A male organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm. Each spermatozoon can fuse with ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot reproduce sexually without access to at least one ovum from a female, but some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Most male mammals, including male humans, have a Y chromosome, which codes for the production of larger amounts of testosterone to develop male reproductive organs. Not all species share a common sex-determination system. In most animals, including humans, sex is determined genetically, but in some species it can be determined due to social, environmental, or other factors. For example, Cymothoa exigua changes sex depending on the number of females present in the vicinity; the existence of two sexes seems to have been selected independently across different evolutionary lineages. The repeated pattern is sexual reproduction in isogamous species with two or more mating types with gametes of identical form and behavior to anisogamous species with gametes of male and female types to oogamous species in which the female gamete is much larger than the male and has no ability to move.
There is a good argument that this pattern was driven by the physical constraints on the mechanisms by which two gametes get together as required for sexual reproduction. Accordingly, sex is defined operationally across species by the type of gametes produced and differences between males and females in one lineage are not always predictive of differences in another. Male/female dimorphism between organisms or reproductive organs of different sexes is not limited to animals. In land plants and male designate not only the female and male gamete-producing organisms and structures but the structures of the sporophytes that give rise to male and female plants. A common symbol used to represent the male sex is the Mars symbol, ♂ — a circle with an arrow pointing northeast; the symbol is identical to the planetary symbol of Mars. It was first used to denote sex by Carl Linnaeus in 1751; the symbol is called a stylized representation of the Roman god Mars' shield and spear. According to Stearn, all the historical evidence favours that it is derived from θρ, the contraction of the Greek name for the planet Mars, Thouros.
The sex of a particular organism may be determined by a number of factors. These may be genetic or environmental, or may change during the course of an organism's life. Although most species with male and female sexes have individuals that are either male or female, hermaphroditic animals, such as worms, have both male and female reproductive organs. Most mammals, including humans, are genetically determined as such by the XY sex-determination system where males have an XY sex chromosome, it is possible in a variety of species, including humans, to be XXY or have other intersex/hermaphroditic qualities, though one would still be considered genotypically male so long as one has a Y-chromosome. During reproduction, a male can give either an X sperm or a Y sperm, while a female can only give an X egg. A Y sperm and an X egg produce a male, while an X egg produce a female; the part of the Y-chromosome, responsible for maleness is the sex-determining region of the Y-chromosome, the SRY. The SRY activates Sox9, which forms feedforward loops with FGF9 and PGD2 in the gonads, allowing the levels of these genes to stay high enough in order to cause male development.
The ZW sex-determination system, where males have a ZZ sex chromosome may be found in birds and some insects and other organisms. Members of the insect order Hymenoptera, such as ants and bees, are determined by haplodiploidy, where most males are haploid and females and some sterile males are diploid. In some species of reptiles, such as alligators, sex is determined by the temperature at which the egg is incubated. Other species, such as some snails, practice sex change: adults start out male become female. In tropical clown fish, the dominant individual in a group becomes female while the other ones are male. In some arthropods, sex is determined by infection. Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia alter their sexuality. In those species with two sexes, males may differ from females in ways other than the production of spermatozoa. In many insects and fish, the male is smaller than the female. In seed plants, which exhibit alternation of generations, the female and male parts are both included within the sporophyte sex organ of a single organism.
In mammals, including humans, males are larger than females. In birds, the male exhibits a colorful plumage that attracts females. Boy Female Gender Male plant Male pregnancy Man Masculinity Gentleman Wedgwood, Hensleigh. "On False Etymologies". Transactions of the Philological Society: 68
Disco is a music genre and subculture that emerged in the 1970s from the United States' urban nightlife scene. The music, the fashion, many song lyrics and other cultural phenomena associated with disco were focused on having a good time on the dance floor of a discotheque to the loud sounds of records being played by a DJ enhanced by coloured lighting effects. Disco started as a mixture of music from venues popular with African Americans and Latino Americans, Italian Americans, LGBT people, psychedelic hippies in Philadelphia and New York City during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Disco can be seen as a reaction to both the dominance of rock music and the stigmatization of dance music by the counterculture during this period. Several dance styles were developed during the period of disco's popularity in the United States, including the Bump and the Hustle; the disco sound is typified by "four-on-the-floor" beats, syncopated basslines, string sections, electric piano and electric rhythm guitars.
