jin: Metal drums, along with bells and gongs Ge: Leather-headed drums Mu: Wood drums and blocks Tu: Clay drums, as well as some kinds of clay ocarinasTraditional Japanese and Korean instrument classification schemes use the same scheme.
The traditional classification of Indian instruments include two categories of membranophones. Ghan: Percussion without membranes, such as chimes and gongs Avanaddh: Percussion with membranes, such as drums with skin heads The predrum category consists of simple drum-like percussion instruments; these include the ground drum, which, in its most common §—Form, consists of an animal skin stretched over a hole in the ground, the pot drum, made from a simple pot. Water drums are sometimes treated as a distinct category of membranophone. Common in Native American music and the music of Africa, water drums are characterized by a unique sound caused by filling the drum with some amount of water; the talking drum is an important category of West African membranophone, characterized by the use of varying tones to "talk". Talking drums are used to communicate across distances. Military drums or war drums are drums in various forms. Semispherical drum Vibrations of a circular membrane
The tar is an ancient, single-headed frame drum. It is played in the Middle East and North Africa; the tar's drumhead is struck with one hand. Campbell, Kay Hardy. "Saudi Folk Music: Alive and Well". Saudi Aramco World. Vol. 58 no. 2. Pp. 2–13
The pandeiro is a type of hand frame drum popular in Brazil, and, described as an unofficial instrument of that nation. The drumhead is tunable, the rim holds metal jingles, which are cupped creating a crisper and less sustained tone on the pandeiro than on the tambourine, it is held in one hand, struck on the head by the other hand to produce the sound. Typical pandeiro patterns are played by alternating the thumb, fingertips and palm of the hand. A Pandeiro can be shaken to make sound, or one can run a finger along the head to produce a roll; the Pandeiro is used in a number of Brazilian music forms, such as samba, choro and capoeira music. The Brazilian Pandeiro derives from the pandereta of Spain and Portugal; the term Pandeiro was used to describe a square double-skinned frame drum with a bell inside. It is derived from Moorish instrument still found in North Africa; the term pandeiro is still used in parts of Galicia and Portugal to describe the square-shaped drum, while the round drum with jingles is known as Pandeira in Galicia.
Some of the best-known pandeiro players today are Paulinho da Costa, Nanny Assis, Airto Moreira, Marcos Suzano, Cyro Baptista, Zé Maurício, Carlinhos Pandeiro de Ouro. Another notable pandeiro player was Milt Holland, a Los Angeles-based studio percussionist and drummer who travelled the world extensively to collect and study various ethnical percussion. Artists such as Stanton Moore use it non-traditionally by tuning it low to sound like a bass drum with jingles, mounting it on a stand and integrating it into the modern drum kit. Others, such as Sule Greg Wilson on the Carolina Chocolate Drops album Genuine Negro Jig, use it in tandem with a tunable bodhran — mounted — and play them as a pair with brushes to create drum kit effects, as well as their original intent as hand-held percussion. ViradaDrums.com Pandeiro.com Pandeiro by Emiliano Benevides at Emiliano.com "The Philosophy of... Pandeiro!" by Daniel Allen
A scarf joint is a method of joining two members end to end in woodworking or metalworking. The scarf joint is used, it is an alternative to other joints such as the butt joint and the splice joint and is favored over these in joinery because it yields a visible glue line. In woodworking, there are two distinctly different categories of scarf, based on whether the joint has interlocking faces or not. A plain scarf is two flat planes meeting on an angle relative to the axis of the stock being joined, depends on adhesive and/or mechanical fastening for all strength. Hooked and nibbed scarfs are some of the many example of interlocking scarfs, offering varying degrees of tensile and compressive strength, though most still depend on mechanical fastening to keep the joint closed; the plain scarf is not preferred when strength is required, so it is used in decorative situations, such as the application of trim or moulding. The use of modern high-strength adhesives can increase the structural performance of a plain scarf.
The keyed hook scarf is common in ship and boat-building, as well as timber framing and wooden bridge construction. In large timbers such as these the scarf is always secured with through bolts, is reinforced externally with iron or steel fishplates, and/or strapping. A scarf joint may be used to fix problems caused when a board is cut too short for the application; the board can be cut in half with a tapered cut yielding a scarf joint. When the joint is glued together, the tapers are slid against each other so that the two sections are no longer in line with each other; this has the effect of making the board longer. Once the glue has set, the board can be planed down to an thickness, resulting in a longer but thinner board. In traditional timber framing there are many types of scarf joints used to join timbers; the joint is formed by cutting opposing tapered ends on each member which are fitted together. When working with wood, this gives better long grain to long grain gluing surface, which yields a stronger joint than would be achieved with a simple butt joint.
The tapers are cut at an angle between 1:8 to 1:10. The ends of a plain scarf are feathered to a fine point which aids in the obscuring of the joint in the finished work, while in other forms of scarf the ends are cut to a blunt "nib" which engages a matching shoulder in the mating piece. Where scarfed joints are used in the restoration of vintage aircraft most developed countries will only issue an airworthiness certificate if all such joints have used an angle no less than 1:8. Determination of the maximum axial force for two pieces joined by adhesive can be determined using two equations that can be derived from the geometry of the problem by breaking the axial force component into a tensile force and shear force normal and parallel to the scarf joint. Shear strength is assumed to be equal to σ/2; the following equations need to be adjusted if the shear strength is greater than σ/2. The two equations that give a maximum axial force are F=σ/sin^2 and F=σ/sin, where α is the angle from the horizontal to the joint.
Both should be evaluated for a given problem, the smaller F of the two is the magnitude of the maximum allowable axial force. The first equation accounts for failure in tension; the second equation accounts for failure in shear. Some special angles should be noted or the graphs of two equations should be compared on the same plot; the joint is weakest at α=90° due to tension limits and 45° due to shear limits. However, α=45° will be stronger than α=90° if shear strength is greater than σ/2; the joint is strongest between these two angles at 63.4°. The joint becomes stronger than 63.4° at 25.4°. At a shallow enough angle, strength of the joint continues to increase and failure will occur anywhere in the two pieces outside the joint. Schwartz, Mel M.. Brazing: for the engineering technologist. Springer. ISBN 978-0-412-60480-5.. What is a scarf cut? Scarf cuts explained
Govinda Rao Harishankar, was a player of the kanjira, a tambourine-like frame drum used in the Carnatic music of South India. He is the only kanjira player to be awarded the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award, the highest national recognition given to performing artists. Harishankar received his initial training under his father Govinda Rao, he learnt under Ramanathapuram C. S. Murugabhoopathy and under Palghat Mani Iyer, he was a staff artist of Chennai. Some of his best performances in albums were with the Sruthilaya group along with Karaikudi R Mani on the mridangam, T V Vasan on the ghatam, Srirangam Kannan on the morsing, he performed on several albums including Laya Chithra and Grand Finale. He is considered by many as the greatest kanjira performer to date. Multiple sources say he had albinism, though many photos show him with dyed-dark hair