1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
To cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs. The term can be used to describe municipally owned corporations. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located; this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town. In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities; the Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world after UK. The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils". After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork and Waterford and Drogheda, Sligo and Wexford. Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as “The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire".
Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand; the term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876. In the United States, such municipal corporations are established by charters that are granted either directly by a state legislature by means of local legislation, or indirectly under a general municipal corporation law after the proposed charter has passed a referendum vote of the affected population. Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed by local government officials, with majority public ownership"; some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, although this is not always the case. Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services.
They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy. Unincorporated area German town law Municipal incorporationA Brief Summary of Municipal Incorporation Procedures by State - University of Georgia Characteristics and State Requirements for Incorporated Places - United States CensusMunicipal disincorporation / dissolutionDissolving Cities - University of California, Berkeley Municipal Disincorporation in California - California City Finance
Mean sea level is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevation may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic datum –, used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and aircraft flight levels. A common and straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location. Sea levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied over geological time scales; however 20th century and current millennium sea level rise is caused by global warming, careful measurement of variations in MSL can offer insights into ongoing climate change. The term above sea level refers to above mean sea level. Precise determination of a "mean sea level" is difficult to achieve because of the many factors that affect sea level. Instantaneous sea level varies quite a lot on several scales of space.
This is because the sea is in constant motion, affected by the tides, atmospheric pressure, local gravitational differences, salinity and so forth. The easiest way this may be calculated is by selecting a location and calculating the mean sea level at that point and use it as a datum. For example, a period of 19 years of hourly level observations may be averaged and used to determine the mean sea level at some measurement point. Still-water level or still-water sea level is the level of the sea with motions such as wind waves averaged out. MSL implies the SWL further averaged over a period of time such that changes due to, e.g. the tides have zero mean. Global MSL refers to a spatial average over the entire ocean. One measures the values of MSL in respect to the land. In the UK, the Ordnance Datum is the mean sea level measured at Newlyn in Cornwall between 1915 and 1921. Prior to 1921, the vertical datum was MSL at the Victoria Liverpool. Since the times of the Russian Empire, in Russia and other former its parts, now independent states, the sea level is measured from the zero level of Kronstadt Sea-Gauge.
In Hong Kong, "mPD" is a surveying term meaning "metres above Principal Datum" and refers to height of 1.230m below the average sea level. In France, the Marégraphe in Marseilles measures continuously the sea level since 1883 and offers the longest collapsed data about the sea level, it is used for main part of Africa as official sea level. As for Spain, the reference to measure heights below or above sea level is placed in Alicante. Elsewhere in Europe vertical elevation references are made to the Amsterdam Peil elevation, which dates back to the 1690s. Satellite altimeters have been making precise measurements of sea level since the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon in 1992. A joint mission of NASA and CNES, TOPEX/Poseidon was followed by Jason-1 in 2001 and the Ocean Surface Topography Mission on the Jason-2 satellite in 2008. Height above mean sea level is the elevation or altitude of an object, relative to the average sea level datum, it is used in aviation, where some heights are recorded and reported with respect to mean sea level, in the atmospheric sciences, land surveying.
An alternative is to base height measurements on an ellipsoid of the entire Earth, what systems such as GPS do. In aviation, the ellipsoid known as World Geodetic System 84 is used to define heights; the alternative is to use a geoid-based vertical datum such as NAVD88. When referring to geographic features such as mountains on a topographic map, variations in elevation are shown by contour lines; the elevation of a mountain denotes the highest point or summit and is illustrated as a small circle on a topographic map with the AMSL height shown in metres, feet or both. In the rare case that a location is below sea level, the elevation AMSL is negative. For one such case, see Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. To extend this definition far from the sea means comparing the local height of the mean sea surface with a "level" reference surface, or geodetic datum, called the geoid. In a state of rest or absence of external forces, the mean sea level would coincide with this geoid surface, being an equipotential surface of the Earth's gravitational field.
In reality, due to currents, air pressure variations and salinity variations, etc. this does not occur, not as a long-term average. The location-dependent, but persistent in time, separation between mean sea level and the geoid is referred to as ocean surface topography, it varies globally in a range of ± 2 m. Adjustments were made to sea-level measurements to take into account the effects of the 235 lunar month Metonic cycle and the 223-month eclipse cycle on the tides. Several terms are used to describe the changing relationships between sea level and dry land; when the term "relative" is used, it means change relative to a fixed point in the sediment pile. The term "eustatic" refers to global changes in sea level relative to a fixed point, such as the centre of the earth, for example as a result of melting ice-caps; the term "steric" refers to global changes in sea level due to thermal expansion and salinity variations. The term "isostatic" refers to changes in
Bennington, New Hampshire
Bennington is a town in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 1,476 at the 2010 census; the main village of the town, where 381 people resided at the 2010 census, is defined as the Bennington census-designated place, is located on the Contoocook River at the intersection of New Hampshire routes 31 and 47. Situated in an area once called "Society Land", the town was formed from parts of Deering, Francestown and Hancock, it was named to commemorate the 1777 Battle of Bennington, an American Revolutionary War battle fought in New York near Bennington, Vermont. The Vermont town in turn derived its name from New Hampshire governor Benning Wentworth; the town was incorporated in 1842. The first census, taken in 1850, recorded 541 residents. Located at the Great Falls of the Contoocook River, which drop 70 feet over 1.2 miles, Bennington provided water power for mills. The first gristmill was built in 1782, with a cotton mill in 1810. A tannery and tool manufacturing industry would follow.
