Francis Marion was a military officer who served in the American Revolutionary War. Acting with the Continental Army and South Carolina militia commissions, he was a persistent adversary of the British in their occupation of South Carolina and Charleston in 1780 and 1781 after the Continental Army was driven out of the state in the Battle of Camden. Marion used irregular methods of warfare and is considered one of the fathers of modern guerrilla warfare and maneuver warfare, is credited in the lineage of the United States Army Special Forces known as the "Green Berets." He was known as the Swamp Fox. Marion's grandfather Gabriel was a Huguenot who emigrated to the colonies from France before 1700. Francis Marion was born on his family's plantation in South Carolina, c. 1732. Around the age of 15, he was hired on a ship bound for the West Indies which sank on his first voyage. In the years that followed, Marion managed the family's plantation. Marion began his military career shortly before his 25th birthday.
On January 1, 1757, Francis and his brother, were recruited by Captain John Postell to serve in the French and Indian War. On June 21, 1775, Marion was commissioned captain in the 2nd South Carolina Regiment under William Moultrie, with whom he served in June 1776 in the defense of Fort Sullivan, in Charleston harbor. In September 1776, the Continental Congress commissioned Marion as a lieutenant colonel. In the autumn of 1779, he took part in the siege of Savannah, a failed Franco-American attempt to capture and recover the Georgia colonial capital city, taken by the British. A British expedition under Henry Clinton moved into South Carolina in the early spring of 1780 and laid siege to Charleston. Marion was not captured with the rest of the garrison when Charleston fell on May 12, 1780, because he had broken an ankle in an accident and had left the city to recuperate. Clinton took part of the British army that had captured Charleston back to New York but a significant number stayed for operations under Lord Cornwallis in the Carolinas.
After the loss in Charleston, the defeats of General Isaac Huger at Moncks Corner and Lieutenant Colonel Abraham Buford at the Waxhaw massacre, Marion organized a small unit, which at first consisted of between 20 and 70 men and was the only force opposing the British Army in the state. At this point, Marion was still nearly crippled from his healing ankle. Marion joined Major General Horatio Gates on July 27 just before the Battle of Camden, but Gates had formed a low opinion of Marion. Gates sent Marion towards the interior to gather intelligence on the British enemy. Marion thus missed the battle. Marion showed himself to be a singularly able leader of irregular militiamen and ruthless in his terrorizing of Loyalists. Unlike the Continental troops, Marion's Men, as they were known, served without pay, supplied their own horses and their food. Marion committed his men to frontal warfare, but bewildered larger bodies of Loyalists or British regulars with quick surprise attacks and sudden withdrawal from the field.
After the surrender of Charleston, the British garrisoned South Carolina with help from local Tories, except for Williamsburg, which they were never able to hold. The British made one attempt to garrison Williamsburg at the colonial village of Hilltown but were driven out by Marion at the Battle of Black Mingo. Cornwallis observed, "Colonel Marion had so wrought the minds of the people by the terror of his threats and cruelty of his punishments, by the promise of plunder, that there was scarcely an inhabitant between the Santee and the Pee Dee, not in arms against us." The British hated Marion and made repeated efforts to neutralize his force, but Marion's intelligence gathering was excellent and that of the British was poor, due to the overwhelming Patriot loyalty of the populace in the Williamsburg area. Colonel Banastre Tarleton was sent to capture or kill Marion in November 1780, it was Tarleton who gave Marion his nom de guerre when, after unsuccessfully pursuing Marion's troops for over 26 miles through a swamp, he gave up and swore "s for this damned old fox, the Devil himself could not catch him."
Once Marion had shown his ability at guerrilla warfare, making himself a serious nuisance to the British, Governor John Rutledge commissioned him a brigadier general of state troops. Marion was tasked with combating groups of freed slaves working or fighting alongside the British, he received an order from the Governor of South Carolina to execute any blacks suspected of carrying provisions or gathering intelligence for the enemy "agreeable to the laws of this State." When Major General Nathanael Greene took command in the South and Lieutenant Colonel Henry Lee were ordered in January 1781, to attack Georgetown but were unsuccessful. In April they took Fort Watson and in May they captured Fort Motte, succeeded in breaking communications between the British posts in the Carolinas. On August 31, Marion rescued a small American force trapped by 500 British soldiers, under the leadership of Major C. Fraser. For this action he received the thanks of the Continental Congress. Marion commanded the right wing under General Greene at the Battle of Eutaw Springs.