Lead guitar features less in disco than in rock. Well-known disco artists include Donna Summer, Gloria Gaynor, the Bee Gees, Chic, KC and the Sunshine Band, Thelma Houston and the Village People. While performers and singers garnered public attention, record producers working behind the scenes played an important role in developing the genre. Films such as Saturday Night Fever and Thank God It's Friday contributed to disco's mainstream popularity. By the late 1970s, most major U. S. cities had thriving disco club scenes, DJs would mix dance records at clubs such as Studio 54 in New York City, a venue popular among celebrities. Discothèque-goers wore expensive and sexy fashions. There was a thriving drug subculture in the disco scene for drugs that would enhance the experience of dancing to the loud music and the flashing lights, such as cocaine and Quaaludes, the latter being so common in disco subculture that they were nicknamed "disco biscuits". Disco clubs were associated with promiscuity as a reflection of the sexual revolution of this era in popular history.
Disco was the last popular music movement driven by the baby boom generation. It began to decline in the United States during 1979-80, by 1982 it had lost nearly all popularity there. Disco Demolition Night, an anti-disco protest held in Chicago on July 12, 1979, remains the most well-known of several "backlash" incidents across the country that symbolized disco's declining fortune. Disco was a key influence in the development of electronic dance house music, it has had several revivals, such as Madonna's successful 2005 album Confessions on a Dance Floor, again in the 2010s, entering the pop charts in the US and the UK. The term "disco" is shorthand for the word discothèque, a French word for "library of phonograph records" derived from "bibliothèque"; the word "discothèque" was current in the same meaning in English in the 1950s."Discothèque" became in use in French as a term for a type of nightclubs in Paris after these had resorted to playing records during the Nazi occupation in the early 1940s.
Some clubs used it as their proper name. In 1960 it was used to describe a Parisian nightclub in an English magazine. In the summer of 1964 a short sleeveless dress called "discotheque dress" was popular in the United States for a short time; the earliest known use for the abbreviated form "disco" described this dress and has been found in the Salt Lake Tribune of 12 July 1964, but Playboy magazine used it soon after to describe Los Angeles nightclubs in September of the same year. Vince Aletti was one of the first to describe disco as a music genre, he wrote the feature article "Discoteque Rock Paaaaarty" that appeared in Rolling Stone magazine in September 1973. The music layered soaring, often-reverberated vocals doubled by horns, over a background "pad" of electric pianos and "chicken-scratch" rhythm guitars played on an electric guitar. "The'chicken scratch' sound is achieved by pressing the strings against the fretboard and quickly releasing them just enough to get a muted scratching while strumming close to the bridge."
Other backing keyboard instruments include the piano, electric organ, string synth, electromechanical keyboards such as the Fender Rhodes electric piano, Wurlitzer electric piano, Hohner Clavinet. Synthesizers are fairly common in disco in the late 1970s; the rhythm is laid down by prominent, syncopated basslines played on the bass guitar and by drummers using a drum kit, African/Latin percussion, electronic drums such as Simmons and Roland drum modules. The sound was enriched with solo lines and harmony parts played by a variety of orchestral instruments, such as harp, viola, trumpet, trombone, flugelhorn, French horn, English horn, flute, piccolo and synth strings, string section or a full string orchestra. Most disco songs have a steady four-on-the-floor beat, a quaver or semi-quaver hi-hat pattern with an open hi-hat on the off-beat, a heavy, syncopated bass line. Other Latin rhythms such as the rhumba, the samba and the cha-cha-cha are found in disco recordings, Latin polyrhythms, such as a rhumba beat layered over a merengue, are commonplace.
The quaver pattern is supported by other instruments such as the rhythm guitar and may be implied rather than explicitly present. Songs use syncopation, the accenting of unexpected beats. In general, the d
David Lynch filmography
David Keith Lynch is an American filmmaker, television director, visual artist and occasional actor. Known for his surrealist films, he has developed his own unique cinematic style, dubbed "Lynchian" and is characterized by its dream imagery and meticulous sound design; the surreal and, in many cases, violent elements to his films have earned them the reputation that they "disturb, offend or mystify" their audiences. Lynch's oeuvre includes short and feature-length films, music videos and television episodes. Lynch's first project was the 1967 short Six Men Getting Sick, an animated film which blended elements of sculpture and painting into its animation, his first feature-length project, 1977's Eraserhead, became a cult film and launched his commercial career. It marked his first collaboration with Jack Nance, an actor who would appear in many more of Lynch's productions until his death in 1996. Lynch's other feature films include the critically successful The Elephant Man, Blue Velvet and Mulholland Drive, all of which went on to earn Academy Award nominations.
