Henri Langlois was a French film archivist and cinephile. A pioneer of film preservation, Langlois was an influential figure in the history of cinema, his film screenings in Paris in the 1950s are credited with providing the ideas that led to the development of the auteur theory. Langlois was co-founder of the Cinémathèque Française with Georges Franju and Jean Mitry and co-founder of the International Federation of Film Archives in 1938. Through close collaboration with the Cinémathèque's longtime Chief Archivist, Lotte Eisner, he worked to preserve films and film history in the post-war era. An eccentric, at the center of controversy for his methods, he served as a key influence on the generation of young cinephiles and critics who would become the French New Wave. In 1974, Langlois received an Academy Honorary Award for "his devotion to the art of film, his massive contributions in preserving its past and his unswerving faith in its future". In 1936 Henri Langlois, Georges Franju and Jean Mitry founded the Cinémathèque Française in Paris, their film theater and museum.
It grew from ten films in 1936 to more than 60,000 films by the early 1970s. More than an archivist, Langlois saved many films. Besides films, Langlois helped to preserve other items related to cinema such as cameras, projection machines and vintage theater programmes, he collected so many items that he donated them in 1972 to the Musée du Cinéma in the Palais de Chaillot, where they covered a two-mile span of film artifacts and memorabilia. The collection was relocated due to damage from a fire in 1997. During the Second World War and his colleagues helped to save many films that were at risk of being destroyed due to the Nazi occupation of France. Langlois influenced the French New Wave directors François Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard, Jacques Rivette, Claude Chabrol and Alain Resnais among others, the generation of filmmakers that followed; some of these filmmakers were called les enfants de la cinémathèque, as they could be found in the front row of packed screenings. Langlois' romantic attitude to film was in contrast to the scientific approach utilised by Ernest Lindgren at Britain's National Film Archive.
Langlois' methods were unconventional. He was accused of having no rational approach to record keeping; the Cinémathèque lost a portion of its collection to a nitrate fire on 10 July 1959. Sources are in conflict as to the extent of the loss. In September 1959, a rift developed between the Fédération Internationale des Archives du Film and the Cinémathèque. Langlois had been involved in the founding of FIAF; the dispute between the two bodies was resolved. In 1968, French culture minister André Malraux tried to fire Langlois by stopping funding of the project. Malraux had invited the Soviet Minister of Culture to Paris. Malraux requested Langlois to screen, at the Cinematheque at Palais de Chaillot, for the visiting minister, the original version of a movie—Octobre—by Sergei Eisenstein. Langlois had programmed the entire week and told Malraux that he could not accommodate the demands of the Soviet minister and that the Cinematheque was not a governmental agency; as an answer, Malraux closed the Cinematheque and sent the police against protesters Local and international uproar ensued, the prestigious Cannes Film Festival was halted in protest that year.
Protesters in Paris included the student activist Daniel Cohn-Bendit from University of Nanterre-Paris. Support came in telegrams from renowned directors, from Alfred Hitchcock to Kurosawa to Fellini to Gianni Serra. Malraux reinstated Langlois after intense debate, while reducing museum funding. Truffaut opens Stolen Kisses with a shot of the shuttered and locked Cinémathèque and dedicates the film to Langlois. In 1970, Langlois selected seventy films from the Cinémathèque's collection for inclusion in "Cinémathèque at the Metropolitan Museum," an exhibition in celebration of the Centennial of the Metropolitan Museum of Art; the exhibition, co-sponsored by the Metropolitan Museum and the City Center of Music and Drama in New York, showed seventy films dating from the medium’s first seventy-five years on thirty-five consecutive evenings from July 29 to September 3, 1970. Langlois selected films for their significance and contributions to the history of filmmaking, including work from official film industries as well as current and early avant garde directors.
