Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
Victor Emmanuel III was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946. In addition, he held the thrones of Ethiopia and Albania as Emperor of Ethiopia and King of the Albanians. During his reign of nearly 46 years, which began after the assassination of his father Umberto I, the Kingdom of Italy became involved in two world wars, his reign encompassed the birth and fall of Italian Fascism. During World War I, Victor Emmanuel III accepted the resignation of Prime Minister Paolo Boselli and named Vittorio Emanuele Orlando in his place. Following the March on Rome, he appointed Benito Mussolini as Prime Minister and deposed him in 1943 during World War II. Victor Emmanuel abdicated his throne in 1946 in favour of his son Umberto II, hoping to strengthen support for the monarchy against an successful referendum to abolish it, he went into exile to Alexandria, where he died and was buried the following year. His remains were returned in 2017 to rest in Italy, following an agreement between Italian President Sergio Mattarella and Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi.
He was called by the Italians Sciaboletta due to his height of 1.53 m, or Il Re soldato for having led his country during both the world wars. Victor Emmanuel was born in Italy, he was the only child of Umberto I, King of Italy, his consort, Princess Margherita of Savoy. Margherita was the daughter of the Duke of Genoa. Unlike his paternal first cousin's son, the 1.98 m tall Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta, Victor Emmanuel was short of stature by 19th-century standards, to the point that today he would appear diminutive. He was just 1.53 m tall. From birth until his accession, Victor Emmanuel was known by the title of the Prince of Naples. On 24 October 1896, Prince Victor Emmanuel married Princess Elena of Montenegro. On 29 July 1900, at the age of 30, Victor Emmanuel acceded to the throne upon his father's assassination; the only advice that his father Umberto gave his heir was "Remember: to be a king, all you need to know is how to sign your name, read a newspaper, mount a horse". His early years showed evidence that, by the standards of the Savoy monarchy, he was a man committed to constitutional government.
Indeed though his father was killed by an anarchist, the new King showed a commitment to constitutional freedoms. Though parliamentary rule had been established in Italy, the Statuto Albertino, or constitution, granted the king considerable residual powers. For instance, he had the right to appoint the Prime Minister if the individual in question did not command majority support in the Chamber of Deputies. A shy and somewhat withdrawn individual, the King hated the day-to-day stresses of Italian politics, though the country's chronic political instability forced him to intervene on no fewer than ten occasions between 1900 and 1922 to solve parliamentary crises; when World War I began, Italy at first remained neutral, despite being part of the Triple Alliance. However, in 1915, Italy signed several secret treaties committing her to enter the war on the side of the Triple Entente. Most of the politicians opposed war and the Italian Chamber of Deputies forced Prime Minister Antonio Salandra to resign.
At this juncture, Victor Emmanuel declined Salandra's resignation and made the decision for Italy to enter the war. He was well within his rights to do so under the Statuto, which stipulated that ultimate authority for declaring war rested with the crown. Popular demonstrations in favor of the war were staged in Rome, with 200,000 gathering on 16 May 1915, in the Piazza del Popolo. However, the corrupt and disorganised war effort, the stunning loss of life suffered by the Italian army at the great defeat of Caporetto, the Post–World War I recession turned the King against what he perceived as an inefficient political bourgeoisie; the King visited the various areas of northern Italy suffering repeated strikes and mortar hits from elements of the fighting there, demonstrated considerable courage and concern in visiting many people, his wife the queen taking turns with nurses in caring for Italy's wounded. It was at this time, the period of World War I, that the King enjoyed the genuine affection of the majority of his people.