Lynch has branched out into television, internet-based series. His first foray into the medium was a joint venture with Mark Frost. Twin Peaks became a cult success, leading to Lynch and Frost working together on a number of other projects, including On the Air, American Chronicles. In 2002 Lynch began producing two series of shorts released through his official website—the Flash-animated DumbLand, Rabbits. Having begun acting in his 1972 short The Amputee, Lynch went on to appear on-camera in Twin Peaks, Zelly and Me and Dune. From 2007, Lynch has appeared in a recurring voice role in the animated series The Cleveland Show. Barney, Richard A.. David Lynch: Interviews. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 1604732369. Cozzolino, Robert. David Lynch: The Unified Field. University of California Press. ISBN 0520283961. Odell, Colin. David Lynch. Kamera Books. ISBN 1-84243-225-7. Rodley, Chris. Lynch on Lynch. Macmillan. ISBN 0-571-22018-5. Easlea, Daryl. Talent Is An Asset: The Story of Sparks. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978 1 84772 781 7.
David Lynch on IMDb
Empire (film magazine)
Empire is a British film magazine published monthly by Bauer Consumer Media of Hamburg based Bauer Media Group. From the first issue in July 1989, the magazine was published by Emap. Bauer purchased Emap Consumer Media in early 2008. Published in the United Kingdom, Empire organises the annual Empire Awards which were sponsored by Sony Ericsson, from 2009 sponsored by Jameson; the awards are voted for by readers of the magazine. Empire reviews both mainstream films and art films; as well as film news and reviews, Empire has some other regular features. Each issue features a transcript from a notable film scene; the first such classic scene to be featured was the "I could have been a contender" scene from On the Waterfront. The regular Top 10 feature lists Empire's choice of the top ten examples of something film-related. For example, 10 Best Chase Scenes or 10 Best Movie Gags in The Simpsons; the Re. View section releases. Kim Newman's Movie Dungeon is a regular feature in the Re. View section, in which critic Kim Newman reviews the most obscure releases low budget horror movies.
How Much Is A Pint Of Milk? Presents celebrities' answers to silly or unusual questions, including the question "How much is a pint of milk?" This is intended as a guide to the chosen celebrity's contact with reality, as such can be more informative than a direct interview by reporting some surprising responses. Each magazine includes a "Spine Quote", in which a challenging quote is printed on the spine of the magazine. There are some obvious and obscure links from the quote to the main features of that month's edition. Readers are invited to identify the links to win a prize. My Movie Mastermind is another regular in which a celebrity is given questions about the films they were in or they directed. Celebrities range from Christopher Lee to John Carpenter and Michael Keaton. A regular feature since issue 167, the Empire Masterpiece is a two-page essay on a film selected by Empire in the Re. View section; the selection of the films seem to follow no specific pattern. Only a few issues since the first masterpiece feature have not featured one – 169, 179, 196, 197, 198 and 246.
Issue 240 had director Frank Darabont select 223 masterpieces. L. A. Confidential was featured twice, once in issue 191 and again in issue 303; the films to be featured in this section so far are: Empire published a special 15th anniversary issue in June 2004 by which time the magazine had reviewed 4,240 theatrical films. Nicole Kidman was named "actress of our lifetime" and Kevin Spacey was named "actor of our lifetime"; the 15 most influential films of the preceding 15 years were considered to be: As part of its 18th birthday issue published in June 2007 Empire published a list of top 18-rated moments in film. This list is as follows: They selected the 50 greatest films rated with an 18 certificate. Empire poll readers to find out what their favourite films are. In 2017, Empire surveyed five thousand readers to produce a list of the 100 greatest films made; the list was selected in September 2008 by over 10,000 Empire readers, 150 film makers and 50 film critics. The list was accompanied by many different covers.
