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Prester John

Prester John was a legendary Christian patriarch and king, popular in European chronicles and tradition from the 12th through the 17th centuries. He was said to rule over a Nestorian Christian nation lost amid the Islamic caliphates and pagan lands of the Orient, in which the patriarch of the Saint Thomas Christians resided; the accounts are varied collections of medieval popular fantasy, depicting Prester John as a descendant of the Three Magi, ruling a kingdom full of riches and strange creatures. At first, Prester John was imagined to reside in India. After the coming of the Mongols to the Western world, accounts placed the king in Central Asia, Portuguese explorers convinced themselves that they had found him in Ethiopia. Though its immediate genesis is unclear, the legend of Prester John drew from earlier accounts of the Orient and of Westerners' travels there. Influential were the stories of Saint Thomas the Apostle's proselytizing in India, recorded in the 3rd-century work known as the Acts of Thomas.

This text inculcated in Westerners an image of "India" as a place of exotic wonders and offered the earliest description of Saint Thomas establishing a Christian sect there, motifs that loomed large over accounts of Prester John. Distorted reports of the Church of the East's movements in Asia informed the legend as well; this church called the Nestorian church and centered in Persia, had gained a wide following in the Eastern nations and engaged the Western imagination as an assemblage both exotic and familiarly Christian. Inspiring were the Nestorians' missionary successes among the Mongols and Turks of Central Asia. By the 12th century, the Kerait rulers were still following a custom of bearing Christian names, which may have fueled the legend. Additionally, the tradition may have drawn from the shadowy early Christian figure John the Presbyter of Syria, whose existence is first inferred by the ecclesiastical historian and bishop Eusebius of Caesarea based on his reading of earlier church fathers.

This man, said in one document to be the author of two of the Epistles of John, was supposed to have been the teacher of the martyr bishop Papias, who had in turn taught Eusebius' own teacher Irenaeus. However, little links this figure active in the late 1st century, to the Prester John legend beyond the name; the title "Prester" is an adaptation of the Late Latin word "presbyter" meaning "elder" and used as a title of priests holding a high office. The accounts of Prester John borrowed from literary texts concerning the East, including the great body of ancient and medieval geographical and travel literature. Details were lifted from literary and pseudohistorical accounts, such as the tale of Sinbad the Sailor; the Alexander romance, a fabulous account of Alexander the Great's conquests, was influential in this regard. The Prester John legend as such began in the early 12th century with reports of visits of an Archbishop of India to Constantinople, of a Patriarch of India to Rome at the time of Pope Callixtus II.

These visits from the Saint Thomas Christians of India, cannot be confirmed, evidence of both being secondhand reports. What is certain is that German chronicler Otto of Freising reported in his Chronicon of 1145 that the previous year he had met Hugh, bishop of Jabala in Syria, at the court of Pope Eugene III in Viterbo. Hugh was an emissary of Prince Raymond of Antioch, sent to seek Western aid against the Saracens after the Siege of Edessa. Hugh told Otto, in the presence of the pope, that Prester John, a Nestorian Christian who served in the dual position of priest and king, had regained the city of Ecbatana from the brother monarchs of Medes and Persia, the Samiardi, in a great battle "not many years ago". Afterwards Prester John set out for Jerusalem to rescue the Holy Land, but the swollen waters of the Tigris compelled him to return to his own country, his fabulous wealth was demonstrated by his emerald scepter. Robert Silverberg connects this account with historic events of 1141, when the Qara Khitai khanate under Yelü Dashi defeated the Seljuk Turksin the Battle of Qatwan, near Samarkand.