Still, during the war he received about 400 threatening letters from people of every social background working class. The economic depression which followed World War I gave rise to much extremism among Italy's sorely tried working classes; this caused the country as a whole to become politically unstable. Benito Mussolini, soon to be Italy's Fascist dictator, took advantage of this instability for his rise to power. In 1922, Mussolini led a force of his Fascist supporters on a March on Rome. Prime Minister Luigi Facta and his cabinet drafted a decree of martial law. After some hesitation the King refused to sign it, citing doubts about the ability of the army to contain the uprising. Fascist violence had been growing in intensity throughout the summer and autumn of 1922, climaxing in rumours of a possible coup. On 24 October 1922, during the Fascist congress in Naples, Mussolini announced that the Fascists would march on Rome "take by the throat our miserable ruling class". General Pietro Badoglio
The SPAD S. VII was the first of a series of successful biplane fighter aircraft produced by Société Pour L'Aviation et ses Dérivés during the First World War. Like its successors, the S. VII was renowned as a rugged aircraft with good climbing and diving characteristics, it was a stable gun platform, although pilots used to the more manoeuvrable Nieuport fighters found it heavy on the controls. It was flown by a number of the famous aces, such as France's Georges Guynemer, Italy's Francesco Baracca and Australia's Alexander Pentland. Performance in early aircraft designs was dependent on engines. In February 1915, Swiss designer Marc Birkigt had created an overhead cam aviation powerplant based on his Hispano-Suiza V8 automobile engine, resulting in a 330 lb engine capable of producing 140 hp at 1,400 rpm. Further refinement of the engine brought the power to 150 hp by July 1915. Given the engine's potential, French officials ordered that production be set up as soon as possible and called upon aircraft designers to create a new high-performance fighter around the engine, called the Hispano-Suiza 8A.
Louis Béchereau, chief designer of the SPAD company produced drawings for a prototype fighter equipped with the new engine. The SPAD V was a smaller version of the SPAD S. A two-seat "pulpit fighter", although as a single seater it dispensed with the so-called "pulpit" which carried the observer in front of the propeller. One of many common design feature between the new SPAD V and the S. A-2 was the use of a single-bay biplane wing with additional light struts mounted mid-bay at the point of junction of the flying and landing wires; this design reduced flying wire vibration, reducing drag. The fuselage was of the standard construction for the time, consisting of a wooden frame covered with fabric, while the forward part was covered with metal sheeting. A.303 Vickers machine gun was installed above the engine, synchronized to fire through the propeller arc. The prototype was fitted with a large spinner, to be abandoned later. Another common design feature of both the "pulpit fighters" and the S.
VII - shared with the S. XIII - was an all-pushrod aileron control linkage, which used a pair of exposed, 90º bellcranks protruding from the lower wing panels to operate vertical pushrods, going up to forward-projecting aileron control horns. SPAD test pilot Bequet flew the SPAD V for the first time in April 1916. Flight testing revealed excellent maximum climb rate; the airframe's sound construction enabled remarkable diving performance. In comparison, the Nieuport sesquiplane fighters that equipped a large part of the fighter units could shed their lower wings in a steep power-on dive, a result of the single-spar lower wing design; the combination of high speed and good diving ability promised to give Allied pilots the initiative to engage or leave combat. If the new fighter was a rugged and stable shooting platform, some pilots regretted its lack of maneuverability when compared to lighter types such as the Nieuport 17. In the face of such performance, an initial production contract was made on 10 May 1916, calling for 268 machines, to be designated SPAD VII C.1.
Early production aircraft suffered from a number of defects which took some time to solve and limited the delivery rate to units. While a few SPADs arrived to frontline units as early as August 1916, large numbers only began to appear in the first months of 1917. In hot weather, the engine was prone to overheating. In cold weather, the engine would not warm up. Various field modifications were used to counter the problem, including cutting extra holes in the metal sheeting to provide more air flow over the engine. On the production lines, the cowling opening was first enlarged and redesigned with vertical shutters to solve both problems; the engine mount proved too weak and reinforcements were designed to counter that. Early production aircraft had two ammunition drums: one for the loaded canvas cartridge belt, one to hold the empty belt after the rounds were stripped from it and fired This system was prone to jamming and was only solved when Prideaux disintegrating ammo links were introduced.