The program was the most diverse film exhibition held in the United States to date, was the Museum’s first major undertaking in film. In 1974, Langlois received an Academy Honorary Award for his lifetime work with the Cinémathèque, he died three years and is interred in the Cimetière du Montparnasse in Paris. Place Henri Langlois in the 13th arrondissement in Paris is named in his honour. In 1970, an English language documentary Henri Langlois was made about his life's work, featuring interviews with Ingrid Bergman, Lillian Gish, François Truffaut, Catherine Deneuve, Jeanne Moreau and others; the film was directed by Roberto Guerra & Eila Hershon. In 2004–2005, Jacques Richard directed another documentary of Langlois's career, The Phantom of the Cinémathèque, it features interviews with friends, colleagues and such movie luminaries as Simone Signoret, Chabrol and his spiritual successor Jean-Michel Arnold. Bernardo Bertolucci's 2003 film The Dreamers dwells on the firing of Langlois and includes period footage of the events.
Cinema of the United States
The cinema of the United States metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a large effect on the film industry in general since the early 20th century. The dominant style of American cinema is classical Hollywood cinema, which developed from 1917 to 1960 and characterizes most films made there to this day. While Frenchmen Auguste and Louis Lumière are credited with the birth of modern cinema, American cinema soon came to be a dominant force in the industry as it emerged, it produces the total largest number of films of any single-language national cinema, with more than 700 English-language films released on average every year. While the national cinemas of the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand produce films in the same language, they are not considered part of the Hollywood system. Hollywood has been considered a transnational cinema. Classical Hollywood produced multiple language versions of some titles in Spanish or French. Contemporary Hollywood offshores production to Canada and New Zealand.
Hollywood is considered the oldest film industry where earliest film studios and production companies emerged, it is the birthplace of various genres of cinema—among them comedy, action, the musical, horror, science fiction, the war epic—having set an example for other national film industries. In 1878, Eadweard Muybridge demonstrated the power of photography to capture motion. In 1894, the world's first commercial motion-picture exhibition was given in New York City, using Thomas Edison's kinetoscope; the United States produced the world's first sync-sound musical film, The Jazz Singer, in 1927, was at the forefront of sound-film development in the following decades. Since the early 20th century, the US film industry has been based in and around the 30 Mile Zone in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. Director D. W. Griffith was central to the development of a film grammar. Orson Welles's Citizen Kane is cited in critics' polls as the greatest film of all time; the major film studios of Hollywood are the primary source of the most commercially successful and most ticket selling movies in the world, such as The Birth of a Nation, Gone with the Wind, The Sound of Music, The Godfather, Star Wars, E.
T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Jurassic Park and Avatar. Moreover, many of Hollywood's highest-grossing movies have generated more box-office revenue and ticket sales outside the United States than films made elsewhere. Today, American film studios collectively generate several hundred movies every year, making the United States one of the most prolific producers of films in the world and a leading pioneer in motion picture engineering and technology; the first recorded instance of photographs capturing and reproducing motion was a series of photographs of a running horse by Eadweard Muybridge, which he took in Palo Alto, California using a set of still cameras placed in a row. Muybridge's accomplishment led inventors everywhere to attempt to make similar devices. In the United States, Thomas Edison was among the first to produce such a device, the kinetoscope; the history of cinema in the United States can trace its roots to the East Coast where, at one time, Fort Lee, New Jersey was the motion-picture capital of America.
The industry got its start at the end of the 19th century with the construction of Thomas Edison's "Black Maria", the first motion-picture studio in West Orange, New Jersey. The cities and towns on the Hudson River and Hudson Palisades offered land at costs less than New York City across the river and benefited as a result of the phenomenal growth of the film industry at the turn of the 20th century; the industry began attracting both capital and an innovative workforce, when the Kalem Company began using Fort Lee in 1907 as a location for filming in the area, other filmmakers followed. In 1909, a forerunner of Universal Studios, the Champion Film Company, built the first studio. Others followed and either built new studios or who leased facilities in Fort Lee. In the 1910s and 1920s, film companies such as the Independent Moving Pictures Company, Peerless Studios, The Solax Company, Éclair Studios, Goldwyn Picture Corporation, American Méliès, World Film Company, Biograph Studios, Fox Film Corporation, Pathé Frères, Metro Pictures Corporation, Victor Film Company, Selznick Pictures Corporation were all making pictures in Fort Lee.
