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Francoist Spain

Francoist Spain, known in Spain as the Francoist dictatorship known as the Spanish State, is the period of Spanish history between 1936 and 1975, when Francisco Franco ruled Spain as dictator with the title Caudillo. The nature of the regime changed during its existence. Months after the start of the Spanish Civil War in July 1936, Franco emerged as the dominant rebel military leader and was proclaimed Head of State on 1 October 1936, ruling a dictatorship over the territory controlled by the Nationalist faction; the 1937 Unification Decree, which merged all parties supporting the rebel side, led to Nationalist Spain becoming a single-party regime under the FET y de las JONS. The end of the war in 1939 brought the extension of the Franco rule to the whole country and the exile of Republican institutions; the Francoist dictatorship took a form described as "fascistized dictatorship", or "semi-fascist regime", showing clear influence of fascism in fields such as labor relations, the autarkic economic policy, aesthetics, or the single-party system.

As time went on, the regime opened up and became closer to developmental dictatorships, although it always preserved residual fascist trappings. During the Second World War, Spain did not join the Axis powers. Spain supported them in various ways throughout most of the war while maintaining its neutrality; because of this, Spain was isolated by many other countries for nearly a decade after World War II, while its autarkic economy, still trying to recover from the civil war, suffered from chronic depression. The 1947 Law of Succession made Spain a de jure Kingdom again, but defined Franco as the Head of State for life with the power to choose the person to become King of Spain and his successor. Reforms were implemented in the 1950s and Spain abandoned autarky, reassigned authority from the Falangist movement, prone to isolationism, to a new breed of economists, the technocrats of Opus Dei; this led to massive economic growth, second only to Japan, that lasted until the mid-1970s, known as the "Spanish miracle".

During the 1950s the regime changed from being totalitarian and using severe repression to an authoritarian system with limited pluralism. As a result of these reforms, Spain was allowed to join the United Nations in 1955 and during the Cold War Franco was one of Europe's foremost anti-communist figures: his regime was assisted by the Western powers the United States, it was asked to join NATO. Franco died in 1975 at the age of 82, he restored the monarchy before his death and made his successor King Juan Carlos I, who would lead the Spanish transition to democracy. On 1 October 1936, Franco was formally recognised as Caudillo of Spain—the Spanish equivalent of the Italian Duce and the German Führer—by the Junta de Defensa Nacional, which governed the territories occupied by the Nationalists. In April 1937, Franco assumed control of the Falange Española de las JONS led by Manuel Hedilla, who had succeeded José Antonio Primo de Rivera, executed in November 1936 by the Republican government, he merged it with the Carlist Comunión Tradicionalista to form the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS, the sole legal party of Francoist Spain, it was the main component of the Movimiento Nacional.

The Falangists were concentrated at local government and grassroot level, entrusted with harnessing the Civil War's momentum of mass mobilisation through their auxiliaries and trade unions by collecting denunciations of enemy residents and recruiting workers into the trade unions. While there were prominent Falangists at a senior government level before the late 1940s, there were higher concentrations of monarchists, military officials and other traditional conservative factions at those levels. However, the Falange remained the sole party; the Francoists took control of Spain through a comprehensive and methodical war of attrition which involved the imprisonment and executions of Spaniards found guilty of supporting the values promoted by the Republic: regional autonomy, liberal or social democracy, free elections and women's rights, including the vote. The right-wing considered these "enemy elements" to comprise an "anti-Spain", the product of Bolsheviks and a "Judeo-Masonic conspiracy", which had evolved after the Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula from the Islamic Moors, a Reconquista, declared formally over with the Alhambra Decree of 1492 expelling the Jews from Spain.

At the end of the Spanish Civil War, according to the regime's own figures there were more than 270,000 men and women held in prisons and some 500,000 had fled into exile. Large numbers of those captured were returned to Spain or interned in Nazi concentration camps as stateless enemies. Between six and seven thousand exiles from Spain died in Mauthausen, it has been estimated that more than 200,000 Spaniards died in the first years of the dictatorship from 1940 to 1942 as a result of political persecution and disease related to the conflict. Spain's strong ties with the Axis resulted in its international ostracism in the early years following World War II as Spain was not a founding member of the United Nations and did not become a member until 1955; this changed with the Cold War that soon followed the end of hostilities in 1945, in the face of which Franco's strong anti-communism tilted its regime to ally with the United States. Independent political parties and trade unions were banned throughout the duration of the dictatorship.

Once decrees for economic stabilisation were put forth by the late 1

Baton Broadcast System

This is about the defunct television system owned by Baton Broadcasting. For the history of Baton Broadcasting itself, see Bell Media; the Baton Broadcast System known as BBS, was a Canadian system of television stations located in Ontario and Saskatchewan, owned by Baton Broadcasting. BBS was the successor to two provincial systems owned by Baton, the Saskatchewan Television Network and Ontario Network Television. During the 1990s, BBS and its predecessors served as a complementary programming service to the CTV Television Network, to which most of the system's stations were affiliated. Shortly after Baton's acquisition of CTV in 1997 and the contemporaneous sale of Baton's independent stations, the BBS brand was eliminated, the system's operations were merged into the CTV network. During its years as a cooperative, CTV did not broadcast a complete primetime schedule. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, it broadcast 60 hours of common programming each week, with a few gaps in primetime for affiliates to schedule locally.