With the initial teething problems solved, several subcontractors began producing the SPAD VII under license in order to supply frontline units with the fighter. The subcontractors were the firms Grémont, Kellner et Fils, de Marçay, Société d'Etudes Aéronautiques, Régy and Sommer, it was not, until February 1917 that the initial batch of 268 aircraft was delivered. In early 1917, an improved version of the engine developing 180 hp, the Hispano-Suiza 8Ab, was made available; this new powerplant provided the SPAD VII with better performance, the top speed increasing from 192 km/h to 208 km/h. The new engine became the standard powerplant for the SPAD VII and by April 1917, all newly produced aircraft were equipped with it. Numerous experiments were made with new equipment or engines in the hope of further improving the SPAD VII's performance. A Renault V8 150 hp powerplant was tested but required some major redesign and the resulting performance was not considered worthwhile. A supercharged Hispano-Suiza engine was tested, failed to improve performance by any significant degree.
Different wing profiles were not incorporated in production models. One field modification was appl
Military Academy of Modena
The Military Academy of Modena is a military university in Modena, northern Italy. Located in the Palazzo Ducale in the historic center of the city, it was the first such military institution to be created in the world; the academy is open for enrollment to both sexes, focuses on the initial training and selection of future military officers in the Italian Army or in the Carabinieri. A typical course of study is at least two years in duration. Upon the successful completion of the syllabus, the trainee can either go on to study another three years at the Military Research Institute of Turin or at the Carabinieri Officer Candidate School in Rome; the Academy was founded in Turin part of the Duchy of Savoy. In 1669, Duke Charles Emmanuel II devised the creation of an academy to provide competent military leaders who would be faithful to the House of Savoy, he subsequently began designing the layout and gathering the staff and funds necessary for the construction of such an academy. The institution would be completed many years due to the Duke's premature death.
On January 1, 1678, the Duchess Maria Giovanna Battista of Savoy-Nemours, the state regent, opened the Royal Academy. As such, it is the first military institution of its kind in the world, preceding the Artillery Military Academy in St. Petersburg, the Royal Military Academy of Woolwich, the Ecole Militaire in Paris, United States Military Academy in West Point; the design and construction of Turin's Royal Academy were entrusted to the Court Architect Amedeo di Castellamonte, whose design housed the academy until 1943. The aerial bombardments of World War II destroyed the entire complex; the Modena location of this academy can trace its roots back to the "Academy and Conference of Military Architecture" founded by the duke Francesco III d'Este in 1756. In 1798, Napoleon Bonaparte expanded the Academy's curriculum to include a military engineering school and artillery school, it trained all Army officers in Italy until 1814. Following the Restoration, the Duke Francis IV of Habsburg-Este founded another expansion, the Military Academy of Nobility, opened to young people without noble titles.
On the initiative of General Manfredo Fanti, in 1859 a Central Military School was founded, which became the Military School of Infantry in 1860, on the eve of the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. Further schools were added and recombined in years: the Military Infantry and Cavalry in 1865 and the Military Academy of Artillery and Engineers in the early 1900s, based on the original school designed by Napoleon. In 1923, the two schools were reorganized as the Military Academy of Infantry and Cavalry and the Military Academy of Artillery and Engineers, acquiring the title of Royal Academies in 1928. Since 1937 the Military Academy of Modena has hosted courses for the training of officers of the Carabinieri, from 1933 to 1936 were hosted the 37th and 38th Officer's Course of the Royal Guard. In 1943, the two institutions were suspended, which resumed their function in May 1944 at the barracks of Pico Lecce as a Special Commando Royal Military Academy. After the end of the war and the fall of the monarchy, the Military Academy in Modena became unified.
Among the illustrious alumni of the Academy are 31 ministers, 6 Prime Ministers, 33 senators. To commemorate the founding of the Military Academy of Modena, the Post Office of Rome issued a.41 stamp featuring the Academy flag and crest in 1999. The Academy is led by a Division General and the Command Office run by his deputy, a Brigadier General. There are two branches within the Academy: the Student Regiment; the Academic Department is run by a Colonel who has a secretariat and four departments under him, which are responsible for the didactic activity of the institute. The departments are: Department of university studies and relations: responsible for the organization of lessons and university activities and relations with the Universities of Modena and Reggio Emilia as well as other universities. Department of physical education: responsible for the psycho-physical preparation of the students and managing the sports events Department of didactics and quality control: specialized in internal quality control of studies.
