A silversmith is a metalworker who crafts objects from silver. The terms silversmith and goldsmith are not synonyms as the techniques, training and guilds are or were the same but the end product may vary as may the scale of objects created. In the ancient Near East the value of silver to gold being less, allowed a silversmith to produce objects and store these as stock. Ogden states that according to an edict written by Diocletian in 301 A. D. a silversmith was able to charge 75, 100, 150, 200, 250, or 300 denarii for material produce. At that time, guilds of silversmiths formed to arbitrate disputes, protect its members' welfare and educate the public of the trade. Silversmiths in medieval Europe and England formed guilds and transmitted their tools and techniques to new generations via the apprentice tradition. Silver working guilds maintained consistency and upheld standards at the expense of innovation. Beginning in the 17th century, artisans experienced fewer restrictions; as a result, silver working was one of the trades that helped to inaugurate the Technological and industrial history of the United States Silver-working shift to industrialization in America.
Exquisite and distinctly designed silverware, that goes by the name of Swami Silver, emerged from the stable of watchmaker turned silversmith P Orr and Sons in the South Indian city of Madras during the British rule in 1875. The Falasha Clan, or Beta Israel, of Ethiopia were known for their silversmithing skills. Silversmiths saw or cut specific shapes from sterling and fine silver sheet metal and bar stock, use hammers to form the metal over anvils and stakes. Silver is hammered cold; as the metal is hammered and worked, it'work-hardens'. Annealing is the heat-treatment used to make the metal soft again. If metal is work-hardened, not annealed the metal will crack and weaken the work. Silversmiths can use casting techniques to create knobs and feet for the hollowware they are making. After forming and casting, the various pieces may be assembled by riveting. During most of their history, silversmiths used charcoal or coke fired forges, lung-powered blow-pipes for soldering and annealing. Modern silversmiths use gas burning torches as heat sources.
A newer method is laser beam welding. Silversmiths may work with copper and brass when making practice pieces, due to those materials having similar working properties and being more affordable than silver. Although jewelers work in silver and gold, many of the techniques for working precious metals overlap, the trades of jeweler and Silversmith have distinct histories. Chain-making and gem-setting are common practices of jewelers that are not considered aspects of silversmiths; the tradition of making armor was interrupted sometime after the 17th century. Silversmithing and goldsmithing, by contrast, have an unbroken tradition going back many millennia; the techniques used to make armor today are an amalgam of silversmith forming techniques and blacksmith iron-handling techniques. In the western Canadian silversmith tradition, guilds do not exist. In the native Canadian western tradition, silversmithing is done through hand tooling and bright cut engraving of silver. There are silversmiths who only make jewelry and there are silversmiths who only make utensils.
* still living.** Garrad & Co. was founded by George Wickes in London in 1722, is still operating. Yemenite silversmithing Society of American Silversmiths Jeff Herman's comprehensive guide for professional silver care methods and products Staatliche Zeichenakademie Hanau Stamped silver button, made 1787 image from Victoria & Albert Museum jewellery collection. Gee,G; the silversmith's handbook: containing full instructions for the alloying and working of silver, including the different modes of refining and melting the metal. Wilson,H. Silverwork and jewelry: a text-book for students and workers in metal Sampson Mordan
Daniel Coit Gilman
Daniel Coit Gilman was an American educator and academic. Gilman was instrumental in founding the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale College, subsequently served as the third president of the University of California, as the first president of Johns Hopkins University, as founding president of the Carnegie Institution, he was co-founder of the Russell Trust Association, which administers the business affairs of Yale's Skull and Bones society. Gilman served for twenty five years as president of Johns Hopkins. S." Born in Norwich, the son of Eliza and mill owner William Charles Gilman, a descendant of Edward Gilman, one of the first settlers of Exeter, New Hampshire, of Thomas Dudley, Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and one of the founders of Harvard College, of Thomas Adgate, one of the founders of Norwich in 1659. Daniel Coit Gilman graduated from Yale College in 1852 with a degree in geography. At Yale he was a classmate of Andrew Dickson White, who would serve as first president of Cornell University.