The Seljuks were the most powerful force in the Muslim world. The Qara Khitai at the time were Buddhists, not Christians, there is no reason to suppose Yelü Dashi was called Prester John. However, several vassals of the Qara Khitai practiced Nestorian Christianity, which may have contributed to the legend, it is possible that the Europeans, who were unfamiliar with Buddhism, assumed that if the leader was not Muslim, he must be Christian. The defeat inspired a notion of deliverance from the East, it is possible Otto recorded Hugh's confused report to prevent complacency in the Crusade's European backers – according to his account, no help could be expected from a powerful Eastern king. No more of the tale is recorded until about 1165 when copies of what was a forged Letter of Prester John started spreading throughout Europe. An

Doug Ault

Douglas Reagan Ault was an American professional baseball first baseman and designated hitter who played for the Texas Rangers and Toronto Blue Jays. He is best known for playing in the Blue Jays first Major League Baseball game on April 7, 1977, against the Chicago White Sox. Ault hit the first two home runs in franchise history, helping Toronto win 9–5. A native of Beaumont, Ault was a varsity baseball star at Texas Tech, he refused to sign. He was signed by the hometown Rangers in 1973 as an amateur free agent, he advanced quickly though the minor League hierarchy, making the majors in 1976 as a late season replacement. With Mike Hargrove at first base, Ault became available in the 1976 Major League Baseball expansion draft where he was drafted by the Blue Jays, he became the starting first baseman in their first regular season game, his actions that day turned Ault into the Blue Jays first superstar. However, he could not meet the expectations given to him, had an otherwise average career as a result and was out of the majors within three years.

He managed in the minor Leagues for several years, leading the Syracuse Chiefs to a pennant in 1985. He retired in 1994, went to the automobile business, but a series of personal tragedies and business failures plagued him in life. Ault committed suicide on December 22, 2004. Doug Ault was born in Texas; when he was young, Ault credited his eldest sister Brenda as his main influence in baseball, for training him every day at the local baseball park and attending all his games as an amateur. He was varsity baseball star at Texas Tech, he was drafted on three different occasions, by the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1969, the San Diego Padres in the second round in the 1970 January secondary draft, by the Cleveland Indians in the 1970 June secondary draft, but never signed. While at Texas Tech he hit.473 his senior year and was named to the 1972 College Baseball All-America Team. He was signed by the Rangers in 1973 as an amateur free agent, he was sent to Gastonia in the Western Carolina League where he led the league in home runs with 19 in his first season playing professionally.

Within the next few years, Ault became a top prospect. In 1976, Ault played in 143 games for the Sacramento Solons of the Pacific Coast League leading the league in runs with 112 and total bases while finishing third in home runs, hits. Meanwhile, he worked the off-season in an oil-platform. Ault made his Major League Baseball debut with the Texas Rangers on September 9, 1976, in his first at-bat, he struck out against Dave Goltz of the Minnesota Twins in the second inning. Ault singled in the fifth inning off Goltz to record his first career hit. However, the Rangers lost to the Twins 6-0. Ault finished the season appearing in nine games with the Rangers, hitting.300 with six hits in 20 at-bats. On November 5, the Toronto Blue Jays selected Ault with the 32nd overall pick in the 1976 MLB expansion draft, he considered that day as "grateful" as it gave him an opportunity to play every day in the major leagues, as he was blocked at first base by All-Star Mike Hargrove while at Texas. During spring training, Ault competed with veterans Nate Colbert and Ron Fairly for the starting first base position.

On April 7, 1977, Ault made history as the Blue Jays' starting first baseman in the team's first professional game. Their opponent that day was the Chicago White Sox. Over 44,000 fans attended the game, although a snowstorm threatened to delay it. In bottom of the first inning, batting third in the lineup, hit the first home run in the Blue Jays' history off White Sox starting pitcher Ken Brett, he hit another home run off Brett in the third inning to tie a major league record for most home runs in a season opening game. Those two home runs were the first of his career and the Blue Jays defeated the White Sox 9-5. Since George Bell of the Blue Jays broke the record in 1988 when he hit three home runs on opening day, was matched by Tuffy Rhodes of the Chicago Cubs in 1994 and Dmitri Young of the Detroit Tigers in 2005. Ault was covered with "immediate acclaim and nationwide publicity" as a result of the feat, he finished his rookie season hitting.245 with 64 runs batted in during 129 games. His 64 runs batted in tied Ault with Fairly to lead the Blue Jays in that category, was a Blue Jays rookie record until Eric Hinske drove in 84 runs in 2002.