Such notables as Mary Pickford got their start at Biograph Studios. In New York, the Kaufman Astoria Studios in Queens, was built during the silent film era, was used by the Marx Brothers and W. C. Fields; the Edison Studios were located in the Bronx. Chelsea, Manhattan was frequently used. Picture City, Florida was a planned site for a movie picture production center in the 1920s, but due to the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane, the idea collapsed and Picture City returned to its original name of Hobe Sound. Other major centers of film production included Chicago, Texas and Cuba; the film patents wars of the early 20th century led to the spread of film companies across the US Many worked with equipment for which they did not own the rights and thus filming in New York could be dangerous. By 1912, most major film companies had set up production facilities in Southern California near or in Los Angeles because of the region's favorable year-round weather. In early 1910, director D. W. Griffith was sent by the Biograph Company to the west coast with his acting troupe, consisting of actors Blanche Sweet, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford, Lionel Barrymore and others.
They started filmi
Jacques Demy was a French director and screenwriter. He appeared in the wake of the French New Wave alongside contemporaries like Jean-Luc Godard and François Truffaut. Demy's films are celebrated for their sumptuous visual style. Demy's style drew upon such diverse sources as classic Hollywood musicals, the documentary realism of his New Wave colleagues, fairy-tales, Japanese manga, the opera, his films contain overlapping continuity, lush musical scores and motifs like teenaged love, labor rights and the intersection between dreams and reality. He is best known for the two musicals he directed in the mid-1960s: The Umbrellas of Cherbourg and The Young Girls of Rochefort. After working with the animator Paul Grimault and the filmmaker Georges Rouquier, Demy directed his first feature film, Lola, in 1961, with Anouk Aimée playing the eponymous cabaret singer; the Demy universe here emerges full-fledged. Characters burst into song. La Baie des Anges, starring Jeanne Moreau at the height of her fame, took the theme of fate further, with its story of love at the roulette tables.
Demy is best known for his original musical, Les Parapluies de Cherbourg, with a score by Legrand. Although the subversion of established genres was a New Wave obsession, Demy was unusual in recreating them literally; the whimsical concept of singing all the dialogue sets the tone for this tragedy of the everyday. The film sees the emergence of Demy's trademark visual style: whereas Lola, filmed by Godard's cinematographer Raoul Coutard, has a New Wave black-and-white austerity, Les Parapluies is shot in saturated supercolour, with every detail—-neckties, wallpaper Catherine Deneuve's bleached-blonde hair—selected for maximum visual impact. Roland Cassard, the young man from Lola reappears here; such reappearances are typical of Demy's work. Kurt Vonnegut was a huge fan of Les Parapluies, writing in private correspondence: "I saw The Umbrellas of Cherbourg, which I took hard. To an unmoored, middle-aged man like myself, it was heart-breaking. That's all right. I like to have my heart broken." Demy's subsequent films never quite captured audience and critical acclaim the way that Les Parapluies had, although he continued to make ambitious and original dramas and musicals.
Les Demoiselles de Rochefort, another whimsical-yet-melancholic musical, features Deneuve and her real-life sister Françoise Dorléac as sisters living in the seaside town of Rochefort, daughters of Danielle Darrieux. It was shot in color widescreen CinemaScope and featured an Oscar-nominated musical score, as well as dance appearances by Gene Kelly and West Side Story's George Chakiris. In 1968, after Columbia Pictures gave Demy a lucrative offer to shoot his first film in America, he and his wife, film director Agnès Varda, moved to Los Angeles briefly. Demy's end product was a naturalistic drama: 1969's Model Shop. Lola reappears, her dreams shattered. Abandoned by her husband Michel for a female gambler named Jackie Demaistre, Lola is scrounging to make enough money to return to France and her child, by working as a nude model in a backdoor model-shop on the Sunset Strip, she runs into an aimless young architect Gary Lockwood. Model Shop is a time capsule of late-1960s Los Angeles and documents the death of the hippie movement, the Vietnam draft, the ennui and misery that results from broken relationships.