The two were members of the Skull and Bones secret society, traveled to Europe together after graduation and remained lifelong friends. Gilman was a member of the Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity. Gilman would co-found the Russell Trust Association, the foundation behind Skull and Bones. After serving as attaché of the United States legation at St. Petersburg, Russia from 1853 to 1855, he returned to Yale and was active in planning and raising funds for the founding of Sheffield Scientific School. Gilman contemplated going into the ministry, took out a license to preach, but settled on a career in education. From 1856 to 1865 Gilman served as librarian of Yale College, was concerned with improving the New Haven public school system; when the Civil War broke out, Gilman became the recruiting sergeant for the Norton Cadets, a group of Yale graduates and faculty who drilled on the New Haven Green under the oversight of Yale professor William Augustus Norton. In 1863, Gilman was appointed professor of geography at the Sheffield Scientific School, became secretary and librarian as well in 1866.
Having been passed over for the presidency of Yale, for which post Gilman was said to have been the favorite of the younger faculty, he resigned these posts in 1872 to become the third president of the newly organized University of California. His work there was hampered by the state legislature, in 1875 Gilman accepted the offer to establish and become first president of Johns Hopkins University. Before being formally installed as president in 1876, he spent a year studying university organization and selecting an outstanding staff of teachers and scholars, his formal inauguration, on 22 February 1876, has become Hopkins' Commemoration Day, the day on which many university presidents have chosen to be installed in office. Among the legendary educators he assembled to teach at Johns Hopkins were classicist Basil Lanneau Gildersleeve, mathematician James Joseph Sylvester, historian Herbert Baxter Adams and chemist Ira Remsen. Gilman's primary interest was in fostering advanced instruction and research, as president he developed the first American graduate university in the German tradition.
The aim of the modern research university, said Gilman, was to "extend by minute accretions, the realm of knowledge" At his inaugural address at Hopkins, Gilman asked: "What are we aiming at?" The answer, he said, was "the encouragement of research and the advancement of individual scholars, who by their excellence will advance the sciences they pursue, the society where they dwell." In 1884, Gilman was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society. Gilman was active in founding Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins Medical School, he founded and was for many years president of the Charity Organization of Baltimore, in 1897 he served on the commission to draft a new charter for Baltimore. From 1896 to 1897, he was a member of the commission to settle the boundary line between Venezuela and British Guiana. Gilman served as a trustee of the John F. Slater and Peabody education funds and as a member of John D. Rockefeller's General Education Board. In this capacity, he became active in the promotion of education in the southern United States.
He was president of the National Civil Service Reform League and the American Oriental Society, vice president of the Archaeological Institute of America, executive officer of the Maryland Geological Survey. He retired from Johns Hopkins in 1901, but accepted the presidency of the newly founded Carnegie Institution of Washington, his books include biographies of James Monroe and James Dwight Dana, a collection of addresses entitled University Problems, The Launching of a University. Gilman married twice, his first wife was daughter of Tredwell Ketcham of New York. They married on December 4, 1861, had two daughters: Alice, who married Everett Wheeler. Mary Ketcham Gilman died in 1869, Daniel Coit Gilman married his second wife, Elizabeth Dwight Woolsey, daughter of John M. Woolsey of Cleveland and niece of Yale president Theodore Dwight Woolsey, in 1877. Daniel Gilman's brother Dr. Edward Whiting Gilman was married to Julia Silliman, daughter of Yale Professor and chemist Benjamin Silliman. Daniel Coit Gilman died in Connecticut.