With the Blue Jays acquiring first baseman John Mayberry, Ault was limited to 54 games in 1978, where he hit.240 with three home runs and 7 runs batted in over 104 at-bats. He spent the entire 1979 season with the Syracuse Chiefs, the Blue Jays AAA affiliate, before re-appearing with the Blue Jays in 1980. In 64 games in 1980, Ault hit.194 with fifteen runs batted in. All three home runs came against Cleveland in a series played in early August. Ault played his final career game with the Jays on October 5, 1980. After his time with Toronto, Ault played with the Hanshin Tigers in the Japanese Central League in 1981, before returning to the Chiefs in 1982. Ault spent some time with the Mexico City Tigres of the Mexican League in 1982. Ault finished his career with a.236 batting average, hitting 17 HR and 86 runs batted in, playing 256 games, 247 of them with the Toronto Blue Jays. Following his playing career, Ault served as a manager in the Blue Jays organization for the single-A teams Dunedin, Myrtle Beach and St. Catharines.

He was promoted to manage his former club, the Triple-A Syracuse Chiefs of the International League in 1985, where he managed them to a pennant that same season, the first in club history. As a result, he won the aw

Cliff Avril

Clifford Samuel Avril is a former American football defensive end. He played college football at Purdue and was drafted in the third round of the 2008 NFL Draft by the Detroit Lions, he has played for the Seattle Seahawks, with whom he won Super Bowl XLVIII and made a Pro Bowl. Avril was born in Florida, to Haitian parents, he attended Clay High School in Green Cove Springs, where he was a four-sport star in football and field, basketball. Avril was an All State player in football, he was an All-conference selection his junior year. As a senior in 2004, he was a second-team All-state selection and was named to The Florida Times-Union Super 24 team after recording 80 tackles, including 11 for loss and nine sacks, with four pass breakups, leading his team to an 11-2 record, he excelled in track & field during his junior and senior seasons. He captured a regional shot put title at the 2004 FHSAA 2A Region 2, recording a career-best throw of 15.91 meters. He earned a third-place finish in the shot put at the outdoor state finals.

In addition, he had a 335-pound max bench press and posted a 4.6-second 40-yard dash time. Avril attended Purdue University, where he started 12 games at strong-side linebacker and 23 at left defensive end. After converting to defensive end in his final two seasons at Purdue, he recorded 30 of his 35.5 tackles-for-losses and 12.5 of his 13 sacks from the left end position. In 2004, he appeared in all 12 games, including four starts made 36 tackles, including 3.0 for loss and 0.5 sacks, with one pass breakup and one forced fumble. In 2005, he had 33 tackles, including 2.5 for loss. In 2006, he started all 14 games, the first four at linebacker and last 10 at defensive end and recorded 84 tackles 15.0 tackles-for-loss, six sacks and six pass breakups, two forced fumbles, one fumble recovery and one interception. Avril was drafted in the third round of the 2008 NFL Draft by the Detroit Lions, he signed $1.634 million contract. In 2008, he recorded five sacks, he was named to the Sporting News All-Rookie team.

2009 saw better tackle statistics for Avril. He recorded 18 more tackles in 2009 than he did his rookie year in 2008, but his pass rushing ability stats did not improve much over his rookie year, as he recorded just a half sack more in 2009. In 2010, Avril posted the best stats of his career with 8.5 sacks. Not to be outdone by this, Avril played in all 16 games for the first time in 2011, he had 36 tackles, a team-high 11 sacks. Avril had more forced fumbles than any other defensive end with 6, he had 3 fumble recoveries to go along with an interception, returned for a touchdown. Many sportswriters felt that he was worthy of the Pro Bowl, but Jared Allen, Jason Pierre-Paul, Jason Babin were selected instead to the NFC roster. On March 5, 2012, the Lions placed the non-exclusive franchise tag on Avril, keeping him in Detroit for the 2012 season. On August 5, Avril signed his tender, worth $10.6 million. Prior to the franchise tag, Avril rejected a 3-year, $30 million contract offered by the Lions.

