Francis de Sales was a Bishop of Geneva and is honored as a saint in the Catholic Church. He became noted for his deep faith and his gentle approach to the religious divisions in his land resulting from the Protestant Reformation, he is known for his writings on the topic of spiritual direction and spiritual formation the Introduction to the Devout Life and the Treatise on the Love of God. Francis de Sales was born on 21 August 1567 in the Château de Sales into the noble Sales family of the Duchy of Savoy, in what is today Thorens-Glières, Haute-Savoie, France, his father was François de Sales, Lord of Boisy and Novel. His mother was Françoise de Sionnaz, the only child of the prominent magistrate, Melchior de Sionnaz, a noblewoman, he was baptized Francis Bonaventura, after two great Franciscan saints. His father wanted him, the first of his six sons, to attend the best schools in preparation for a career as a magistrate. He, enjoyed a privileged education in the nearby town of La Roche-Sur-Foron, at the age of eight at the Capuchin college in Annecy.
In 1583, De Sales went to the Collège de Clermont in Paris a Jesuit institution, to study rhetoric and humanities. As a nobleman, he was accompanied by a priest tutor, Abbé Déage. To please his father, he took lessons in the gentlemanly pursuits of riding and fencing. De Sales is described as intelligent and handsome and well built with blue-grey eyes, somewhat reserved and quiet, a welcome guest in the homes of the nobility among whom his father had connections. St Francis de Sales by Giovanni Battista Lucini In 1584 Francis de Sales attended a theological discussion about predestination, convincing him of his damnation to hell. A personal crisis of despair resulted; this conviction lasted through December 1586. His great despair made him physically ill and bedridden for a time. Sometime in either late December or early January 1587, with great difficulty, he visited the old parish of Saint-Étienne-des-Grès, where he prayed the "Memorare" before a famed statue of Our Lady of Good Deliverance, a Black Madonna.
He consecrated himself to the Blessed Virgin Mary and decided to dedicate his life to God with a vow of chastity. He became a tertiary of the Minim Order. Sales concluded that God had good in store for him, because "God is love", as John's First Epistle attests; this faithful devotion to God not only expelled his doubts but influenced the rest of his life and his teachings. His way of teaching Catholic spirituality is referred to as the Way of Divine Love, or the Devout Life, taken from a book he wrote of a similar name: Introduction to the Devout Life'. In 1588 Sales completed his studies at Collège de Clermont and enrolled at the University of Padua in Italy, where he studied both law and theology, he took a priest in the Society of Jesus, as his spiritual director. There he made up his mind about becoming a priest. In one incident, he rode a horse, his sword fell to the ground and crossed another sword, making the sign of the Christian cross. In 1592, de Sales received his doctorate in theology.
He made a pilgrimage to Loreto, famous for its Basilica Della Santa Casa and returned home to Savoy. The Senate of Chambéry admitted him as a lawyer. Meanwhile, his father secured various positions including an appointment as a senator, his father chose a wealthy noble heiress as his bride. But Francis refused preferring to stay focused on his chosen path, his father refused to accept that Francis had chosen the priesthood rather than fulfill his expectations with a political-military career. Claude de Granier Bishop of Geneva and after signing over to his younger brother his rights of family succession, Francis was ordained in 1593, he received a promised appointment as provost of the cathedral chapter of Geneva. In his capacity as provost, Francis de Sales engaged in enthusiastic campaigns of evangelism in an area that had become completely Calvinist. According to J. Ehni, despite de Sales' zeal and patience he met with absolute failure at Thonon, the capital of the Chablais province, where the residents had agreed to refuse to hear the eloquent preacher.
At first, Francis lived in a fortress garrisoned by the Duke of Savoy's soldiers. Several times he escaped death at the hands of assassins, he traveled to Rome and Paris, where he forged alliances with Pope Clement VIII and Henry IV of France. In 1599 he was appointed coadjutor bishop of Geneva. In 1601, he was sent on a diplomatic mission to Henry IV, where he was invited to give Lenten sermons at the Chapel Royal; the morals at court reflected those of the king, which were notoriously bad, yet Henry became attached to Francis and is said to have observed, "A rare bird, this Monsieur de Genève, he is devout and learned. A rare combination." While in Paris, he met Cardinal Berulle and was, for a time, Madame Acarie's confessor. They consulted with him on matters such as the introduction of St. Teresa's Carmelites into France and plans for the reforming of monasteries and convents, he was consulted on matters of conscience by persons at court. In 1602, Bishop Granier died, Sales was consecrated Bishop of Geneva by Vespasien Gribaldi, assisted by Thomas Pobel and Jacques Maistret, O.
The Triple Portrait of Cardinal de Richelieu is an oil-on-canvas painting by French artist Philippe de Champaigne, completed c.1642. The portrait shows Cardinal de Richelieu from three angles: right profile, face on, left profile; the painting was made as a study for a bust to be made by an Italian sculptor in Rome. It is now held by the National London. Armand-Jean du Plessis was of noble birth, he became Bishop of Luçon in 1607 aged just 22, became a cardinal in 1622. He was the chief minister of King Louis XIII from 1624, he was created duc de Richelieu in 1629. Phillipe de Champaigne was a leading French artist, was a founding member of the Académie de peinture et de sculpture in 1648. Richelieu was a considerable patron of the arts, Champaigne painted him many times; the grey-haired cardinal, aged nearly 60, wears cape. Under the broad collar of a white shirt, tied at the neck with a trailing string, he wears the characteristic blue ribbon of the Order of the Holy Spirit from which hangs the Maltese cross of the Order as a pectoral cross.