The original academic building on the Homewood campus of the Johns Hopkins University
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Illustrated London News
The Illustrated London News appeared first on Saturday 14 May 1842, as the world's first illustrated weekly news magazine. Founded by Herbert Ingram, it appeared weekly until 1971 less thereafter, ceased publication in 2003; the company continues today as Illustrated London News Ltd, a publishing and digital agency in London, which holds the publication and business archives of the magazine. The Illustrated London News founder Herbert Ingram was born in Boston, Lincolnshire, in 1811, opened a printing and bookselling business in Nottingham around 1834 in partnership with his brother-in-law, Nathaniel Cooke; as a newsagent, Ingram was struck by the reliable increase in newspaper sales when they featured pictures and shocking stories. Ingram began to plan a weekly newspaper. Ingram rented an office, recruited artists and reporters, employed as his editor Frederick William Naylor Bayley editor of the National Omnibus; the first issue of The Illustrated London News appeared on Saturday, 14 May 1842, timed to report on the young Queen Victoria's first masquerade ball.
Its 16 pages and 32 wood engravings covered topics such as the war in Afghanistan, the Versailles rail accident, a survey of the candidates for the US presidential election, extensive crime reports and book reviews, a list of births and deaths. Ingram hired 200 men to carry placards through the streets of London promoting the first edition of his new newspaper. Costing sixpence, the first issue sold 26,000 copies. Despite this initial success, sales of the second and subsequent editions were disappointing. However, Ingram was determined to make his newspaper a success, sent every clergyman in the country a copy of the edition which contained illustrations of the installation of the Archbishop of Canterbury, by this means secured a great many new subscribers, its circulation soon increased to 40,000 and by the end of its first year was 60,000. In 1851, after the newspaper published Joseph Paxton's designs for the Crystal Palace before Prince Albert had seen them, the circulation rose to 130,000.
In 1852, when it produced a special edition covering the funeral of the Duke of Wellington, sales increased to 150,000. Competitors soon began to appear: Lloyd’s Illustrated Paper was founded that year, while Reynold's Newspaper opened in 1850. Andrew Spottiswoode's Pictorial Times lost £20,000 before it was sold to Ingram by Henry Vizetelly, who had left the ILN to found it. Ingram folded it into another purchase, The Lady's Newspaper, which became The Lady's Newspaper and Pictorial Times. Vizetelly was behind a competitor, Illustrated Times in 1855, bought out by Ingram in 1859. Ingram's other early collaborators left the business in the 1850s. Nathanial Cooke, his business partner and brother-in-law, found himself in a subordinate role in the business and parted on bad terms around 1854. 1858 saw the departure of William Little, who, in addition to providing a loan of £10,000, was printer and publisher of the paper for 15 years. Little's relationship with Ingram deteriorated over Ingram's harassment of their mutual sister-in-law.
Herbert Ingram died on 8 September 1860 in a paddle-steamer accident on Lake Michigan, he was succeeded as proprietor by his youngest son, who in turn was succeeded by his son, Sir Bruce Ingram in 1900, who remained as editor until his death. By 1863, The Illustrated London News was selling more than 300,000 copies every week, enormous figures in comparison to other British newspapers of the time; the death of Herbert and his eldest son left the company without a manager. Control passed to Ingram's widow Ann, his friend Sir Edward William Watkin, who managed the business for twelve years. Once Ingram's two younger sons and Charles, were old enough, they took over as managing directors, although it was William who took the lead, it was a period of expansion and increased competition for the ILN. As reading habits and the illustrated news market changed, the ILN bought or established a number of new publications, evolving from a single newspaper to a larger-scale publishing business; as with Herbert Ingram's purchases in the 1850s, this expansion was an effective way of managing competition: dominating markets and buying out competing ventures.
As too with the acquisitions of the 1850s, several similar illustrated publications were established in this period by former employees of The Illustrated London News. Serious competition for the ILN appeared in 1869, with the establishment of The Graphic, a weekly illustrated paper founded by W. L. Thomas. Thomas was a former wood engraver for The Illustrated London News, brought his expertise in illustrated publishing to his new magazine; the Graphic was popular for its coverage of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, was well regarded among artists: Vincent van Gogh was a particular admirer. William Ingram became chief proprietor of The Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News, The Lady's Pictorial, which may have been a title of The Lady's Newspaper and Pictorial Times; the Penny Illustrated Paper, aimed at a working-class readership, was established by the news company shortly after Ingram's death in 1861. This was in response to the abolition of stamp and paper taxes, which made cheaper publications possible.