This bleakness and decided lack of whimsy—uncharacteristic for Demy—had a large amount to do with Model Shop's critical and commercial failure. Peau d'Âne was a step in the opposite direction as a visually extravagant musical interpretation of a classic French fairytale which highlights the tale's incestuous overtones, starring Deneuve, Jean Marais, Delphine Seyrig, it was Demy's first foray into the world of fairy tales and historical fantasia, which he would explore more in The Pied Piper and Lady Oscar. Although none of Demy's subsequent films captured the contemporary success of his earlier work, some of them have since been reappraised: David Thomson wrote about "the fascinating application of the operatic technique to an unusually dark story" in Une chambre en ville. L'événement le plus important depuis que l'homme a marché sur la lune is a look back at the pressures of second-wave feminism in France and the fears it elicited in men. Lady Oscar, based on the Japanese manga series The Rose of Versailles, has been discussed and analyzed for its queer and political subtext.
Parapluies de Cherbourg has since been color-restored twice from origi
Little Fugitive (1953 film)
Little Fugitive is an American film written and directed by Raymond Abrashkin, Morris Engel and Ruth Orkin that tells the story of a child alone in Coney Island. The film stars Richard Brewster as his brother Lennie. Little Fugitive influenced the French New Wave and is considered by modern-day critics to be a landmark film because of its naturalistic style and groundbreaking use of nonprofessional actors in lead roles, it was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Writing, Motion Picture Story and screened at Venice film festival where it was awarded the silver lion. In 1997, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant", it was the best known of Engel's three feature films. It was followed by Lovers and Lollipops in 1956 and Weddings and Babies, filmed in 1957 and released in 1960. All three films were similar stylistically and were filmed with hand-held 35 mm. cameras. The cameras used in the first two movies did not record sound, dialogue was dubbed subsequent to filming.
Weddings and Babies was the first fiction feature filmed with a portable camera that allowed synchronized sound. Joey Norton, seven years old, lives with his older brother Lennie in a lower-middle-class neighborhood of Brooklyn. Joey is too small to be taken by Lennie and Lennie's friends. One day, while their mother is away visiting her sick mother and his friends play a joke on Joey, they stage an incident using catsup and a toy gun, so that Joey thinks he has shot and killed his brother. Joey, told the police will catch and imprison him, runs to the nearest elevated train station and flees to Coney Island, he seems to forget his predicament and spends the day wandering around the arcades, pony rides, beach—a little boy's paradise. He gets money for snacks by cashing in deposit bottles and spends the night sleeping under the boardwalk. Meanwhile, Lennie is frantically trying to find him. Joey loves horses, he begins hanging around a pony ride; the proprietor of the ride becomes suspicious. He tricks Joey into giving him his address.
He alerts Lennie. Lennie comes to Coney Island, after a frantic search, finds little Joey, their mother returns. She is unaware of what happened, pleased that her two sons behaved so well during her absence, says they will have a treat that weekend: a trip to Coney Island! Richie Andrusco as Joey Norton Richard Brewster as Lennie Norton Winifred Cushing as Mother Jay Williams as Jay the Pony Ride Man Will Lee as Photographer Charlie Moss as Harry Tommy DeCanio as Charley The lead character of Joey was played by Richie Andrusco, a nonprofessional actor who never appeared in any other film; the other actors in the film were largely nonprofessionals. Actor Will Lee made a cameo appearance as a Coney Island photographer. Writer/director Raymond Abrashkin and actor Jay Williams co-wrote the "Danny Dunn" series of juvenile science fiction novels; the movie was filmed on location at Coney Island and Brooklyn, United States, using a unique, concealed strap-on camera, which made it possible for Engel to work without a tripod and large crew.