Department of foreign languages: responsible for teaching foreign languages The Student Regiment led by a Colonel, has three battalions of students, a majority section, a training section and a Command Office. The Command Office and the majority section guarantee the good functioning of the department, while the other sections focus on training activities; the three battalions are divided as such: 1st Battalion | 1st Company Student Officers 2nd Company Student Officers 3rd Company Student Officers| Italian Army |- | 2nd Battalion | 5th Company Student Officers 6th Company Student Officers 7th Company Student Officers| Italian Army |- | 3rd Battalion | 4th Company Student Officers 8th Company Student Officers| Carabinieri |} The Military Academy is a demanding training course for young people, the training falls into various subcultural and sports-related elements. The courses of study are of various types and duration: The various weapons, administrative commands, materials involved in military operations, a two-year course that continues for another three years at the School of Application of Turin for more advanced officers.
Carabinieri officers undergo a two-year course that continues at the School Officers in Rome with t
A flying ace, fighter ace or air ace is a military aviator credited with shooting down several enemy aircraft during aerial combat. The actual number of aerial victories required to qualify as an ace has varied, but is considered to be five or more; the concept of the "ace" emerged in 1915 at the same time as aerial dogfighting. It was a propaganda term intended to provide the home front with a cult of the hero in what was otherwise a war of attrition; the individual actions of aces were reported and the image was disseminated of the ace as a chivalrous knight reminiscent of a bygone era. For a brief early period when air-to-air combat was just being invented, the exceptionally skilled pilot could shape the battle in the skies. For most of the war, the image of the ace had little to do with the reality of air warfare, in which fighters fought in formation and air superiority depended on the relative availability of resources. Use of the term ace to describe these pilots began in World War I, when French newspapers described Adolphe Pégoud, as l'As after he became the first pilot to down five German aircraft.
The British used the term "star-turns", while the Germans described their elite fighter pilots as Überkanonen. The successes of such German ace pilots as Max Immelmann and Oswald Boelcke were much publicized, for the benefit of civilian morale, the Pour le Mérite, Prussia's highest award for gallantry, became part of the uniform of a leading German ace. In the Luftstreitkräfte, the Pour le Mérite was nicknamed Der blaue Max/The Blue Max, after Max Immelmann, the first pilot to receive this award. German aviators had to destroy eight Allied aircraft to receive this medal; as the war progressed, the qualifications for Pour le Mérite were raised, but successful German fighter pilots continued to be hailed as national heroes for the remainder of the war. The few aces among combat aviators have accounted for the majority of air-to-air victories in military history. World War I introduced the systematic use of true single-seat fighter aircraft, with enough speed and agility to catch and maintain contact with targets in the air, coupled with armament sufficiently powerful to destroy the targets.
Aerial combat became a prominent feature with the Fokker Scourge, in the last half of 1915. This was the beginning of a long-standing trend in warfare, showing statistically that five percent of combat pilots account for the majority of air-to-air victories; as the German fighter squadrons fought well within German lines, it was practicable to establish and maintain strict guidelines for the official recognition of victory claims by German pilots. Shared victories were either credited to one of the pilots concerned or to the unit as a whole – the destruction of the aircraft had to be physically confirmed by locating its wreckage, or an independent witness to the destruction had to be found. Victories were counted for aircraft forced down within German lines, as this resulted in the death or capture of the enemy aircrew. Allied fighter pilots fought in German-held airspace and were not in a position to confirm that an destroyed enemy aircraft had in fact crashed, so these victories were claimed as "driven down", "forced to land", or "out of control".