A factory with paper-making machinery was established in 1835, located at or near the site of the present-day Monadnock Paper Mill. In 1858, the town's industries included a cutlery manufacturer, a gristmill, 2 paper mills and a sawmill. Bennington had quite a number of farms. In 1874, plans were underway to build the Hillsborough railroad through Bennington. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 11.3 square miles, of which 11.1 sq mi is land and 0.3 sq mi is water, comprising 2.30% of the town. Bennington is drained by the Contoocook River, which forms Powder Mill Pond on the southern boundary; the highest point in Bennington is 2,020 feet above sea level on Crotched Mountain, whose 2,066-foot summit lies just east in Francestown. Bennington lies within the Merrimack River watershed; the town is crossed by U. S. Route 202 and state routes 31 and 47, it is bordered by the towns of Deering to the northeast, Francestown to the east, Greenfield to the south, Hancock to the southwest, Antrim to the west and north.
As of the census of 2010, there were 1,476 people, 564 households, 386 families residing in the town. There were 666 housing units, of which 102, or 15.3%, were vacant. 43 of the vacant units were for seasonal or recreational use. The racial makeup of the town was 97.4% white, 0.4% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 0.4% some other race, 1.1% from two or more races. 0.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 564 households, 35.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.6% were headed by married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.6% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 5.8% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62, the average family size was 3.08. In the town, 25.7% of the population were under the age of 18, 9.6% were from 18 to 24, 26.3% from 25 to 44, 29.6% from 45 to 64, 8.9% were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 107.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.0 males. For the period 2011-2015, the estimated median annual income for a household was $65,481, the median income for a family was $75,278. Male full-time workers had a median income of $47,000 versus $39,659 for females; the per capita income for the town was $28,071. 4.5% of the population and 4.5% of families were below the poverty line. 2.0% of the population under the age of 18 and 2.4% of those 65 or older were living in poverty. Bennington is the home of the Monadnock Paper Mills as well as Crotched Mountain Ski & Ride, a medium-sized ski resort on the Francestown line. Bennington is part of SAU #1, a school district that includes 9 towns, better known as the Contoocook Valley Regional School District. Students from Bennington attend the following schools: Elementary: Pierce School, located in Bennington Middle: Great Brook School, located in Antrim High: ConVal Regional High School, located in Peterborough A. J. Coolidge & J. B.
Mansfield, A History and Description of New England, 1859.
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Greenfield, New Hampshire
Greenfield is a town in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 1,749 at the 2010 census. Greenfield is home to the Crotched Mountain Rehabilitation Center, to Greenfield State Park, to part of the Wapack Trail. Known as "Lyndeborough Addition", the area was first settled by the Lynde family in 1753. Separated from the nearest church and school by the Monadnock hills, the residents petitioned to form a new town in 1791, using the name "Greenfield" to highlight the area's level, fertile ground. In 1953, the Crotched Mountain Rehabilitation Center began operation in Greenfield. Established by Harry Gregg, the facility on Crotched Mountain treated for polio, cerebral palsy, spina bifida and other physical and neurological disabilities. A center for adult rehabilitation would open in 1961, a rehabilitation center for adults with brain injuries in 1986; the complex today provides service to adults. In 2004, it unveiled the first wheelchair-accessible treehouse in New Hampshire.
Greenfield is home to the Yankee Siege, considered the most powerful trebuchet in the world, which has participated in the annual World Championship Punkin' Chunkin' Contest in Sussex County, Delaware since 2004. The farthest official toss is 1,897 feet as of 2008, although there are unofficial reports of 2,000-to-2,300-foot throws as of 2009. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 26.6 square miles, of which 26.1 square miles is land and 0.5 square miles is water, comprising 2.09% of the town. Greenfield is drained by Otter Brook and the Contoocook River. North Pack Monadnock Mountain, elevation 2,276 feet above sea level, is the northernmost summit of the Wapack Range and the highest point in Greenfield; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,657 people, 563 households, 405 families residing in the town. The population density was 65.1 people per square mile. There were 640 housing units at an average density of 25.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.28% White, 0.72% African American, 0.84% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.48% from other races, 0.42% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.60% of the population. There were 563 households out of which 38.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.0% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.9% were non-families. 19.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.12. In the town, the population was spread out with 30.8% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, 7.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $48,833, the median income for a family was $56,250. Males had a median income of $36,250 versus $24,438 for females; the per capita income for the town was $19,895. About 2.4% of families and 5.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.9% of those under age 18 and 8.5% of those age 65 or over.
Town of Greenfield official website Crotched Mountain Rehabilitation Center Friends of the Wapack Trail Greenfield State Park New Hampshire Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau Profile