The top 30 chosen films are listed below. The list's most represented director was Steven Spielberg, who had eleven films in the top 500; the top sixteen directors are listed below. Their highest-ranked film is provided, as well as its position; the entire list can be found at Empire. A previous poll, The 201 Greatest Movies of All Time, done by Empire readers was different, it was conducted in March 2006 and had the following top 30: Another previous poll by Empire readers was done in September 2001 and had this top 30: In June 2005, a poll of 10,000 readers was asked to name the greatest film director of all time. In a list of forty directors, Steven Spielberg was granted the honour of greatest director; the top twenty are ranked as follows: In June 2015, Empire's readers named the greatest film characters of all time. The top fifteen characters are listed below. Another previous poll by Empire readers, was conducted in 2008 and had the following top 15: Empire has had ten editors: Steven Spielberg guest-edited the magazine's 20th Anniversary Issue in June 2009.
Sam Mendes guest-edited the magazine's Spectre special in September 2015. List of film periodicals Cahiers du cinema Sight & Sound Official website
Salvatore "Robert" Loggia was an American actor and director. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for Jagged Edge and won the Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actor for Big. In a career spanning over sixty years, Loggia performed in many films including The Greatest Story Ever Told, Revenge of the Pink Panther, An Officer and a Gentleman, Prizzi's Honor, Oliver & Company, Innocent Blood, Independence Day, Lost Highway, Return to Me, Tim and Eric's Billion Dollar Movie, he appeared on television series including the Walt Disney limited series, The Nine Lives of Elfego Baca, Mancuso, FBI, Malcolm in the Middle, The Sopranos, Men of a Certain Age, was the star of the 1966-67 NBC martial arts / action series, T. H. E. Cat. Salvatore Loggia, an Italian American, was born in Staten Island, New York on January 3, 1930, to Biagio Loggia, a shoemaker born in Palma di Montechiaro, Province of Agrigento and Elena Blandino, a homemaker born in Vittoria, Province of Ragusa, Sicily.
He grew up in the Little Italy neighborhood. He attended New Dorp High School before going to Wagner College, he started courses towards a degree in journalism at the University of Missouri, but still switched to drama courses with Alvina Krause at Northwestern University. After serving in the United States Army, he married Marjorie Sloan in 1954 and began a long career at the Actors Studio, studying under Stella Adler. At age 25, he made his debut on Broadway in The Man With the Golden Arm in 1955. Although Loggia made his first film in 1956, in an uncredited appearance, it was not until he was cast as a New Mexico lawman Elfego Baca, two years that he made a breakthrough in Hollywood. Loggia was a radio and TV anchor on the Southern Command Network in the Panama Canal Zone, he came to prominence playing a real-life sheriff in The Nine Lives of Elfego Baca, a series of Walt Disney TV shows, he starred as the proverbial cat-burglar-turned-good circus artist Thomas Hewitt Edward Cat in a short-lived detective series called T.
H. E. Cat, first broadcast in 1966. At first, T. H. E. Cat appeared to be a success, Loggia said: "We're drawing about a 30 per cent share of the audience, which NBC considers fine for a new show with a new star." After NBC cancelled the series when viewing figures failed to deliver, Loggia went into a mid-life crisis—a "Dante-esque descent into the inferno", as he called it later. For six years his career foundered, his marriage fell apart. Restless and unnerved riddled with self-doubt, a chance meeting with Audrey O'Brien was his saving grace, she helped him out of the crisis, they married. Despite playing Frank Carver on the CBS soap opera The Secret Storm in 1972, he took a new course when he decided to begin a career in directing, he carried on acting and amassed many television credits in a variety of roles, including appearances on Overland Trail, Target: The Corruptors!, The Untouchables, The Eleventh Hour, Breaking Point, Combat!, Columbo, Ellery Queen, The High Chaparral, Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea, The Big Valley, The Wild Wild West, Little House on the Prairie,"The Rockford Files", Starsky & Hutch, Charlie's Angels, Magnum, P.