In January 1782, he was elected to a new State Assembly at Jacksonborough and left his troops to take up his seat. During his absence
General elections were held in Bahrain in November and December 2018 to elect the 40 members of the Council of Representatives. The first round of voting was on Saturday, 24 November, with a second round in 31 constituencies on Saturday, 1 December. A municipal poll coincided with the parliamentary vote; the elections were considered to be a sham, as they followed a government crackdown on dissent that included prohibiting members of dissolved opposition groups from running. Following the 2011 Bahraini protests, all 18 Al Wefaq members on the Council resigned, were barred from contesting the subsequent by-elections. Since 2011, authorities have imprisoned hundreds of dissidents, including Al Wefaq leader Sheikh Ali Salman, stripped many of Bahraini citizenship. Al Wefaq boycotted the 2014 Bahraini general election; the two main opposition groups, the Shiite Al-Wefaq and secular Waad, were barred from fielding candidates in 2018, prompting renewed calls for a boycott. A court banned Al Wefaq in 2016 for "harbouring terrorism", inciting violence and encouraging demonstrations which threatened to spark sectarian strife.
On 17 July 2016, Saudi-owned Al Arabiya television and international print media reported that Bahrain's highest court dissolved Al Wefaq and liquidated the group's funds. The 40 members of the Council of Representatives were elected from single-member constituencies using a two-round system; each governorate is divided into a number of constituencies for the election for the Council of Representatives. Each constituency is listed as area 2 etc.. Each constituency elects one member. Only Bahraini nationals are entitled to vote at elections. Source: Population by Governorate Candidates had to apply between 17 and 21 October 2018, with 293 registering to contest the 40 seats. Nine of the 40 constituencies were decided with the other 31 going to a runoff. According to the government, voter turnout in the first round was 67%, an increase from 53% in the 2014 elections. However, the opposition claimed that the real voter turnout did not exceed 28%-30%
Common names: Sochurek's saw-scaled viper, eastern saw-scaled viper, Stemmler's saw-scaled viper. Echis carinatus sochureki is a venomous viper subspecies found in India, Afghanistan and parts of the Arabian Peninsula; the subspecific name, sochureki, is in honor of Austrian herpetologist Erich Sochurek. The head of E. c. sochureki is covered except for 3-4 enlarged supraoculars. Midbody there are 29-33 rows of keeled dorsal scales; the keels of the middorsal rows are flat. The dorsal color pattern consists of a tan, grayish, or brown ground color with a central series of 30 whitish blotches with dark brown edges; the flanks are marked with a row of wide arcs with distinct dark spots. The belly is whitish, with dark gray flecks; the head has a light arrow mark directed towards the snout. A light loreal stripe extends towards the angle of mouth. E. c. sochureki is found in Northern India, southern Afghanistan and central Iran, the United Arab Emirates, Oman. The Wildlife of Pakistan website gives the range as northern India, southern Afghanistan, central Iran to the coast of the Iranian Gulf and Khuzestan.
The type locality is "West Pakistan, Ban Kushdil Khan bei Pishin". E. c. sochureki is oviparous. List of viperine species and subspecies Viperinae by common name Viperinae by taxonomic synonyms Snakebite Cherlin VA.. 207: 193-223.. Stemmler O. "Die Sandrasselotter aus Pakistan: Echis carinatus sochureki subsp. Nov." Aquaterra 6: 118-125.. Echis carinatus at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 2 August 2007. Video of E. c. offspring 1/2 on YouTube. Accessed 21 August 2007. Video of E. c. offspring 1/2 on YouTube. Accessed 21 August 2007. Echis sochureki sochureki Stemmler, 1969 at Tomáš Mazuch. Accessed 24 November 2007