It allowed him to have thousands of beach-going New Yorkers as extras without their knowing it. The device could be seen as a prototype for the Steadicam and was designed by him and the inventor Charlie Woodruff, a friend and fellow combat photographer he met during World War II, whom Engel called a ""mechanical and engineering genius." This innovation proved to be "the heart and soul of why Little Fugitive was possible." Over the years, filmmakers such as Stanley Kubrick and Jean-Luc Godard were eager to borrow this unique camera. The film was greeted by critical acclaim at the time, was a major influence on the French New Wave. François Truffaut was inspired by Little Fugitive's spontaneous production style when he created The 400 Blows, saying long afterwards: "Our New Wave would never have come into being if it hadn't been for the young American Morris Engel, who showed us the way to independent production with fine movie."Modern critics have praised the film. Critic Dennis Schwartz wrote "A remarkable indy classic, made on a shoestring budget by a group of still photographers.
It's an affecting lyrical comedy-drama that captures the flavor of urban childhood innocence of the 1950s. It's written and directed by the team of Morris Engel and Ray Ashley and Ruth Orkin... The dialogue was sparse, the story was unambitious, the film lacked drama, the children were ordinary and their problem was only a minor one this beautifully realized film caught the world through the innocent eyes of a curious and scared child and left an impression, hard to shake, it was uplifting to watch because the effort was so genuine."When the film was screened in New York in 2005, film critic Joshua Land wrote "Little Fugitive shines as a beautifully shot document of a bygone Brooklyn—any drama here resides in the grainy black-and-white cinematography, with its careful attention to the changes in light brought on by the inexorably advancing sun... Filled with'Aw, fellas!' period ambience and the mythic imagery of cowboys and horses and baseball, it's a key proto-vérité slice of urban America."Rotten Tomatoes reported that 93% of critics gave the film a positive review, based on 15 reviews.
Wins Venice Film Festival: Silver Lion, Ray Ashley, Morris Engel, Ruth Orkin. Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists: Silver Ribbon, Best Foreign Film, Ray Ashley, Morris Engel, Ruth Orkin. Nominations Venice
Cinephilia is the term used to refer to a passionate interest in films, film theory, film criticism. The term is a portmanteau of the words cinema and philia, one of the four ancient Greek words for love. A person with a passionate interest in cinema is called a cinephile, filmophile, or, informally, a film buff. In English, "cinephile" is sometimes used interchangeably with the word cineaste, though in the original French the term cinéaste refers to a cinephile, a filmmaker. In a review of a book on the history of cinephilia, Mas Generis writes: "Cinephilia, is the condition of a sexual attraction to movies." Generis introduces a quote from film scholar Annette Michelson that states that there is, "No one such thing as cinephilia, but rather forms and periods of cinephilia." As described by Antoine de Baecque and Thierry Frémaux, "The definitive essence of cinephila is a culture of the discarded that prefers to find intellectual coherence where none is evident and to eulogize the non-standard and the minor."Film historian Thomas Elsaesser wrote that it "reverberates with nostalgia and dedication... more than a passion of going to the movies and only a little less than an entire attitude towards life".
Since the beginning of the silent era, there have been film clubs and publications in which people who felt passionately about cinema could discuss their interests and see rare and older works. At the beginning of the sound era, there were more and more people interested in seeing older films, which led to the establishment of organizations such as the Cinémathèque Française, the first major archive devoted to film preservation; the most notable cinephilic community of the 20th century was the one that developed in Paris in the decades following World War II. An influx of foreign films, withheld during the Occupation, as well as the screening programs of local film clubs and the Cinémathèque Française, generated interest in world cinema amongst the city's intellectual youth culture. In general, the cinephiles of the period set a template for future like-minded groups by having keen enthusiasm for both older and contemporary films. Influential film clubs of the period included Objectif 49, whose members included Robert Bresson and Jean Cocteau, the Ciné-Club du Quartier Latin.