These victories were included in a pilot's totals and in citations for decorations. The British high command considered praise of fighter pilots to be detrimental to brave bomber and reconnaissance aircrew – so that the British air services did not publish official statistics on the successes of individuals. Nonetheless some pilots did become famous through press coverage, making the British system for the recognition of successful fighter pilots much more informal and somewhat inconsistent. One pilot, Arthur Gould Lee, described his own score in a letter to his wife as "Eleven, five by me solo — the rest shared", adding that he was "miles from being an ace"; this shows that his No. 46 Squadron RAF counted shared kills, but separately from "solo" ones—one of a number of factors that seems to have varied from unit to unit. Evident is that Lee considered a higher figure than five kills to be necessary for "ace" status. Aviation historians credit him as an ace with two enemy aircraft destroyed and five driven down out of control, for a total of seven victories.
Other Allied countries, such as France and Italy, fell somewhere in between the strict German approach and the casual British one. They demanded independent witnessing of the destruction of an aircraft, making confirmation of victories scored in enemy territory difficult; the Belgian crediting system sometimes included "out of control" to be counted as a victory. The United States Army Air Service adopted French standards for evaluating victories, with two exceptions – during the summer of 1918, while flying under operational control of the British, the 17th Aero Squadron and the 148th Aero Squadron used British standards. American newsmen, in their correspondence to their papers, decided that five victories were the minimum needed to become an ace. While "ace" status was won only by fighter pilots and reconnaissance crews on both sides destroyed some enemy aircraft in defending themselves from attack; the most notable example of a non-pilot ace in World War I is Charles George Gass with 39 accredited aerial victories.
There were two theaters of war. They were the Second Sino-Japanese War; the Spanish ace Joaquín García Morato scored 40 victories f
Enzo Anselmo Giuseppe Maria Ferrari, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI was an Italian motor racing driver and entrepreneur, the founder of the Scuderia Ferrari Grand Prix motor racing team, subsequently of the Ferrari automobile marque. He was known as "il Commendatore" or "il Drake". In his final years he was referred to as "l'Ingegnere" or "il Grande Vecchio". Ferrari was said to have been born on 18 February 1898 in Modena and that his birth was recorded on 20 February because a heavy snowstorm had prevented his father from reporting the birth at the local registry office, he was the younger of two children to Alfredo Ferrari and Adalgisa Bisbini, after his elder sibling Alfredo Junior. Alfredo Senior was the son of a grocer from Carpi and started a workshop fabricating metal parts at the family home. Enzo grew up with little formal education. At the age of 10 he witnessed Felice Nazzaro's win at the 1908 Circuito di Bologna, an event that inspired him to become a racing driver. During World War I he served in the 3rd Mountain Artillery Regiment of the Italian Army.
His father Alfredo, his older brother, Alfredo Jr. died in 1916 as a result of a widespread Italian flu outbreak. Ferrari became sick himself in the 1918 flu pandemic and was discharged from the Italian service. Following the family's carpentry business collapse, Ferrari started searching for a job in the car industry, he unsuccessfully volunteered his services to FIAT in Turin settling for a job as test-driver for C. M. N. A car manufacturer in Milan, which rebuilt used truck bodies into small passenger cars, he was promoted to race car driver and made his competitive debut in the 1919 Parma-Poggio di Berceto hillclimb race, where he finished fourth in the three-litre category at the wheel of a 2.3-litre 4-cylinder C. M. N. 15/20. On 23 November of the same year, he took part in the Targa Florio but had to retire after his car's fuel tank developed a leak. In 1920, Enzo joined the racing department of Alfa Romeo as a driver. In 1924, Ferrari won the Coppa Acerbo at Pescara, a success that encouraged Alfa Romeo to offer him a chance to race in much more prestigious competitions.
Shocked by the death of Antonio Ascari in 1925, Ferrari, by his own admissions, continued to race half-heartedly. Following the birth of his son Alfredo in 1932, Ferrari decided to retire and to focus instead on the management and development of the factory Alfa race cars building up a raceteam of superstar drivers, including Giuseppe Campari and Tazio Nuvolari; this team was acted as a racing division for Alfa Romeo. The team was successful, thanks to the excellent cars, for example the Alfa Romeo P3 and to the talented drivers, like Nuvolari. In this period the prancing horse emblem began to show up on his team's cars; the emblem sported by Italian fighter plane pilot Francesco Baracca. During World War I, Baracca gave Ferrari a necklace with the prancing horse on it prior to takeoff. Baracca was shot down and killed by an Austrian aeroplane in 1918.. In memory of his death, Ferrari used the prancing horse to create the emblem that would become the world-famous Ferrari shield. Displayed on Alfa Romeos, the shield was first seen on a Ferrari in 1947.