I. Quincy, M. E. Kojak, Hawaii Five-0, The Bionic Woman, Falcon Crest, The Sopranos and Oliver Stone's miniseries Wild Palms; the director Blake Edwards cast Loggia in his films in minor or supporting roles. These included Revenge of the Pink Panther. O. B., a satire about Hollywood. Loggia acted in several acclaimed films such as An Officer and a Gentleman, Prizzi's Honor, Independence Day. Other films starring Loggia include Over The Top, Necessary Roughness, Return to Me. Loggia was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his portrayal of crusty private detective Sam Ransom in the crime thriller Jagged Edge, he was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series, his first such honor, for portraying FBI agent Nick Mancuso in the TV series Mancuso, FBI, a follow-up to the previous year's miniseries Favorite Son. Loggia appeared as a mobster in multiple films, including Bill Sykes, the immoral loanshark and shipyard agent in Disney's animated film Oliver & Company, Salvatore "The Shark" Macelli in John Landis' Innocent Blood, Mr. Eddy in David Lynch's Lost Highway, Don Vito Leoni in David Jablin's The Don's Analyst.
Additionally, he played violent mobster Feech La Manna in several episodes of The Sopranos. In 1998, Loggia appeared in a television commercial lampooning obscure celebrity endorsements. In it, a young boy names Loggia as someone he would trust to recommend Minute Maid orange-tangerine blend. Loggia appears and endorses the drink, to which the boy exclaims, "Whoa, Robert Loggia!" The commercial was referenced in a Malcolm in the Middle episode in which Loggia made a guest appearance as "Grandpa Victor". In addition to voicing Sykes in Disney's Oliver & Company, Loggia had several other voice acting roles, in multiple media, including: Admiral Petrarch in the computer game FreeSpace 2, the narrator of the Scarface: The World is Yours game adaptation and the anime movie The Dog of Fla
Dennis Lee Hopper was an American actor, writer, film editor and artist. He attended the Actors Studio, made his first television appearance in 1954, soon after appeared alongside James Dean in Rebel Without a Cause, Giant. In the next ten years he made a name in television, by the end of the 1960s had appeared in several films. Hopper began a prolific and acclaimed photography career in the 1960s. Hopper made his directorial film debut with Easy Rider, which he and co-star Peter Fonda wrote with Terry Southern; the film earned Hopper a Cannes Film Festival Award for "Best First Work" and a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay. Journalist Ann Hornaday wrote: "With its portrait of counterculture heroes raising their middle fingers to the uptight middle-class hypocrisies, Easy Rider became the cinematic symbol of the 1960s, a celluloid anthem to freedom, macho bravado and anti-establishment rebellion". Film critic Matthew Hays wrote "no other persona better signifies the lost idealism of the 1960s than that of Dennis Hopper".
He worked on various small projects until he found new fame for his role as the American photojournalist in Apocalypse Now. He went on to helm his third directorial work Out of the Blue, for which he was again honored at Cannes, appeared in Rumble Fish and The Osterman Weekend, he saw a career resurgence in 1986 when he was acclaimed for his performances in Blue Velvet and Hoosiers, the latter of which saw him nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. His fourth directorial outing came about through Colors, followed by an Emmy-nominated lead performance in Paris Trout. Hopper found greater fame for portraying the villains of the films Super Mario Bros. Speed and Waterworld. Hopper's work included a leading role in the short-lived television series Crash, inspired by the film of the same name, he appeared in three films released posthumously: Alpha and Omega, The Last Film Festival and the long-delayed The Other Side of the Wind, filmed in the early 1970s. Hopper was born on May 17, 1936, in Dodge City, the son of Marjorie Mae and James Millard Hopper.
He had Scottish ancestors. Hopper had two brothers and David. After World War II, the family moved to Kansas City, where the young Hopper attended Saturday art classes at the Kansas City Art Institute. At the age of 13, Hopper and his family moved to San Diego, where his mother worked as a lifeguard instructor and his father was a post office manager. Hopper was voted most to succeed at Helix High School, where he was active in the drama club and choir, it was there that he developed an interest in acting, studying at the Old Globe Theatre in San Diego, the Actors Studio in New York City. Hopper struck up a friendship with actor Vincent Price, whose passion for art influenced Hopper's interest in art, he was fond of the plays of William Shakespeare. Hopper was reported to have an uncredited role in Johnny Guitar in 1954 but he has stated that he was not in Hollywood when this film was made. Hopper made his debut on film in two roles with James Dean in Rebel Without a Giant. Dean's death in a 1955 car accident affected the young Hopper and it was shortly afterwards that he got into a confrontation with veteran director Henry Hathaway on the film From Hell to Texas.