The Penny Illustrated Paper ran until 1913. In 1893, the
Charles Scribner's Sons
Charles Scribner's Sons, or Scribner's or Scribner, is an American publisher based in New York City, known for publishing American authors including Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Kurt Vonnegut, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Stephen King, Robert A. Heinlein, Thomas Wolfe, George Santayana, John Clellon Holmes, Don DeLillo, Edith Wharton; the firm published Scribner's Magazine for many years. More several Scribner titles and authors have garnered Pulitzer Prizes, National Book Awards and other merits. In 1978 the company became The Scribner Book Companies. In turn it merged into Macmillan in 1984. Simon & Schuster bought Macmillan in 1994. By this point only the trade book and reference book operations still bore the original family name; the former imprint, now "Scribner," was retained by Simon & Schuster, while the reference division has been owned by Gale since 1999. As of 2012, Scribner is a division of Simon & Schuster under the title Scribner Publishing Group which includes the Touchstone Books imprint.
The president of Scribner as of 2017 is Susan Moldow, the current publisher is Nan Graham. The firm was founded in 1846 by Charles Scribner I and Isaac D. Baker as "Baker & Scribner." After Baker's death, Scribner bought the remainder of the company and renamed it the "Charles Scribner Company." In 1865, the company made its first venture into magazine publishing with Hours at Home. In 1870, the Scribners organized a new firm and Company, to publish a magazine entitled Scribner’s Monthly. After the death of Charles Scribner I in 1871, his son John Blair Scribner took over as president of the company, his other sons Charles Scribner II and Arthur Hawley Scribner would join the firm, in 1875 and 1884. They each served as presidents; when the other partners in the venture sold their stake to the family, the company was renamed Charles Scribner's Sons. The company launched St. Nicholas Magazine in 1873 with Mary Mapes Dodge as editor and Frank R. Stockton as assistant editor; when the Scribner family sold the magazine company to outside investors in 1881, Scribner’s Monthly was renamed the Century Magazine.
The Scribners brothers were enjoined from publishing any magazine for a period of five years. In 1886, at the expiration of this term, they launched Scribner's Magazine; the firm's headquarters were in the Scribner Building, built in 1893, on lower Fifth Avenue at 21st Street, in the Charles Scribner's Sons Building, on Fifth Avenue in midtown. Both buildings were designed by Ernest Flagg in a Beaux Arts style; the children's book division was established in 1934 under the leadership of Alice Dalgliesh. It published works by distinguished authors and illustrators including N. C. Wyeth, Robert A. Heinlein, Marcia Brown, Will James, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Leo Politi; as of 2011 the publisher is owned by the CBS Corporation. Simon & Schuster reorganized their adult imprints into four divisions in 2012. Scribner became the Scribner Publishing Group and would expand to include Touchstone Books, part of Free Press; the other divisions are Atria Publishing Group, Simon & Schuster Publishing Group, the Gallery Publishing Group.
The new Scribner division would be led by Susan Moldow as president. Charles Scribner I, 1846 to 1871 John Blair Scribner, 1871 to 1879 Charles Scribner II, 1879 to 1930 Arthur Hawley Scribner, circa 1900 Charles Scribner III, 1932 to 1952 Charles Scribner IV, 1952 to 1984 Edith Wharton Henry James Ernest Hemingway Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings Ring Lardner Thomas Wolfe Reinhold Niebuhr F. Scott Fitzgerald Thomas Wolfe Ernest Hemingway Ring Lardner Erskine Caldwell S. S. Van Dine James Jones Simon & Schuster has published thousands of books from thousands of authors; this list represents some of the more notable authors from Scribner since becoming part of Simon & Schuster. For a more extensive list see List of Schuster authors. Annie Proulx Andrew Solomon Anthony Doerr Don DeLillo Frank McCourt Stephen King Jeanette Walls Baker & Scribner, until the death of Baker in 1850 Charles Scribner Company Charles Scribner's Sons Scribner The Scribner Bookstores are now owned by Barnes & Noble. Charles Scribner I List of Simon & Schuster Authors Scribner's Monthly Scribner's Magazine Simon & Schuster Scribner Building Roger Burlingame, Of Making Many Books: A Hundred Years of Reading and Publishing, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1946.