Alfa Romeo agreed to partner Ferrari's racing team until 1933, when financial constraints forced them to withdraw their support – a decision subsequently retracted thanks to the intervention of Pirelli. Despite the quality of the Scuderia drivers, the team struggled to compete with Auto Union and Mercedes. Although the German manufacturers dominated the era, Ferrari's team achieved a notable victory in 1935 when Tazio Nuvolari beat Rudolf Caracciola and Bernd Rosemeyer on their home turf at the German Grand Prix. In 1937 Scuderia Ferrari was dissolved and Ferrari returned to Alfa's racing team, named Alfa Corse. Alfa Romeo decided to regain full control of its racing division, retaining Ferrari as Sporting Director. After a disagreement with Alfa's managing director Ugo Gobbato, Ferrari left in 1939 and founded Auto-Avio Costruzioni, a company supplying parts to other racing teams. Although a contract clause restricted him from racing or designing cars for four years, Ferrari managed to manufacture two cars for the 1940 Mille Miglia, which were driven by Alberto Ascari and Lotario Rangoni.
With the outbreak of World War II in 1940, Ferrari's factory was forced to undertake war production for Mussolini's fascist government. Following Allied bombing of the factory, Ferrari relocated from Modena to Maranello. At the end of the conflict, Ferrari decided to start making cars bearing his name, founded Ferrari S.p. A. in 1947. Enzo decided to battle the dominating Alfa Romeos and race with his own team; the team's open-wheel debut took place in Turin in 1948 and the first win came in the year in Lago di Garda. The first major victory came at the 1949 24 Hours of Le Mans, with a Ferrari 166M driven by Luigi Chinetti and Peter Mitchell-Thomson. In 1950 Ferrari enrolled in the newly-born Formula 1 World Championship and is the only team to remain continuously present since its introduction. Ferrari won his first Grand Prix with José Froilán González at Silverstone in 1951; the story goes that Enzo cried like a baby when his team defeated the mighty Alfetta 159. The first championship came in 1952, with Alberto Ascari, a task, repeated one year later.
In 1953 Ferrari made
Gorizia is a town and comune in northeastern Italy, in the autonomous region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. It is located at the foot of the Julian Alps, it is the capital of the Province of Gorizia and a local center of tourism and commerce. Since 1947, a twin town of Nova Gorica has developed on the other side of the modern-day Italian–Slovenian border; the entire region was subject to territorial dispute between Italy and Yugoslavia after World War II: after the new boundaries were established in 1947 and the old town was left to Italy, Nova Gorica was built on the Yugoslav side. Taken together, the two towns constitute a conurbation, which includes the Slovenian municipality of Šempeter-Vrtojba. Since May 2011, these three towns have been joined in a common trans-border metropolitan zone, administered by a joint administration board. Gorizia is located at the confluence of the Vipava Valleys, it lies on a plain overlooked by the Gorizia Hills. Sheltered from the north by a mountain ridge, Gorizia is protected from the cold bora wind, which affects most of the neighboring areas.
The town thus enjoys a mild Mediterranean climate throughout the year. The name of the town comes from the Slovene word gorica'little hill', a common toponym in Slovene-inhabited areas. Originating as a watchtower or a prehistoric castle controlling the fords of the Isonzo River, Gorizia first emerged as a small village not far from the former Via Gemina, the Roman road linking Aquileia and Emona; the name Gorizia was recorded for the first time in a document dated April 28, 1001, in which Holy Roman Emperor Otto III donated the castle and the village of Goriza to the Patriarch of Aquileia John II and to Count Verihen Eppenstein of Friuli. The document referred to Gorizia as "the village known as Goriza in the language of the Slavs". Count Meinhard of the Bavarian Meinhardiner noble lineage, with possessions around Lienz in Tyrol, is mentioned as early as 1107; the borders of the county changed in the following four centuries due to frequent wars with Aquileia and other counties, to the subdivision of the territory in two main nuclei: one around the upper Drava near Lienz, the other centered on Gorizia itself.