An inscription above the right head notes, "de ces deux profils, cecy est le meilleur". The painting measures 58.7 × 72.8 centimetres. It was made in Paris as a study to be sent to Rome, where the Italian sculptor Francesco Mochi had been commissioned to make a statue for the Château de La Meilleraye near Beaulieu-sous-Parthenay in Poitou, it is that the painting was used by Bernini for his 1641 Bust of Cardinal Richelieu, now in the Louvre Museum. Bernini had adopted a similar method for his 1636 Bust of King Charles I, using a triple portrait by Anthony Van Dyck, it is possible that Van Dyck's triple portrait of Charles I influenced Philippe de Champaigne's triple portrait of Cardinal Richelieu; the painting was donated to the National Gallery, London in 1869 by the English antiquary and museum administrator Sir Augustus Wollaston Franks. Glossary: Cardinal Richelieu, National Gallery, London Triple Portrait of Cardinal de Richelieu, National Gallery, London Key Facts, Triple Portrait of Cardinal de Richelieu, National Gallery, London Richelieu, R J Knecht, p.204 The Life of Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Domenico Bernini, p.338 Philippe de Champaigne, Lorenzo Pericolo, p.113 Bust of Cardinal de Richelieu by Bernini at the Louvre
In Denmark, pharmaconomists are experts in pharmaceuticals who have trained with a 3-year tertiary degree. Pharmaconomy describes either their training courses; the majority of the Danish pharmaconomists work at community pharmacies and at hospital pharmacies and hospitals. Some pharmaconomists work within the chemical industry, the pharmaceutical industry and in medical or clinical laboratories. Other pharmaconomists teach pharmacy students and pharmaconomy students at colleges or universities, such as at the University of Copenhagen's Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences or at the Pharmakon—Danish College of Pharmacy Practice. Pharmaconomists are employed by the Danish Ministry of Interior and Health, Danish Medicines Agency and Danish Association of Pharmacies; some pharmaconomists do work as pharmaceutical consultants. The 3 year higher education corresponds to 180 ECTS points. During his or her education programme at Pharmakon—Danish College of Pharmacy Practice, the pharmaconomist student studies human and animal anatomy, pathology, pharmaconomy, pharmacy practice, toxicology, clinical pharmacy, pharmaceutical sciences, pharmaceutical chemistry, biology, molecular biology, cytology, veterinary medicine, diagnosis, medical prescription, pharmacy law, medical sociology, patient safety, health care, psychiatry, communication, information technology, medical ethics, leadership, logistics, quality assurance and marketing.
There are two different professional groups with pharmaceutical education in Denmark: Pharmaconomists Pharmacists Due to his or her higher education as a health professional, the pharmaconomist has by law the same independent competence in all Danish pharmacies as a pharmacist — i.e. for example to dispense and check medical prescriptions, to counsel and advise patients/customers about the use of medicine/pharmaceuticals and to dispense and provide information about medical prescriptions and about prescription medicine and over-the-counter medicine. The pharmaconomist undertakes specialist and managerial operation of pharmacies and undertakes managerial duty service; the only difference by law is that only a pharmacist may own a Danish pharmacy — i.e. become a pharmacy owner. Like pharmacists, pharmaconomists can work as HR managers; the Danish Association of Pharmaconomists is a trade union who represents about 5,700 pharmaconomists in Denmark. The Danish title farmakonom comes from the Greek "pharmakon" and "nom".
In Denmark a pharmaconomist is referred to as lægemiddelkyndig. Lægemiddelkyndig comes from the Danish "lægemiddel" and "kyndig"; the title "pharmaconomist" in other languages: English: pharmaconomist Danish: farmakonom Faroese: farmakonomur French: pharmaconome German: Pharmakonom Greenlandic: farmakonomit Italian: farmaconomista Spanish: farmaconomista Swedish: farmakonom The title "expert in pharmaceuticals" in other languages: English: expert in pharmaceuticals Danish: lægemiddelkyndig French: expert en medicaments German: Arzneimittelexperte Italian: esperto in farmaci Spanish: experto en fármacos Swedish: läkemedelsexpert The academic discipline of "pharmaconomy" in other languages: English: pharmaconomy Danish: farmakonomi German: Pharmakonomie French: pharmaconomie Italian: farmaconomia Spanish: farmaconomía Swedish: farmakonomi Pharmacy Professional Further Education in Clinical Pharmacy and Public Health History of pharmacy Pharmakon—Danish College of Pharmacy Practice The Danish Association of Pharmaconomists The Danish Pharmaceutical Association Official Curriculum of the Danish Education of Pharmaconomists Official Executive Order on the Education of Pharmaconomists Information about pharmaconomists