SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Franco-Mongol alliance

Several attempts at a Franco-Mongol alliance against the Islamic caliphates, their common enemy, were made by various leaders among the Frankish Crusaders and the Mongol Empire in the 13th century. Such an alliance might have seemed an obvious choice: the Mongols were sympathetic to Christianity, given the presence of many influential Nestorian Christians in the Mongol court; the Franks were open to the idea of support from the East, in part owing to the long-running legend of the mythical Prester John, an Eastern king in an Eastern kingdom who many believed would one day come to the assistance of the Crusaders in the Holy Land. The Franks and Mongols shared a common enemy in the Muslims. However, despite many messages and emissaries over the course of several decades, the often-proposed alliance never came to fruition. Contact between Europeans and Mongols began around 1220, with occasional messages from the papacy and European monarchs to Mongol leaders such as the Great Khan, subsequently to the Ilkhans in Mongol-conquered Persia.

Communications tended to follow a recurring pattern: the Europeans asked the Mongols to convert to Western Christianity, while the Mongols responded with demands for submission and tribute. The Mongols had conquered many Christian and Muslim nations in their advance across Asia, after destroying the Muslim Abbasid and Ayyubid dynasties, for the next few generations fought the remaining Islamic power in the region, the Egyptian Mamluks. Hethum I, king of the Christian nation of Cilician Armenia, had submitted to the Mongols in 1247, encouraged other monarchs to engage in a Christian-Mongol alliance, but was only able to persuade his son-in-law, Prince Bohemond VI of the Crusader State of Antioch, who submitted in 1260. Other Christian leaders such as the Crusaders of Acre were more mistrustful of the Mongols, perceiving them as the most significant threat in the region; the Barons of Acre therefore engaged in an unusual passive alliance with the Muslim Mamluks, allowing Egyptian forces to advance unopposed through Crusader territory to engage and defeat the Mongols at the pivotal Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260.

European attitudes began to change in the mid-1260s, from perceiving the Mongols as enemies to be feared, to potential allies against the Muslims. The Mongols sought to capitalize on this, promising a re-conquered Jerusalem to the Europeans in return for cooperation. Attempts to cement an alliance continued through negotiations with many leaders of the Mongol Ilkhanate in Persia, from its founder Hulagu through his descendants Abaqa, Ghazan, Öljaitü, but without success; the Mongols invaded Syria several times between 1281 and 1312, sometimes in attempts at joint operations with the Franks, but the considerable logistical difficulties involved meant that forces would arrive months apart, never able to coordinate activities in any effective way. The Mongol Empire dissolved into civil war, the Egyptian Mamluks recaptured all of Palestine and Syria from the Crusaders. After the Fall of Acre in 1291, the remaining Crusaders retreated to the island of Cyprus, they made a final attempt to establish a bridgehead at the small island of Ruad off the coast of Tortosa, again in an attempt to coordinate military action with the Mongols, but the plan failed, the Muslims responded by besieging the island.

With the Fall of Ruad in 1302 or 1303, the Crusaders lost their last foothold in the Holy Land. Modern historians debate whether an alliance between the Franks and Mongols would have been successful in shifting the balance of power in the region, if it would have been a wise choice on the part of the Europeans. Traditionally, the Mongols tended to see outside parties as either subjects or enemies, with little room in the middle for a concept such as an ally. Among Western Europeans, there had long been rumors and expectations that a great Christian ally would come from the East; these rumors circulated as early as the First Crusade, surged in popularity after the Crusaders lost a battle. A legend arose about a figure known as Prester John, who lived in far-off India, Central Asia, or even Ethiopia; this legend developed a life of its own, some individuals who came from the East were greeted with expectations that they might be forces sent by the long-awaited Prester John. In 1210, news reached the West of the battles of the Mongol Kuchlug, leader of the Christian tribe of the Naimans.

Kuchlug's forces had been battling the powerful Khwarezmian Empire, whose leader was the Muslim Muhammad II of Khwarezm. Rumors circulated in Europe that Kuchlug was the mythical Prester John, again battling the Muslims in the East. During the Fifth Crusade, as the Christians were unsuccessfully laying siege to the Egyptian city of Damietta, the legend of Prester John became conflated with the reality of Genghis Khan's expanding empire. Mongol raiding parties were beginning to invade the eastern Islamic world, in Transoxania and Persia in 1219–1221. Rumors circulated among the Crusaders that a "Christian king of the Indies", a King David, either Prester John or one of his descendants, had been attacking Muslims in the East and was on his way to help the Christians in their crusades. In a letter dated June 20, 1221, Pope Honorius III commented about "forces coming from the Far East to rescue the Holy Land". After Genghis Khan's death in 1227, his empire was divided by his descendants into four sections or Khanates, which degenerated into civil war.

The northwestern Kipchak Khanate, known as the Golden Horde, expanded towards Europe via Hungary and Poland, while its leaders opposed the rule of their cousins back at the Mon

E. H. D. Sewell

Edward Humphrey Dalrymple Sewell was a first-class cricketer, popular cricket and rugby journalist and author, known universally as E. H. D. Sewell, his grandfather was Sir William Henry Sewell, aide-de-camp to William Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford, during the Peninsular War, joined the Duke of Wellington’s army in Portugal in 1808. Sir William was present with Sir John Moore’s army in its retreat from Corunna and served for 28 years in India, his father Colonel Henry Fane Haylett Sewell was a Colonel in the East Indies. He married Violetta Anna Burn in Singapore May 1860, they had seven sons. Edward H D was the youngest son, born in Lingsugur, where his father served as an Army officer. Sewell was educated at the Rectory in Shropshire and Bedford School in England, returning to India as a civil servant. In 1893 he married Amie Sharpe, born in Darjeeling, they had a child, born in Coonsor, India, in 1895 and educated at Dulwich College. While playing cricket in India he became the first batsman in the country to score three consecutive hundreds.