Between the 12th century and early 16th century, the town served as the political and administrative center of this independent County of Gorizia, which at the height of its power comprised the territory of the present-day regions of Goriška, southeast Friuli, the Karst Plateau, central Istria and East Tyrol. From the 11th century, the town had two different layers of development: the upper castle district and the village beneath it; the first played the second a rural-commercial role. In 1500, the dynasty of the Counts of Gorizia died out and their County passed to Austrian Habsburg rule, after a short occupation by the Republic of Venice in the years 1508 and 1509. Under Habsburg dominion, the town spread out at the foot of the castle. Many settlers from northern Italy started their commerce. Gorizia developed into a multi-ethnic town, in which Friulian, Venetian and the Slovene language were spoken. In mid-16th century, Gorizia emerged as a center of Protestant Reformation, spreading from the neighboring northeastern regions of Carniola and Carinthia.
The prominent Slovene Protestant preacher Primož Trubar visited and preached in the town. By the end of the century, Catholic Counter-Reformation had gained force in Gorizia, led by the local dean Janez Tavčar, who became bishop of Ljubljana. Tavčar was instrumental in bringing the Jesuit order to the town, which played a role in the education and cultural life in Gorizia thereafter. Gorizia was at first part of the County of Görz and since 1754, the capital of the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca. In ecclesiastical matters, after the suppression of the Patriarchate of Aquileia in 1751, the Archdiocese of Gorizia was established as its legal successor on the territory of the Habsburg Monarchy. Gorizia thus emerged as a Roman Catholic religious center; the archdiocese of Gorizia covers a large territory, extending to the Drava River to the north and the Kolpa to the east, with the dioceses of Trieste, Trento and Pedena subject to the authority of the archbishops of Gorizia. A new town quarter developed around the Cathedral where many treasures from the Basilica of Aquileia were transferred.
Many new villas were built conveying to the town the typical late Baroque appearance, which characterized it up to World War I. A synagogue was built within the town walls, another example of Gorizia's tolerant multi-ethnic nature. During the Napoleonic Wars, Gorizia was incorporated to the French Illyrian Provinces between 1809 and 1813. After the restoration of the Austrian rule, the Gorizia and its County were incorporated in the administrative unit known as the Kingdom of Illyria. During this period, Gorizia emerged as a popular summer residence of the Austrian nobility, became known as the "Austrian Nice". Members of the former French ruling Bourbon family, deposed by the July Revolution of 1830 settled in the town, including the last Bourbon monarch Charles X who spent his last years in Gorizia. Unlike in most neighboring areas, the revolutionary spri
The Nieuport 11, nicknamed the Bébé, was a French World War I single seat sesquiplane fighter aircraft, designed by Gustave Delage. It was the primary aircraft that ended the Fokker Scourge in 1916; the type saw service with several of France's allies, gave rise to the series of "vee-strut" Nieuport fighters that remained in service into the 1920s. The Nieuport 11 was a smaller, simplified version of the Nieuport 10, designed as a single-seat fighter. Like the "10" the "11" was a sesquiplane, a biplane with a full-sized top wing with two spars, a lower wing of much narrower chord and a single spar. Interplane struts in the form of a "Vee" joined the upper and lower wings; the sesquiplane layout reduced drag and improved the rate of climb, as well as offering a better view from the cockpit than either biplane or monoplane, while being stronger than contemporary monoplanes. The narrow lower wing was sometimes subject to aeroelastic flutter at high air speeds, a problem that manifested itself on the "vee-strut" Nieuport fighters, as well as the German Albatros D.