In 2012, Avril had 9.5 sacks, one forced fumble and one pass defensed, which Lions management considered a decline in performance from the previous year. On March 13, 2013, Avril signed a two-year, $13 million contract with the Seattle Seahawks. In the 2013 season, he has been credited for his contribution to the Seahawks' Super Bowl XLVIII win, he set a Super Bowl record by scoring only twelve seconds into the game with a safety stemming from a botched opening snap by the Broncos, he forced an interception that led to a touchdown. Following the Seahawks' victory, Avril became the first player in NFL history to win a Super Bowl after having been on a winless team. In the 2014 season, after recording just 2 sacks over the first 10 games, Avril would register 3 in the last 6 games, coinciding with a 6-game winning streak during which the Seahawks defense allowed a total of 39 points. On December 19, 2014, Avril signed a 4-year extension with the Seahawks worth $28.5 million. Avril would register a sack in the divisional round playoff game against the Carolina Panthers and NFC Championship game against the Green Bay Packers, both Seahawk victories.

In Super Bowl XLIX, Avril recorded 2 tackles, but left in the third quarter with a concussion and did not return. The Seahawks failed to repeat as Super Bowl champions as they lost 28–24 to the New England Patriots. In the 2015 season, Avril was evaluated by Pro Football Focus as the fifth best edge defender in the league at the halfway point of the season. Through those eight games, Avril recorded 30 tackles, 3.5 sacks, 1 forced fumble, 5 pass deflections, 5 tackles for loss. In the 2016 season, Avril was named NFC Defensive Player of the Month for October, he was named to his first Pro Bowl, was ranked 56th by his peers on the NFL Top 100 Players of 2017. In Week 4 of the 2017 season, Avril suffered a serious neck injury in the first quarter of Seattle's 46-18 win over the Indianapolis Colts, he was inadvertently kicked in his chin against the Colts and has been experiencing numbness in his arms. Seahawks head coach Pete Carroll commented on the injury saying Avril will be out "a while", he was placed on injured reserve on October 20, 2017.

On May 4, 2018, the Seahawks released Avril with a failed physical designation. Official Website Seattle Seahawks bio Purdue Boilermakers bio


The boysenberry is a cross among the European raspberry, European blackberry, American dewberry, loganberry. It is a large 8.0-gram aggregate fruit, with a deep maroon color. The exact origins of the boysenberry are unclear, but the most definite records trace the plant as it is known today back to grower Rudolph Boysen, who obtained the dewberry–loganberry parent from the farm of John Lubben. In the late 1920s, George M. Darrow of the USDA began tracking down reports of a large, reddish-purple berry, grown on Boysen's farm in Anaheim, California. Darrow enlisted the help of Walter Knott, another farmer, known as a berry expert. Knott had never heard of the new berry. Darrow and Knott learned that Boysen had abandoned his growing experiments several years earlier and sold his farm. Undaunted by this news and Knott headed out to Boysen's old farm, on which they found several frail vines surviving in a field choked with weeds, they transplanted the vines to Knott's farm in Buena Park, where he nurtured them back to fruit-bearing health.

Walter Knott was the first to commercially cultivate the berry in Southern California. He began selling the berries at his farm stand in 1932 and soon noticed that people kept returning to buy the large, tasty berries; when asked what they were called, Knott said, "Boysenberries," after their originator. His family's small restaurant and pie business grew into Knott's Berry Farm; as the berry's popularity grew, Mrs. Knott began making preserves, which made Knott's Berry Farm famous. By 1940, 599 acres of land in California were dedicated to boysenberries. By the 1960s, the boysenberry began to fall out of favor due to a combination of being difficult to cultivate, susceptible to fungal diseases in coastal growing areas, too soft and delicate to ship without damage, as well as having a short season of availability compared with newer cultivars. In the 1980s, breeding efforts in New Zealand combined cultivars and germplasm from California with Scottish sources to create five new thornless varieties.

