François Roland Truffaut was a French film director, producer and film critic. He is regarded as one of the founders of the French New Wave. In a film career lasting over a quarter of a century, he remains an icon of the French film industry, having worked on over 25 films. Truffaut's film The 400 Blows came to be a defining film of the French New Wave movement, was followed by four sequels, Antoine et Colette, Stolen Kisses and Board, Love on the Run, between 1958 and 1979. Truffaut's 1973 film Day for Night earned him critical acclaim and several accolades, including the BAFTA Award for Best Film and the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, his other notable films include Shoot the Piano Player and Jim, The Soft Skin, The Wild Child, Two English Girls, The Last Metro, The Woman Next Door. Truffaut was born in Paris on 6 February 1932, his mother was Janine de Montferrand. His mother's future husband, Roland Truffaut, accepted him as an adopted son and gave him his surname, he was passed around to live with his grandmother for a number of years.
It was his grandmother. He lived with his grandmother until her death, it was only after his grandmother's death. The identity of Truffaut's biological father was unknown, though a private detective agency in 1968 revealed that their inquiry into the matter led to a Roland Levy, a Jewish dentist from Bayonne. Truffaut's mother's family Truffaut himself believed and embraced them. Truffaut would stay with friends and try to be out of the house as much as possible, he knew Robert Lachenay from childhood, they would be lifelong best friends. Lachenay was the inspiration for the character René Bigey in The 400 Blows and would work as an assistant on some of Truffaut's films, it was the cinema. He was eight years old when he saw his first movie, Abel Gance's Paradis Perdu from 1939, it was there. He played truant from school and would sneak into theaters because he didn't have enough money for admission. After being expelled from several schools, at the age of fourteen he decided to become self-taught.
Two of his academic goals were to read three books a week. Truffaut frequented Henri Langlois' Cinémathèque Française where he was exposed to countless foreign films from around the world, it was here that he became familiar with American cinema and directors such as John Ford, Howard Hawks and Nicholas Ray, as well as those of British director Alfred Hitchcock. After starting his own film club in 1948, Truffaut met André Bazin, who would have great effect on his professional and personal life. Bazin was the head of another film society at the time, he became a personal friend of Truffaut's and helped him out of various financial and criminal situations during his formative years. Truffaut spent the next two years trying to escape. Truffaut was incarcerated in military prison. Bazin used his various political contacts to get Truffaut released and set him up with a job at his newly formed film magazine Cahiers du cinéma. Over the next few years, Truffaut became a critic at Cahiers, where he became notorious for his brutal, unforgiving reviews.
He was called "The Gravedigger of French Cinema" and was the only French critic not invited to the Cannes Film Festival in 1958. He supported Bazin in the development of one of the most influential theories of cinema itself, the auteur theory. In 1954, Truffaut wrote an article in Cahiers du cinéma called "Une Certaine Tendance du Cinéma Français", in which he attacked the current state of French films, lambasting certain screenwriters and producers, listing eight directors he considered incapable of devising the kinds of "vile" and "grotesque" characters and storylines that he declared were characteristic of the mainstream French film industry: Jean Renoir, Robert Bresson, Jean Cocteau, Jacques Becker, Abel Gance, Max Ophuls, Jacques Tati and Roger Leenhardt; the article caused a storm of controversy, landed Truffaut an offer to write for the nationally circulated, more read cultural weekly Arts-Lettres-Spectacles. Truffaut would pen more than 500 film articles for that publication over the next four years.
Truffaut devised the auteur theory, which stated that the director was the "author" of his work. Although his theory was not accepted it gained some support in the 1960s from American critic Andrew Sarris. In 1967, Truffaut published his book-length interview of Hitchcock/Truffaut. After having been a critic, Truffaut decided to make films of his own, he started out with the short film Une Visite in 1955 and followed that up with Les Mistons in 1957. After seeing Orson Welles' Touch of Evil at the Expo 58, he was inspired to make his feature film directorial debut with The 400 Blows, released in 1959 to much critical and commercial acclaim. Truffaut received a Best Director award from the Cannes Film Festival, the same festival that had banned him only one year earlier; the film follows the character of Antoine Doinel through his perilous misadventures in school, an unhappy home life and reform schoo
Landgravine Christine Wilhelmine of Hesse-Homburg was a German noblewoman. She was the eldest daughter of William Christoph, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg and his first wife Sophia Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt. On 28 May 1671 she married Frederick, Duke of Mecklenburg-Grabow, son of Adolf Frederick I, Duke of Mecklenburg and Marie Katharina of Brunswick-Dannenberg, they had the following children: Frederick William I. Carl Leopold. Christian Ludwig II. Sophie Louise.
Lyne Kirk is an ancient and historic kirk or church, of the Church of Scotland. It is situated on top of a mound adjacent to the A72 trunk route 4.5 miles west of Peebles in the ancient county of Peeblesshire, now in the Scottish Borders area, governed by the Scottish Borders Council. The church was founded in the 12th century, in the reign of William the Lion, as the Chapel of Lyne in the dependency of the nearby Stobo Kirk, overseen by the Bishopric of Glasgow. While still part of the diocese of Glasgow, Lyne became a parish in its own right in the 14th century. Reverend Hew Scott, author of the Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae remarked in that publication that he believed Lyne was the cradle of Christianity in Peeblesshire. Patrick Grinton 1560–1571 Gilbert Hay 1575–1592 John Ker 1593–1627 Hew Ker 1627–1658 Robert Brown 1659–1682 Towards the end of the Bishopric of Glasgow, Lyne Kirk was falling into disrepair and, in 1600, was described as ruinous. In 1644, the church was renovated and refurbished to form the fine building seen today.
The renovations were carried out by 8th Lord Yester. In 1889, Francis Charteris, Earl of Wemyss carried out further major renewal work on the church. John Hay was elevated to the earldom of Tweeddale; the interior of the church is 17th century with a pre-Reformation font and a new porch was added in the 19th century. The kirkyard contains many fine gravestones including the beautiful "Adam and Eve" gravestone, from 1712, depicting the temptation, by Lucifer, to eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge. Lyne Kirk is open to visitors. Lyne Water Lyne Lyne Viaduct List of places in the Scottish Borders More photographs at Lyne