III. Nieuport 11s were supplied to the French Aéronautique Militaire, the British Royal Naval Air Service, the Imperial Russian Air Service and Italy. 646 Nieuport 11s were produced by the Italian Macchi company under licence, additional Nieuport 16s were built under licence in Russia by Dux. When Romania suffered military setbacks and needed aircraft, several RNAS Nieuport 11s, along with Nieuport 12s were provided. In 1916 an improved version appeared as the Nieuport 16, a strengthened Nieuport 11 airframe powered by a 110 hp Le Rhône 9J rotary engine. Visible differences included a larger aperture in front of the "horse shoe" cowling and a headrest for the pilot. Versions had a fuselage-mounted synchronized Vickers gun, but in this configuration the combined effect of the heavier 9J engine and the Vickers gun compromised maneuverability and made the craft nose-heavy; the Nieuport 16 was an interim type pending the delivery of the larger Nieuport 17 C.1, designed for the heavier engine and machine gun with a new, full-perimeter ring cowl, remedied the 16's balance problems, as well as improving performance.
The Nieuport 11 reached the French front in January 1916, 90 were in service within the month. This small sesquiplane outclassed the Fokker Eindecker in every respect, including speed, climb rate and maneuverability, it featured ailerons for lateral control rather than the Fokker's wing warping, giving lighter, quicker roll response, its elevator was attached to a conventional tail plane which provided better pitch control as opposed to the all-moving, balanced "Morane type" elevators of the Fokker. The Fokker's sole remaining advantage was its synchronized machine gun, which fired forward through the arc of its propeller. At the time, the Allies lacked a similar system, the Nieuport 11's Lewis machine gun was mounted to fire over the propeller, allowing uninterrupted forward fire; the Lewis was not synchronizable, due to its open bolt firing cycle design which resulted in an unpredictable rate of fire. Clearing gun jams and replacing ammunition drums in flight were challenging though, the drums limited ammunition supply.
This was resolved in French service by the application of the Alkan synchronization gear with a Vickers machine gun to Nieuport fighters starting with some examples of the Nieuport 16. The British, in the absence of their own satisfactory synchronizer, continued with the overwing Lewis but employed the improved Foster mounting and a new "double" Lewis drum with a capacity of 98 rounds. During the course of the Battle of Verdun in February 1916, the combination of the Nieuport 11s technical advantages and its concentration in dedicated fighter units allowed the French to establish air superiority, forcing radical changes in German tactics; the impact of the Nieuport was so dramatic that in mid to late 1916 several captured examples were repaired, rearmed with a synchronised "Spandau" gun, flown at the front. One of these was N1324 flown by Kurt Student in August 1916. Others were supplied by Idflieg to a number of manufacturers; some Nieuport 11s and 16s were fitted to fire Le Prieur rockets from the struts for attacks on observation balloons and airships.
By March 1916 the Bébé was being replaced by the improved Nieuport 17, although Italian-built examples remained in first line service longer, as did Russian examples. Thereafter the Nieuport 11s and 16 continued to be used as trainers. Nieuport 11 Single-seat fighter/scout biplane. Known as the Nieuport Bébé or Nieuport Scout although these were used for any Nieuport fighter. Nieuport-Macchi 11000 or 11.000 Variant built under licence in Italy with some detail modifications. Nieuport 16 Improved version powered by a 110 hp Le Rhone 9J rotary piston engine. Belgium Belgian Air Force 1ère Escadrille de Chasse 5me Escadrille de Chasse France Aéronautique Militaire Kingdom of Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare Netherlands Luchtvaartafdeling Romania Corpul Aerian Român Russian Empire Imperial Russian Air Force United KingdomRoyal Flying Corps – Nieuport 16 onlyThe 1st Nieuport 16 was delivered on 16 April 1916; the 25th and last Nieuport 16 was delivered on 6 August 1916. Royal Naval Air Service the Musée de l'Air at le Bourget in Paris has the sole original surviving Nieuport 11 marked as N556 with the personal markings of Commandant Charles Tricornot de Rose, holder of the first military pilot licence.
It had been marked as N976. Ol