As of the early 2000s, fresh boysenberries were only grown for market by smaller California farmers and sold from local farm stands and markets. Most commercially grown boysenberries from Oregon, are processed into other products such as jam, juice and ice cream; as of 2016, New Zealand was exporter of boysenberries. Since 2007, a hybrid variety called the "Newberry" or "Ruby Boysen", was developed to overcome cultivation challenges that led to the decline in boysenberry popularity, was marketed through farm markets and retailers in California. There is a hybrid variety with marionberry called "Silvanberry" in Australia. Classed under the blackberry family, Sylvanberry plants have many characteristics found among other blackberry varieties; these plants are long living perennials and cold tolerant, easy to grow, productive spreaders. Boysenberries grow on low, trailing plants and are characterized by their soft texture, thin skins, sweet-tart flavor. Mature fruits leak juice easily and can start to decay within a few days of harvest.

Media related to Boysenberries at Wikimedia Commons

List of historical markers of the Philippines in Western Visayas

This list of historical markers installed by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines in Western Visayas is an annotated list of people, places, or events in the region that have been commemorated by cast-iron plaques issued by the said commission. The plaques themselves are permanent signs installed in publicly visible locations on buildings, monuments, or in special locations. While many Cultural Properties have historical markers installed, not all places marked with historical markers are designated into one of the particular categories of Cultural Properties; this historical marker for The Code of Kalantiaw in Batan, installed on December 8, 1956, remained in place after William Henry Scott in 1968 proved that Datu Kalantiaw was a hoax and through a resolution, issued by the National Historical Institute in 2004. List of Cultural Properties of the Philippines in Western Visayas National Historical Institute. Historical Markers: Regions V-XIII. National Historical Institute.

National Historical Institute. Historical Markers. National Historical Institute. A list of sites and structures with historical markers, as of 16 January 2012 A list of institutions with historical markers, as of 16 January 2012 A list of sites and structures with historical markers, as of 16 January 2012 A list of institutions with historical markers, as of 16 January 2012 National Registry of Historic Sites and Structures in the Philippines Policies on the Installation of Historical Markers

Alton, Iowa

Alton is a city in Sioux County, United States, along the Floyd River. The population was 1,216 at the 2010 census. Alton was called East Orange, under the latter name was laid out in 1875 when the railroad was extended to that point. East Orange was renamed Alton in 1882. Alton was incorporated as a city in 1883. Alton is located at 42°59′13″N 96°00′41″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.85 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,216 people, 478 households, 338 families living in the city; the population density was 657.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 493 housing units at an average density of 266.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.9% White, 0.7% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 1.6% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.7% of the population. There were 478 households of which 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.6% were married couples living together, 4.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 29.3% were non-families.

24.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.07. The median age in the city was 36.6 years. 27.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.5 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,095 people, 439 households, 297 families living in the city; the population density was 735.3 people per square mile. There were 466 housing units at an average density of 312.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.54% White, 0.09% Native American, 0.09% from other races, 0.27% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.10% of the population. There were 439 households out of which 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.3% were married couples living together, 4.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.3% were non-families. 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.14. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.4% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, 15.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $39,911, the median income for a family was $47,143. Males had a median income of $30,500 versus $19,570 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,663. About 4.0% of families and 4.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.4% of those under age 18 and 11.3% of those age 65 or over. Robert Schuller, pastor of the Crystal Cathedral, was raised a few miles outside of Alton. Alton, Iowa Portal style website, Business and more City-Data Comprehensive Statistical Data and more about Alton