In 1893 he played in the first All-India side. He went back to England and after a couple of seasons with London County he joined Essex in 1902, he remained with Essex until 1904 but his highest score was made for London County when he made 181 against Surrey at Crystal Palace. A big hitter of the ball, it is said, he was known as a good rugby footballer, playing for Bedford and Harlequins, but was most notable as a cricket player. On his return from India he became a professional cricket player for Essex. In 1904 he reached his highest score of 181 under the Captain W. G. Grace, at Crystal Palace against Surrey, he was coach to young players at The Oval for Surrey County Cricket Club, played for Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire. His final first-class match for the MCC Marylebone Cricket Club was in 1922, he wrote for various newspapers, as well as many books on rugby. His first book was published in 1911, he continued to write up until his death in 1947. Among his many books were From a Window at Lords, The Log of a Sportsman, Who's Won the Toss? and Rugger: The Man’s Game.

Edward died on 20 September 1947 in London. His obituary in The Times newspaper wrote of his achievements as a writer and player, both of cricket and Rugby football. A friend wrote that he had a kindly and gentle disposition, an alert mind, was a good man and a good sportsman; the past Rugby Football season, extracts from the Fortnightly Review, 1908 The Revival in Rugby Football, extracts from the Fortnightly Review, 1910 The Book Of Football, J M Dent & Sons Ltd. 1911 Cricket points: for the county,'varsity, public school, club cricketer, Sporting Life, London, 1911 Triangular Cricket: Being a Record of the Greatest Contest in the History of the Game, J. M. Dent & Co. London, 1912 Rugby Football Internationals Roll of Honour, T. C. & E. C. Jack, London & Edinburgh, 1919, Rugby Football Up To Date, Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1921 Log of a Sportsman, T Fisher Unwin Ltd. Adelphi Terrace, London 1923 Cricket Up To Date, John Murray, 1931 Rugby Football To-Day, John Murray, 1931 First Principles of Cricket, Boy's Own Paper, GB, 1935 From a Window at Lord’s, Methuen, 1937, Who's Won the Toss?

Stanley Paul, 1940 Cricket Under Fire, Stanley Paul & Co, London, 1941 Rugger: The Man's Game, First edition 1944, Hollis and Carter Ltd, London, 1950 An Outdoor Wallah, Stanley Paul, 1945 Well Hit! Sir, Stanley Paul, London, 1946 Overthrows, Stanley Paul, London, 1946Contribution - extended reminiscences:'The Memorial Biography of Dr. W. G. Grace', issued under the Auspices of The Committee of the MCC, Constable & Company Ltd. London 1919 May 2006 edition of Soul Search, the journal of The Sole Society. A British Family History Society, http://www.sole.org.uk/ BM&D and census records Tony Collins, A Social History of English Rugby Union, Oxford, 2009, ISBN 0-415-47660-7 (many references to EHD Sewell

CSM Târgu Mureș (women's football)

CSM Târgu Mureş is a women's association football club from Târgu Mureş, Romania associated with the municipality of its host city. The team was first created by professor Istvan Kiss as a women's squad associated to his futsal club City'US Târgu Mureș. In 2008 a new entity, to receive generous funding from the municipality of Târgu Mureş was formed, the women's team switched to this club, participating in competitions under the name of FC Municipal Târgu Mureș, garnering success and winning both the Liga I and the Romanian Cup; as such, they participated in the 2010–11 UEFA Women's Champions League qualifying round, where they won one of three matches, but failed to move on. In 2013 the club to which the team belonged changed its name to ASA 2013 Târgu Mureș; the team played at the top of Romanian women's football, being either runners-up of winners of the two domestic competitions from 2010 until 2016, when it won its second and last Romanian Cup. Financial difficulties became prevalent during the 2016–17 season, during the 2017–18 one, when the team withdrew halfway through the championship, due to the municipality refusing to fund the club and others associated with it, citing irregularities that have been brewing in this period.

Shortly after, the municipality founded a new club on 19 December 2017, with the intention of picking up the separate teams in various sports that were bankrupted, under the umbrella of the new legal entity called CSM Târgu Mureș. Meanwhile, most of the women football players signed with local side Ladies Târgu Mureș until the summer, when they were recalled in order to restore the refounded team to its previous glory. However, since folding mid-season, they were relegated to the third tier of Romanian football by the federation. Coach was to be Carol Secheș, the first coach from the founding days of the City'US era, which lead the team in the Champions League in the FCM era and on as ASA. CSM promptly promoted in its first season in Liga III and was a serious contender to promote after just another season again to the Liga I, but was docked 6 points by the Federation's Ethics Committee in November 2019; the team used the crest of the club City'US Târgu Mureș. Between 2009 and 2013 club colours were orange and blue, between 2013 and 2017 red and blue.

Since the CSM era, the team colors are white and red. Thus, the main kit is all-white, while the alternate kit is light blue, though the team has on occasion mixed the shirts and shorts of the two kits. Liga I Winners: 2009–10 Runners-up: 2010–11, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2013–14, 2014–15, 2015–16 Liga III Winners: 2018–19 Romanian Women's Cup: Winners: 2009–10, 2015–16 Runners-up: 2010–11, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2013–14, 2014–15 Champions Runners-up Third Place Promoted Relegated ASA 2013 Târgu Mureş at frf.ro