Hopper forced Hathaway to shoot more than 80 takes of a scene over several days before he acquiesced to Hathaway's direction. After filming was completed, Hathaway told Hopper that his career in Hollywood was finished. In his book Last Train to Memphis, American popular music historian Peter Guralnick says that in 1956, when Elvis Presley was making his first film in Hollywood, Hopper was roommates with fellow actor Nick Adams and the three became friends and socialized together. In 1959 Hopper moved to New York to study Method acting under Lee Strasberg at the Actors Studio. In 1961, Hopper played his first lead role in Night Tide, an atmospheric supernatural thriller involving a mermaid in an amusement park. In a December 1994 interview on the Charlie Rose Show, Hopper credited John Wayne with saving his career, as Hopper acknowledged that because of his insolent behavior, he could not find work in Hollywood for seven years. Hopper stated that because he was the son-in-law of actress Margaret Sullavan, a friend of John Wayne, Wayne hired Hopper for a role in The Sons of Katie Elder directed by Hathaway, which enabled Hopper to restart his film career.
Hopper acted in another John Wayne film, True Grit, during its production he became well acquainted with Wayne. In both of the films with Wayne, Hopper's character is killed in the presence of Wayne's character, to whom he utters his dying words. Hopper had a supporting role as the bet-taker, "Babalugats", in Cool Hand Luke. In 1968, Hopper teamed with Peter Fonda, Terry Southern and Jack Nicholson to make Easy Rider, which premiered in July 1969. With the release of True Grit a month earlier, Hopper had starring roles in two major box office films that summer. Hopper won wide acclaim as the director for his improvisational methods and innovative editing for Easy Rider; the production was plagued by creative differences and personal acrimony between Fonda and Hopper, the
Pigface is an industrial rock supergroup formed in 1990 by Martin Atkins and William Rieflin. Pigface was formed from Ministry's The Mind is a Terrible Thing to Taste tour, which produced the In Case You Didn't Feel Like Showing Up live album and video. For the tour, Al Jourgensen brought Nivek Ogre and Chris Connelly. On the tour was Rieflin, regular Ministry drummer at the time. While Atkins enjoyed the dynamic of playing with a second drummer, he felt that the lineup was capable of doing much more than being, what he has called, "a Ministry cover band." Once the tour was over and Rieflin decided to continue working together and recruited several of their tourmates. Pigface was born with the intention of keeping a revolving-door style collaboration with many experimentally-minded musicians, many of whom early on, had recorded for the influential industrial music record label Wax Trax!. Trent Reznor was an early partner, before Nine Inch Nails became a household name. "Suck," co-written and sung by Reznor, was something of an underground hit, Reznor re-recorded the song for the Broken EP.
Rieflin left Pigface, leaving Atkins in charge. The hundreds of musical collaborators to record and perform with Pigface have ensured that each album and song is unique. However, this practice has led to some negative criticism due to a perceived lack of continuity. In 2009, Full Effect Records, a Detroit-based label, announced the signing of Pigface; the Pigface album, 6, followed shortly. After a seven-year hiatus, Pigface returned for two Chicago performances in November 2016; the first was a rehearsal show held at Reggie's on November 24. On November 25, the band performed at House of Blues: Chicago. Both shows saw the band performing with first-time members as well as the return of members like Lesley Rankine, En Esch, Mary Byker, Curse Mackey, Dirk Flannigan and Fallon Bowman. Several offshoot bands of Pigface, all smaller sized all-star groups featuring Martin Atkins as a common member, have released albums during the time Pigface was active; these bands include Inc.. The Damage Manual, Martin Atkins And The Chicago Industrial League and The Love Interest.
In March 2019, Atkins announced that Pigface would tour again for the first time in fourteen years with thirteen dates scheduled for the East coast and Midwest in November 2019. Pigface concerts are characterized by high-energy performances, it is not unusual to see upwards of ten musicians on stage at any given time during a show. In addition, members of the audience have been invited on stage during the encore; the following is a partial list of musicians who have contributed to Pigface at some point in the band's history, whether it be appearing live as a band member, performing on an album, or contributing a remix of a Pigface song, along with some of the bands and acts they have been associated with before and/or after their time with Pigface. Gub Fook Notes From Thee Underground A New High in Low Easy Listening... 6 Atkins, Martin. Tour:Smart: And Break the Band. Soluble LLC. ISBN 0-9797313-0-5. Various Pigface Articles