Revue du Cinéma, a magazine published by members of the two clubs evolved into the influential film magazine Cahiers du Cinéma. Many of the people who attended the screenings became film critics and filmmakers, founding the film movement known as the French New Wave. André Bazin, François Truffaut, Jacques Doniol-Valcroze, Claude Chabrol, Jean-Luc Godard, Alexandre Astruc, Jacques Rivette, Luc Moullet and others were regulars, several, most notably Truffaut, maintained their ties to the community after they had achieved fame; the community fostered an interest in directors and films, neglected, forgotten or unknown in the West, led to the development of the auteur theory. The directors the French cinephiles of the period had strong interests in included F. W. Murnau, Robert Flaherty, Sergei Eisenstein, Jean Renoir, Jean Vigo, Orson Welles, Anthony Mann, Louis Feuillade, D. W. Griffith, the Lumière Brothers, Alfred Hitchcock and Georges Méliès, whose films would be screened from nitrate prints on special occasions.
With the popular success of the French New Wave, film-going became fashionable in Europe and America. Revival screenings and independently run cinemas specializing in foreign films became common. In the United States, New York City was seen as the center of cinephile culture, due to the wide variety of films available to see at any given time; this culture was helped by the popularity in America of figures such like Pauline Kael, Andrew Sarris and Susan Sontag. Certain writers and critics, including Sontag, would come to view this as the "golden age" of film-going in the US. Directors such as Ingmar Bergman, Akira Kurosawa, Michelangelo Antonioni and Federico Fellini enjoyed a great deal of popularity in the US and influenced the young generation of film enthusiasts who would become the New Hollywood, including Martin Scorsese, Peter Bogdanovich, Francis Ford Coppola and Woody Allen. Due to growing public interest in films from other countries, specialty distributors such as Janus Films and New Yorker Films began importing and subtitling foreign movies.
The era saw the growth of college film societies in the US. Though some, like Doc Films at the University of Chicago, had existed since the 1930s, the 1960s saw directors of all generations make appearances at college campuses, whether to revisit their old films or to discuss new ones. At the same time, the Parisian cinephilic culture became politicized. Critics, by extension the cinephiles who followed their work, began to emphasize political aspects of films and directors. Though many of the major figures of the post-war community has been aligned with the political right—including most of the Cahiers du Cinéma group—by the late 1960s Cahiers and the young cinephile public in general had aligned with various forms of the Left, with some figures, such as Jean-Luc Godard, aligning with Maoism. In this politicized climate, cinema was seen as directly connected to Marxism. Many members of this new generation of cinephiles would become critics and directors, including Serge Daney, Philippe Garrel, Andre Techine.
Though most of the world's major film festivals had existed for decades by this point—including the Berlin International Film Festival, the Cannes Film Festival and the Venice Film Festival—the period saw the establishment of festivals in nearly every major city. Th
John Ford was an American film director. He is renowned both for Westerns such as Stagecoach, The Searchers, The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance, as well as adaptations of classic 20th-century American novels such as the film The Grapes of Wrath, his four Academy Awards for Best Director remain a record. One of the films for which he won the award, How Green Was My Valley won Best Picture. In a career that spanned more than 50 years, Ford directed more than 140 films and he is regarded as one of the most important and influential filmmakers of his generation. Ford's work was held in high regard by his colleagues, with Orson Welles and Ingmar Bergman among those who have named him one of the greatest directors of all time. Ford made frequent use of location shooting and long shots, in which his characters were framed against a vast and rugged natural terrain. Ford was born John Martin "Jack" Feeney in Cape Elizabeth, Maine, to John Augustine Feeney and Barbara "Abbey" Curran, on February 1, 1894.