The House of Scribner "Scribner Magazine online". 1889-1939. Retrieved 2012-04-24. Charles Scribner's Sons at Thomson Gale Archives of Charles Scribner’s Sons at the Princeton University Library, Manuscript Division Charles Scribner's Sons Art Reference Department records at the Smithsonian Archives of American Art Charles Scribner's Sons: An Illustrated Chronology Princeton Library
Woodlawn Cemetery (Bronx, New York)
Woodlawn Cemetery is one of the largest cemeteries in New York City and a designated National Historic Landmark. Located in Woodlawn, New York City, it has the character of a rural cemetery. Woodlawn Cemetery opened during the Civil War in 1863, in what was southern Westchester County, in an area, annexed to New York City in 1874, it is notable in part as the final resting place of some great figures in the American arts, such as authors Countee Cullen, Nellie Bly, Herman Melville, musicians Irving Berlin, Miles Davis, Duke Ellington, W. C. Handy, Max Roach and husband and wife magicians Alexander Herrmann and Adelaide Herrmann. Holly Woodlawn, after changing her name to such, falsely told people she was the heiress to Woodlawn Cemetery; the Cemetery is the resting place for more than 300,000 people. Built on rolling hills, its tree-lined roads lead to some unique memorials, some designed by famous American architects: McKim, Mead & White, John Russell Pope, James Gamble Rogers, Cass Gilbert, Carrère and Hastings, Sir Edwin Lutyens, Beatrix Jones Farrand, John La Farge.
The cemetery contains seven Commonwealth war graves – six British and Canadian servicemen of World War I and an airman of the Royal Canadian Air Force of World War II. In 2011, Woodlawn Cemetery was designated a National Historic Landmark, since it shows the transition from the rural cemetery popular at the time of its establishment to the more orderly 20th-century cemetery style; as of 2007, plot prices at Woodlawn were reported as $200 per square foot, $4,800 for a gravesite for two, up to $1.5 million for land to build a family mausoleum. Woodlawn was the destination for many human remains disinterred from cemeteries in more densely populated parts of New York City: Rutgers Street church graves were moved to Woodlawn. Most graves were re-interred with a stated date of December 20, 1866 into the Rutgers Plot, lots 147-170. West Farms Dutch Reformed Church, at Boone Avenue and 172nd Street in The Bronx, had most of its graves moved to Woodlawn Cemetery in 1867 and interred in the Rutgers Plot, Lots 214-221.
Bensonia Cemetery known as "Morrisania Cemetery", was a Native American burial ground. The graves were moved to Woodlawn Cemetery with a stated date of April 21, 1871 and re-interred into Lot 3. Public School #138, in The Bronx, is now on the site. Harlem Church Yard cemetery internees were moved to Woodlawn. Most graves were re-interred with a stated date of August 1, 1871 into the Sycamore Plot, lots 1061–1080. Nagle Cemetery remains were moved in November–December 1926 and reinterred in Primrose Plot, Lot 16150. Identities of those interred are unknown; the Dyckman-Nagle Burying Ground, West 212th Street at 9th Avenue, in the Borough of Manhattan, was established in 1677 and contained 417 plots. In 1905, the remains, with the exception of Staats Morris Dyckman and his family, were removed. By 1927, the Dyckman graves were moved to Woodlawn Cemetery; the former Dutch colonial-era cemetery is now a 207th Street subway train yard. The fictional cemetery of the Synagogue in Brooklyn in the film Once Upon a Time in America is located here, renamed "Riverdale Cemetery".
List of cemeteries in the United States List of mausolea List of National Historic Landmarks in New York City Rural Cemetery Act Woodlawn Official Page Woodlawn Cemetery at Find a Grave Photographs of graves of famous persons in Woodlawn Woodlawn Cemetery Records are held by the Drawings and Archives Department of the Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Columbia University