During this same period, CTV's profits began to decline, by the early 1990s the network was posting losses due to increased competition from the CanWest Global System and other independent stations. Many affiliate groups, such as Baton and WIC – the latter owning several independent stations – decided they would prefer to buy and air more of their own programming. Accordingly, as part of CTV's 1993 restructuring, network programming was reduced to 42.5 hours, including 12 hours in primetime. From this point on, CTV network programming only took up about half of affiliates' primetime schedules. ONT was initiated in 1991, consisting of eight CTV affiliates – seven owned by Baton and Electrohome's CKCO. Providing 10.5 hours of common programming each week, this was soon expanded to 35 hours. While ONT was a secondary affiliation and not a separate network from CTV, some claimed it was a first step towards the Baton stations becoming a separate network. Indeed, Baton began to bid against CTV for the rights to new U.

S. series. However, Baton's president at the time, Douglas Bassett, contended it was a "marketing vehicle" to compete with CanWest Global's CIII-TV, a single station which served all of Ontario. In 1993, Baton acquired two independent stations, CFPL and CKNX, launched a third, CHWI; these stations replaced CKCO within ONT. In response, CKCO and WIC's CHCH-TV Hamilton announced a joint initiative of their own, known as "Market One Television". In addition to the CTV affiliates and independent stations, some ONT programming may have aired on Baton's CBC affiliates, part of twinstick operations in northern Ontario. In the rest of Canada, Baton sublicensed its programming to individual stations CTV affiliates; the ONT brand was seen from time to time in the rest of Canada through Baton-produced Toronto Blue Jays games. In October 1994, Baton hired the management consulting firm McKinsey & Company to help evaluate how to proceed with its national expansion plans. McKinsey's report recommended and foremost, that Baton attempt to take control of the CTV trademark, which it saw as one of the most valuable brands in Canada, through the acquisition of as many other CTV affiliates as possible.

However, the report recommended that Baton create a new national brand as a backup, to help reduce the damage should Baton's gambit fail and CTV pass into a competitor's hands. This new brand turned out to be BBS, with a logo adapted from CFTO's multicoloured-iris logo. Baton's local stations dropped their individual logos and adopted the new BBS symbol, with the station call letters positioned beneath. In contrast, ONT was a secondary brand and had not replaced local station logos. Despite the value Baton placed in the CTV brand, BBS became more a more prominent part of these stations' branding than CTV itself. BBS replaced ONT in fall 1994, with the addition of Baton's six stations in Saskatchewan – CTV affiliates CKCK-TV in Regina, CFQC-TV in Saskatoon, CICC-TV in Yorkton, CIPA-TV in Prince Albert, CBC affiliates CKOS-TV in Yorkton and CKBI-TV in Prince Albert, they had been jointly branded as the "Saskatchewan Television Network" since 1987. Programming included U. S. series such as Law & Order, Home Improvement, Melrose Place, Ellen, the soap opera Family Passions, a Saturday morning block of Disney cartoons branded as BBS Master Control and talk programming such as Sunday Edition and The Dini Petty Show, sports programming such as Blue Jays games, which were again syndicated to other Canadian stations.

As a result of the Baton-Electrohome alliance, CKCO joined the system in 1996. Baton and Electrohome jointly acquired CFCN-TV in Calgary around the same time. In 1997, Baton bought controlling interest in CTV, became the sole corporate owner of the network that year after the remaining station owners sold their shares. Baton continued to consider the long-standing CTV brand much preferable to its lesser-known BBS moniker, had not bothered to introduce the latter brand to its new acquisitions. After its purchase of CTV was complete, Baton introduced new station logos on all of its CTV-affiliated stations that

Five Cs of Singapore

"Five Cs of Singapore" – namely, Car, Credit card and Country club membership – is a phrase used in Singapore to refer to materialism. It was coined as a popular observational joke about the aspirations of some Singaporeans to obtain material possessions in an effort to impress others. Cash refers to spending power rather than physical currency. Financial security and affluence is a status symbol and for many years was the measure of personal worth and success. 1 in 10 residents of Singapore own a car. Given high taxation on the import and ownership of motor vehicles and a quota system requiring owners to acquire a costly Certificate of Entitlement, car ownership is a symbol of wealth and power. Credit cards are a visible symbol of success. Singapore's financial regulator, the Monetary Authority of Singapore, has stipulated a maximum personal credit limit of two months' income given personal income less than S$30,000, or four months' income for all others. Banks issue different types of cards depending on the available credit limit, associating greater cachet with cards that offer a higher limit.

In Singapore developed apartments reflect a higher wealth status as compared to public housing known as HDBs which are public flats built and sometimes subsidized by the government. Land in Singapore is at a premium, meaning that freestanding houses are rare and signify greater affluence. Few country clubs, golf clubs, etc. are available in Singapore, making membership another indication of affluence