His father, John Augustine, was born in Spiddal, County Galway, Ireland, in 1854. Barbara Curran was born in the town of Kilronan on the island of Inishmore. John A. Feeney's grandmother, Barbara Morris, was said to be a member of a local gentry family, the Morrises of Spiddal. John Augustine and Barbara Curran arrived in Boston and Portland in May and June 1872, they married in 1875 and became American citizens five years on September 11, 1880. They had eleven children: Mamie, born 1876. John Augustine lived in the Munjoy Hill neighborhood of Portland, with his family, would try farming, working for the gas company, running a saloon, being an alderman. Feeney attended Portland High School, Maine, where he was a successful fullback and defensive tackle, he earned the nickname "Bull" because of the way he would charge the line. A Portland pub is named Bull Feeney's in his honor, he moved to California and in 1914 began working in film production as well as acting for his older brother Francis, adopting "Jack Ford" as a professional name.
In addition to credited roles, he appeared uncredited as a Klansman in D. W. Griffith's 1915 The Birth of a Nation, he married Mary McBride Smith on July 3, 1920, they had two children. His daughter Barbara was married to singer and actor Ken Curtis from 1952 to 1964; the marriage between Ford and Smith lasted for life despite various issues, one of which could have proved problematic from the start, this being that John Ford was Catholic while she was a non-Catholic divorcée. What difficulty was caused by the two marrying is unclear as the level of John Ford's commitment to the Catholic faith is disputed. A strain would have been Ford's many extramarital relationships. John Ford began his career in film after moving to California in July 1914, he followed in the footsteps of his multi-talented older brother Francis Ford, twelve years his senior, who had left home years earlier and had worked in vaudeville before becoming a movie actor. Francis played in hundreds of silent pictures for filmmakers such as Thomas Edison, Georges Méliès and Thomas Ince progressing to become a prominent Hollywood actor-writer-director with his own production company at Universal.
John Ford started out in his brother's films as an assistant, handyman and occasional actor doubling for his brother, whom he resembled. Francis gave his younger brother his first acting role in The Mysterious Rose. Despite an combative relationship, within three years Jack had progressed to become Francis' chief assistant and worked as his cameraman. By the time Jack Ford was given his first break as a director, Francis' profile was declining and he ceased working as a director soon after. One notable feature of John Ford's films is that he used a'stock company' of actors, far more so than many directors. Many famous stars appeared in at least two or more Ford films, including Harry Carey Sr. Will Rogers, John Wayne, Henry Fonda, Maureen O'Hara, James Stewart, Woody Strode, Richard Widmark, Victor McLaglen, Vera Miles and Jeffrey Hunter. Many of his supporting actors appeared in multiple Ford films over a period of several decades, including Ben Johnson, Chill Wills, Andy Devine, Ward Bond, Grant Withers, Mae Marsh, Anna Lee, Harry Carey Jr.
Ken Curtis, Frank Baker, Dolores del Río, Pedro Armendáriz, Hank Worden, John Qualen, Barry Fitzgerald, Arthur Shields, John Carradine, O. Z. Whitehead and Carleton Young. Core members of this extended'troupe', including Ward Bond, John Carradine, Harry Carey Jr. Mae Marsh, Frank Baker and Ben Johnson, were informally known as the John Ford Stock Company. Ford enjoyed extended working relationships with his production team, many of his crew worked with him for decades, he made numerous films with the same major collaborators, including producer and business partner Merian C. Cooper, scriptwriters Nunnally Johnson, Dudley Nichols and Frank S. Nugent, cinematographers Ben F. Reynolds, John W. Brown and Georg
Agnès Varda was a Belgian-born French film director and artist. Her work was pioneering for, central to, the development of the influential French New Wave film movement of the 1950s and 1960s, her films focused on achieving documentary realism, addressing feminist issues, and/or producing other social commentary, with a distinctive experimental style. Varda's work employed location shooting in an era when the limitations of sound technology made it easier and more common to film indoors, with constructed sets and painted backdrops of landscapes, rather than the real thing, her use of non-professional actors was unconventional in the context of 1950s French cinema. Among other awards and nominations, she received an honorary Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival, a Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival, an Academy Honorary Award, was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature. Varda was born Arlette Varda on 30 May 1928 in Ixelles, Belgium, to Christiane and Eugène Jean Varda, an engineer.
Her mother was from Sète, her father was a member of a family of Greek refugees from Asia Minor. She was the third of five children. Varda changed her first name to Agnès at age 18. During World War II, she lived on a boat in Sète with the rest of her family. Varda attended the Lycée et collège Victor-Duruy, received a bachelor's degree in literature and psychology from the Sorbonne, she described her relocation to Paris as a "truly excruciating" one that gave her "a frightful memory of my arrival in this grey, sad city." She did not get along with her fellow students and described classes at the Sorbonne as "stupid, abstract, scandalously unsuited for the lofty needs one had at that age." Varda intended to become a museum curator, studied art history at the École du Louvre, but decided to study photography at the Vaugirard School of Photography instead. She began her career as a still photographer before becoming one of the major voices of the Left Bank Cinema and the French New Wave. However, she maintained a fluid interrelationship between photographic and cinematic forms: "I take photographs or I make films.
Or I put films in the photos, or photos in the films."Varda discussed her beginnings with the medium of still photography: "I started earning a living from photography straight away, taking trivial photographs of families and weddings to make money. But I wanted to make what I called'compositions.' And it was with these that I had the impression I was doing something where I was asking questions with composition and meaning." In 1951, her friend Jean Vilar opened the Théâtre National Populaire and hired Varda as its official photographer. Before accepting her position there, she worked as a stage photographer for the Theatre Festival of Avignon, she worked at the Théâtre National Populaire for ten years from 1951 to 1961, during which time her reputation grew and she obtained photo-journalist jobs throughout Europe. Varda's still photography sometimes inspired her subsequent motion pictures, she recounted: "When I made my first film, La Pointe Courte — without experience, without having been an assistant before, without having gone to film school — I took photographs of everything I wanted to film, photographs that are models for the shots.
And I started making films with the sole experience of photography, that's to say, where to place the camera, at what distance, with which lens and what lights?" She recalled another example:I made a film in 1982 called Ulysse, based on another photograph I took in 1954, one I'd made with the same bellows camera, I started Ulysse with the words,'I used to see the image upside down.' There's an image of a goat on the ground, like a fallen constellation, and, the origin of the photograph. With those cameras, you'd frame the image upside down, so I saw Brassaï through the camera with his head at the bottom of the image. In 2010 Varda joined the gallery Nathalie Obadia; the beginning of Varda's filmmaking career pre-dates the start of the French New Wave, but contains many elements specific to that movement. While working as a photographer, Varda became interested in making a film, although she stated that she knew little about the medium and had only seen around twenty films by the age of twenty-five.
She said that she wrote her first screenplay "just the way a person writes his first book. When I'd finished writing it, I thought to myself:'I'd like to shoot that script,' and so some friends and I formed a cooperative to make it." She found the filmmaking process difficult because it did not allow the same freedom as writing a novel. In an interview with The Believer, Varda stated that she wanted to make films that related to her time, rather than focusing on traditions or classical standards. Varda was interested in moving into film. After spending a few days filming the small French fishing town of La Pointe Courte for a terminally ill friend who could no longer visit on his own, Varda decided to shoot a feature film of her own, thus in 1954, Varda's first film, La Pointe Courte, about an unhappy couple working through their relationship in a small fishing town, was released. The film is a stylistic precursor to the French New Wave. At the time, Varda was influenced by the philosophy of Gaston Bachelard, under whom she had once studied at the Sorbonne.
"She was interested in his theory of'l'imagination des matières,' in which certain personality traits were found to correspond to concrete elements in a kind of psychoanalysis of the material world." This idea finds expressi